Atilio Stampone is an Argentine pianist and arranger prominent in the Tango genre. He was born to Romana Zangone, from Calabria, Antonio Stampone, a pasta maker from Napoli, in the middle-class San Cristóbal section of Buenos Aires, his older brother, was by at age 14, a bandoneónist in an orquesta típica, when the young Atilio underwent surgery for an acute appendicitis at age 10, Giuseppe bought his convalescing younger brother a piano. Shortly afterwards, Atilio Stampone joined his elder brother's tango ensemble. Stampone joined bandleader Roberto Dimas in his Café Marzotto orchestra, a popular Corrientes Avenue act, in 1941, Pedro Maffia's Tibidabo cabaret orchestra in 1942. Atilio is a good kid, I don't want him living in a cabaret, he worked with Roberto Rufino and Alberto Cámara, in 1945, met bandoneónist and avant-garde composer Ástor Piazzolla. He joined Piazzolla in 1946, following the group's dissolution in 1948, Stampone became a pupil of Vincenzo Scaramuzza, who helped perfect his technical skill as a pianist.
Bandleader Mariano Mores hired Stampone as a soloist in two, 1949 musical comedy productions, El otro yo de Marcela and Bésame Petronita, following these shows, he joined bandleader Juan Carlos Cobián. Stampone earned a presidential scholarship from Juan Perón in 1950, by which he studied under maestro Carlos Zecchi at the Conservatorio di Santa Cecilia, in Rome. Touring France and the Middle East, Stampone returned to Buenos Aires in 1952 and formed an orchestra with bandoneónist Leopoldo Federico; the Stampone-Federico Orchestra recorded for the TK label, notably on compositions such as Criolla linda and Tierrita. Federico's contract with ratings leader Radio Belgrano in 1955 left Stampone with sole control of the orchestra, which popularized El Marne, Nueve puntos, Confesión, Stampone's own Afiches, numerous other standards, he continued to collaborate with other groups, including Piazzolla's Octeto Buenos Aires. Their 1957 album, Tango progresivo, became notorious for its poor sound editing and was pulled from store shelves.
Stampone recorded Tango Argentino for New York City label Audio Fidelity Records in 1958, an album known for El once, La rayuela and Sensiblero. He married the former Lucía Marcó in 1958, they had two children. Stampone joined the Microfón label in 1959, where he recorded a double record, with two instrumentals and two with Ricardo Ruiz on vocals, he continued to work with this record company in subsequent decades, recorded over ten albums for Microfón with his tango revivalist orchestra, some of whose notable members have been: Eduardo Walczak and Tito Besprovan, Abraham Selenson, Enrique Lanoo and José Bragato, Osvaldo Montes, Rubén Ruiz, Omar Murtagh, Eladia Blázquez and Virginia Luque. Stampone became known for his performances at the Palais de Glace, for a number of film score compositions, including those for period piece director Leopoldo Torre Nilsson's Un Guapo del 900, La mano en la trampa, he joined two partners, football striker Rinaldo Martino and actor Pedro Aleandro, in establishing "Caño 14," in 1964.
The downtown Buenos Aires tango hall became among the best-known venues of its type, helped maintain the genre's following during its pre-revival era in the 1960s and'70s, attracting the most important names in local tango at the time, including Troilo, pianist Horacio Salgán, bandoneónist Ubaldo de Lío, dancer Juan Carlos Copes, many others. His 1970 album, marked a radical change in Stampone's revivalist style, incorporating a choir and instilling the music with a more symphonic sound; some of his own compositions popularized by the orchestra were Con pan y cebolla, De Homero a Homero, Aguatero, Cadícamo, Concertango, El Niño, El Tapir, Fiesta de mi ciudad, Fiesta y milonga, Impar, Mi amigo Cholo, Taconeando, Pequeña, Vida mía, among others. Stampone composed the score for the Oscar Araiz's ballet Tango in 1981, in 1984, composed incidental music for director Luis Puenzo's The Official Story, his 1987 production, Tango en concierto, debuted at Madrid's Teatro Real, was a success in both Spain and Argentina.
Other compositions from that era include the score for Discepolín. His renown, as well as his activism on behalf of intell
Upper middle class
In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class. This is in contrast to the term lower middle class, used for the group at the opposite end of the middle-class stratum, to the broader term middle class. There is considerable debate as to. According to sociologist Max Weber the upper middle class consists of well-educated professionals with postgraduate degrees and comfortable incomes; the American upper middle class is defined using income and occupation as the predominant indicators. In the United States, the upper middle class is defined as consisting of white-collar professionals who not only have above-average personal incomes and advanced educational degrees but a higher degree of autonomy in their work; the main occupational tasks of upper-middle-class individuals tend to center on conceptualizing and instruction. The American middle class is not a defined concept across disciplines, as economists and sociologists do not agree on defining the term.
