Young Man with a Skull
Young Man with a Skull is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1626 and now in the National Gallery, London. The painting was previously labelled Hamlet holding the skull of Yorick, the painting shows a young man in a feathered bonnet gesturing and holding a skull, and was first documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1910, who wrote HAMLET - Half-length. His head is inclined to the right, and he looks in the same direction. His right hand, much foreshortened, is stretched out to the front, in his hand he holds a skull. He has long hair, and wears a red cap with a long plume hanging down on the right. His big cloak is fastened across his breast, a piece of his white collar, exhibited on loan in the Dublin National Gallery,1895. Hofstede de Groot noticed this paintings similarity to another painting by Hals, its title indicating a theatrical portrayal of Hamlet was called into question by W. R. Valentiner in 1923. In his 1989 catalog of the international Frans Hals exhibition, Slive claims it is a vanitas and he rejects the idea of Hamlet because Shakespeares plays have not been recorded in the Northern Netherlands in the 1620s.
The National Gallery writes, The skull held by the boy is a reminder of the transience of life, such a subject is known as a Vanitas. The Netherlandish tradition of showing young boys holding skulls is well-established and can be traced back to engravings of the early 16th century
The Stadsbibliotheek Haarlem is a collective name for all public libraries in the Haarlem area of the Netherlands. The first public library of Haarlem opened in 1921 at the cloisters of the Haarlem City Hall where the library had been since 1821. As of 2009, there are 6 public libraries and 10 lending points, in 1596 the Haarlem City council decided to start a library, or librije as it was called. This was a collection of books attached by chain to a lessenaar, the chain was long enough so that the reader could select a book from below to read while standing. This collection was kept in the Sint-Bavokerk, where it came from. The books were available to the few people in possession of a key to the church. Today this older collection of books is kept by the stichting Oude Boekerij en Bijzondere Collecties and this includes a complete series of the Acta Eruditorum, for example. The oldest items are religious by nature, coming from church holdings prior to 1596, the oldest item is a fragment of the Book of Psalms, or psalterium, from the 11th century.
The first printed catalog of the Haarlem library dates from 1672 and is 35 pages long, by that time the collection was managed by the teachers of the Latin school. The access to the books was still far from public, in 1821 the city appointed the first Librarian, Abraham de Vries. He printed a three part catalog of the Library collection, a painting of him hangs in the Krijgsraadkamer, or war-room of the Central library. This room can be hired from the library for meetings or meals, the largest of the Haarlem lending libraries, the Centrale Bibliotheek, moved to the Doelenplein on the Gasthuisstraat in 1974. The history of this location is older than the collection itself, in 1512 the property was bought for target practise by the Haarlem schutterij. In 1562 the current L-shaped building was finished, and the Civic Guard was painted near the steps in the front by Hendrik Gerritsz Pot in 1630. Through the window in the painting the rafters can be seen that still grace the ceiling of the study room, between these doorways are the bicycle racks on one side and two older buildings on the other side.
This particular painting of her now hangs in the Haarlem city hall, city archivist Deugd boven geweld, Een geschiedenis van Haarlem, 1245-1995, edited by Gineke van der Ree-Scholtens,1995, ISBN 90-6550-504-0 Official website
Two Singing Boys with a Lute and a Music Book
Two singing boys with a lute and a music book is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1625 and now in the Museum Schloss Wilhelmshöhe. This painting was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1910, who wrote,98, M.224 - The boy on the right is seen in a three-quarter view facing left. He is in dark clothes with a collar and a plumed cap. He holds in his hand a mandolin resting on the table, while he beats time with his right hand. He looks down to the left at an open music-book on the table, behind him to the left is the head of another boy, who looks at the music and sings with him. Signed on the left at foot with the monogram, canvas,26 inches by 20 1/2 inches
The Lute Player (Hals)
The Lute Player refers to a painting from 1623 or 1624 now in the Louvre by the Haarlem painter Frans Hals, showing a smiling actor wearing a jesters costume and playing a lute. This painting was documented by Wilhelm von Bode in 1883, Ernst Wilhelm Moes in 1909 and Hofstede de Groot in 1910, a man turned half-right, in a red costume trimmed with yellow. He has long hair, and wears a red and yellow cap and his head is seen in full face, he looks up to the left. With his right hand he touches the strings of a mandoline, especially good are the various contrasting flesh-tones, the red and yellow of the costume, and the reflections in the eyes. Signed in the right at top, F. H. canvas, a copy is in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam,1907 catalogue, No. 1093, it measures 26 inches by 24 inches, having rather less at the foot than the original, in the collection of Baron Gustave de Rothschild, Paris. The theme of a lute player painted at half length originated in Italy, baburens player is pointing his lute towards the viewer with his mouth open in song.
Hals player is looking up and smiling naturally, as if he is playing with a singer or another musician not in view and this painting is a good example of Hals rough style of painting with loose brush strokes. A period copy now in the collection of the Rijksmuseum has been dated before 1626 based on an engraving, and it has been attributed variously to Hals, his brother Dirk, and Judith Leyster. Two other paintings of lute players by Hals are, Hals was not the painter to be influenced by Baburen. Hendrik ter Brugghen painted several lute players in the 1620s, aspects of the painting have been copied, such as the pose of the hands and the upward smiling face, such as Jan Steens self-portrait as a smiling lute player. The painting was purchased by Gustave de Rothschild in 1873 and remained in the family over a century until 1984
Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture, Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. Like many, Hals parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp from the Spanish Netherlands to Haarlem, Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, whose Mannerist influence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals work. In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke and he worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall.
The remaining art that was considered too Roman Catholic was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen and it was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes. The earliest known example of Hals art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius and his breakthrough came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649, Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. Bavochurch where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there, Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals second marriage.
As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Frans Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat. After his first wife died, Hals took on the daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617. They married in Spaarndam, a village outside the banns of Haarlem. Frans Hals was a father, and they went on to have eight children. Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, for this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made. Hals work was in throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter
Laughing Fisherboy is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1628 and now in Westphalia. This painting was documented by Ernst Wilhelm Moes in 1909 and Hofstede de Groot in 1910, M.253 - A fair boy, turned to the right. He holds his hands before his breast and he wears a blue cap, a blue doublet, and over it a grey jacket with short sleeves. Behind his left arm is seen the basket which he carries on his back, at the back is a view of the dunes. To the left are two figures on a road. On the right a church spire rises a little above the dunes, very broad and loose in style. The boys smile is very well rendered, signed, on a jug hanging from a strap over the shoulder, with a monogram composed of the letters F H F, canvas,26 1/2 inches by 22 inches. Hofstede de Groot noticed that this painting is similar to other paintings by Hals. In the exhibition catalog for the 1962 show, this paintings entry at #21 states that N. S
A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. The word halberd may come from the German words Halm, in modern-day German, the weapon is called a Hellebarde. In HEMA, professional halberd practitioners are referred to as halberdiers, the halberd consists of an axe blade topped with a spike mounted on a long shaft. It always has a hook or thorn on the side of the axe blade for grappling mounted combatants. It is very similar to forms of the voulge in design. The halberd was usually 1.5 to 1.8 metres long, the halberd was inexpensive to produce and very versatile in battle. A Swiss peasant used a halberd to kill Charles the Bold, researchers suspect that a halberd or a bill sliced through the back of King Richard IIIs skull at the Battle of Bosworth. The halberd was the weapon of the early Swiss armies in the 14th. The German Landsknechte, who imitated Swiss warfare methods, used the pike, the halberd all but disappeared as a rank-and-file weapon in these formations by the middle of the sixteenth century.