In academic models, the term "upper middle class" applies to highly-educated, salaried professionals whose work is self-directed. Many have postgraduate degrees, with educational attainment serving as the main distinguishing feature of this class. Household incomes may exceed $100,000, with some smaller one-income earners earning incomes in the high five figures. Typical professions for this class include lawyers, physician assistants, military officers, nurse practitioners, certified public accountants, optometrists, financial planners, dentists, professors, school principals, urban planners, civil service executives, civilian contractors; the upper middle class has grown... and its composition has changed. Salaried managers and professionals have replaced individual business owners and independent professionals; the key to the success of the upper middle class is the growing importance of educational certification... its lifestyles and opinions are becoming normative for the whole society.
It is in fact a porous class, open to people.... In addition to having autonomy in their work, above-average incomes, advanced educations, the upper middle class tends to be influential, setting trends and shaping public opinion. Overall, members of this class are secure from economic down-turns and, unlike their counterparts in the statistical middle class, do not need to fear downsizing, corporate cost-cutting, or outsourcing—an economic benefit attributable to their postgraduate degrees and comfortable incomes in the top income quintile or top third. While many Americans cite income as the prime determinant of class, occupational status, educational attainment, value systems are important variables. Income is in part determined by the scarcity of certain skill sets. An occupation that requires a scarce skill set, attained through higher educational degree, which involves higher autonomy and influence, will offer higher economic compensation. Qualifying for such higher income requires that individuals obtain the necessary skills and demonstrate the necessary competencies.
There are differences between household and individual income. In 2005, 42% of US households had two or more income earners. To illustrate, two nurses each making $55,000 per year can out-earn, in a household sense, a single attorney who makes a median of $95,000 annually; the sociologists Dennis Gilbert, William Thompson and Joseph Hickey estimate the upper middle class to constitute 15% of the population. Using the 15% figure one may conclude that the American upper middle class consists in an income sense, of professionals with personal incomes in excess of $62,500, who reside in households with six-figure incomes; the difference between personal and household income can be explained by considering that 76% of households with incomes exceeding $90,000 had two or more income earners. Note that the above income thresholds may vary based on region due to significant differences in average income based on region and urban, suburban, or rural development. In more expensive suburbs, the threshold for the top 15% of income earners may be much higher.
For example, in 2006 the ten highest income counties had median household incomes of $85,000 compared to a national average of about $50,000. The top 15% of all US income earners nationally tend to be more concentrated in these richer suburban counties where the cost of living is higher. If middle-class households earning between the 50th percentile and the 85th percentile tend to live in lower cost of living areas their difference in real income may be smaller than what the differences in nominal income suggest. Upper-middle-class people statistically value higher education for themselves and their children, favoring the pursuit of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. Political ideology is not found to be correlated with social class. In terms of income, liberals tend to be tied with pro-business conservatives. Most mass affluent households tend to be more right-leaning on fiscal issues but more left-leaning on social issues; the majority, between 50% and 60%, of households wi
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation; the relevant institutions include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equal opportunity. Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use.
Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, the environment, the physically and developmentally disabled. While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is credited with coining the term, it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved; the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. 7: "We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound.
From the early 20th century it was embedded in international law and institutions. In the 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education; some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard. The different concepts of justice, as discussed in ancient Western philosophy, were centered upon the community. Plato wrote in The Republic that it would be an ideal state that "every member of the community must be assigned to the class for which he finds himself best fitted." In an article for J. N. V University, author D. R. Bhandari says, "Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society, it is the identical quality that makes social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul.
Plato says that justice is not mere strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social". Plato believed rights existed only between free people, the law should take "account in the first instance of relations of inequality in which individuals are treated in proportion to their worth and only secondarily of relations of equality." Reflecting this time when slavery and subjugation of women was typical, ancient views of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for the privileged groups, strong concepts of fairness and the community existed. Distributive justice was said by Aristotle to require that people were distributed goods and assets according to their merit. Socrates is attributed with developing the idea of a social contract, whereby people ought to follow the rules of a society, accept its burdens because they have accepted its benefits.