The halberd has been used as a court bodyguard weapon for centuries, and is still the ceremonial weapon of the Swiss Guard in the Vatican, the halberd was one of the polearms sometimes carried by lower-ranking officers in European infantry units in the 16th through 18th centuries. In the British army, sergeants continued to carry halberds until 1793, the 18th century halberd had, become simply a symbol of rank with no sharpened edge and insufficient strength to use as a weapon. It did, ensure that infantrymen drawn up in ranks stood correctly aligned with each other, bardiche, a type of two-handed battle axe known in the 16th and 17th centuries in Eastern Europe Bill, similar to a halberd but with a hooked blade form. 74–94, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Dirk & OFlaherty, Prodigal sons, two halberds in the Hunt Museum, from Cuenca and Beyrǔt, Syria, pp. 56–60, JRSAI Vol.131. R. E. Oakeshott, European weapons and armour, From the Renaissance to the industrial revolution, 44–48
Shrovetide Revellers is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1615 and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The painting shows people enjoying festivities at Shrovetide, another amused gentlemen leans on his shoulder and listens to their banter. Some claim these are the Baroque theatre characters Hans Worst and Peeckelhaeringh, behind them other people are talking and laughing. The MET lists an Amsterdam sale entry from 1765 mentioning a genre work of Vasten-Avond, or Shrovetide, the female wears much more brightly colored clothing than any of Hals other sitters, and shows a strong resemblance to the young woman portrayed in Hals Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart. Both are considered to be genre works today, so the models could be anyone in Hals circle such as his children or pupils, in his 1989 catalog of the international Frans Hals exhibition, Slive included a full color photo of this work to demonstrate Hals love of life. The painting itself could not be included in the exhibition because it can never be lent out, Hals positioning of the figures are related to two other known paintings, Media related to Shrovetide revellers at Wikimedia Commons
Frans Hals Museum
The Frans Hals Museum is a hofje that is home to the municipal museum in Haarlem, that was established in 1862. In 1950, the museum was split in two locations when the collection of art was moved to the Museum De Hallen. The main collection, including its famous 17th-century Frans Hals paintings, the Haarlem Oude Mannenhuis was a hofje founded in 1609. The residential rooms were situated around a courtyard in the style of contemporary Haarlem Hofjes, each of the thirty little houses was inhabited by two men, to be eligible to living there they had to be at least 60 years old, honest Haarlem residents, and single. They were required to bring their own household goods listed as a bed, a chair with a cushion and they were locked in each night at eight oclock in the summer and at seven in the winter. The residents had to make a collection with a poor-box. The old mens home was governed by five regents, whose portraits, though the mens home dates from 1609, only the main hall is still mostly intact.
During the French occupation, the old men living in the hofje were moved a block away to the present-day Proveniershuis. The art of both locations, as well as the art of other former Haarlem institutions, is now in the Frans Hals museum collection. The most notable artworks from the Oude Mannenhuis are the two portraits of regents and regentesses by Frans Hals. The inventory of the Proveniershuis was drawn up by Pieter Langendijk and though some of the paintings have since been reattributed, the impressive regents rooms have been rebuilt from other Haarlem locations. A room on the side has a curious keystone above the door with masonic symbols denoting a masons society. Frans Hals himself worked as the first official city-paid restorer for some of these pieces, during this time the city hall functioned as a semi-public museum, though the term didnt even exist yet. From an inventory list in the city archives it can be seen that they used as a model for their system of naming and presentation and they shared the room with the Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church, that used it once every six years for its meetings.
They hired a woman for the dusting and serving tea, and in 1768 they hired a man as curator, who was responsible for the entire collection and the medical Hortus garden in the yard. The spacious room soon proved too small for the number of donated artifacts it received from its members, thanks to the increase in shipping and associated travel. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, Haarlem became a community of Amsterdam. The old paintings became just a backdrop for chests filled with stuffed animals
Laughing Boy with Flute
Laughing Boy with a Flute is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in the early 1620s. This painting was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1910, who wrote 31, a LAUGHING BOY WITH A FLUTE. Half-length, in profile to the left, the long hair falls in disorder. The lips are parted, showing the teeth, on the left the flute is held upright in the right hand. The eyes look to the left and slightly upward, circular panel, n| inches across the grain of the wood running diagonally. A copy is in the Boucher de Perthes Museum, Abbeville, in the collection of the late Alfred Beit, London. In the collection of Otto Beit, Hofstede de Groot noted several laughing boys by Hals along with this one. This painting was documented by W. R. Valentiner in 1923. Other boys painted by Hals in round tondos