During the Middle Ages, religious scholars such as Thomas Aquinas continued discussion of justice in various ways, but connected being a good citizen to the purpose of serving God. After the Renaissance and Reformation, the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than own", to achieve this "pitch of perfection... The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possessio
Norma Aleandro Robledo is an international award-winning Argentine actress, theatre director and author. She is considered as one of the best and most celebrated Argentine actresses and is recognized as a cultural icon. Aleandro starred in the Oscar-winning 1985 film, The Official Story, a role that earned her the Cannes Award for best actress, she has performed in other successful films like The Truce, Autumn Sun, The Lighthouse, Son of the Bride and Cama Adentro. For her performance as Florencia Sánchez Morales in the 1987 film Gaby: A True Story, she received a Golden Globe nomination and a Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. Aleandro has written the 1970 film, The Inheritors, has performed in various plays such like August: Osage County. Aleandro appeared in the Argentine adaptation of BeTipul, the critical success En terapia. Aleandro was born in Buenos Aires on May 2, 1936, she is the daughter of actors Pedro Aleandro and María Luisa Robledo and the sister of actor María Vaner.
During the late 1970s, she was vocal about her progressive views and during the military dictatorship she was exiled to Uruguay. Aleandro moved to Spain and did not return to Argentina until after the military junta fell in 1983. In 1985, her breakout role was the Argentine Academy Award-winning film The Official Story. For her acting in the film she won, among others, the Cannes Award for best actress, she worked in several other Argentine movies such as the Academy Award-nominated Son of the Bride, Sol de Otoño, El Faro. Aleandro co-starred in a few Hollywood films such as One Man's War, with Anthony Hopkins, Gaby: A True Story for which she received an Oscar nomination, she had a minor role in Cousins. Back in Argentina she returned to the stage with Master Class and won the "María Guerrero" award in 1996; the same year she was honored as Ciudadano Ilustre de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. She has so far co-starred five times with fellow actor Héctor Alterio: Los siete Locos, the Academy Award-nominated The Truce, The Official Story, Son of the Bride and Cleopatra, the last three of which they played husband and wife.
In 2009, Aleandro appeared in The City of Your Final Destination, directed by James Ivory and co-starring Anthony Hopkins, Laura Linney and Charlotte Gainsbourg. La muerte en las calles Romeo y Julieta La casa de los Medina El último piso El amor tiene cara de mujer Cuatro mujeres para Adán Alias Buen Mozo Gente conmigo Los herederos La fiaca Güemes: la tierra en armas Los siete locos La tregua La historia oficial, Gaby: A True Story Cousins Cien veces no debo Vital Signs Artes especiales One Man's War Las tumbas Facundo, la sombra del tigre Carlos Monzón, el segundo juicio Sol de otoño El faro Corazón iluminado Una noche con Sabrina Love El hijo de la novia La fuga Todas las azafatas van al cielo Deseo Cleopatra Ay, Juancito 18-J Seres queridos Cama adentro Identidad perdida Pura sangre Patoruzito, la gran aventura The City of Your Final Destination Paco Música en espera Anita Andrés no quiere dormir la siesta Cuestión de principios Familia para armar La suerte en tus manos Cannes Award: Best Actress for The Official Story, 1985.
New York Film Critics Circle Awards: Best Actress for The Official Story, 1985. Cartagena Film Festival: Best Actress for The Official Story, 1985. David di Donatello: Best Foreign Actress for The Official Story, 1987. Donostia-San Sebastián International Film Festival: Best Actress for Sol de Otoño, 1996. Havana Film Festival: Best Actress for Sol de Otoño, 1996. Gramado Film Festival: Best Latin Actress for Son of the Bride, 2002. Academy Award: Best Supporting Actress for Gaby: A True Story, 1987. Golden Globe Award: Best Supporting Actress for Gaby: A True Story, 1987. Martín Fierro Awards: for En terapia, 2012, 2013. Konex Award: Diamond Award in 2001. Argentine Film Critics Association Awards: Best Supporting Actress for Son of the Bride, 2001. Martín Fierro Awards: Six awards throughout the years. Tato Award: Best Lead Actress in Drama, for En terapia, 2013. Association of Latin Entertainment Critics Awards: Best Character Actress for Cama Adentro, 2006. Obie Award: Distinguished Performance for About Love and Other Stories About Love, 1985.
Shakespeare Award: Distinguished career, given by Fundación Romeo Argentina, 2015. Norma Aleandro on IMDb Norma Aleandro at Cinenacional.com
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, it is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018.
According to him, comfortable exile is a “social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered “aliens” or internal “others” on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture.” When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature, it is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles, it is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time, the Central Tibetan A
58th Academy Awards
The 58th Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, took place on March 24, 1986, at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles beginning at 6:00 p.m. PST / 9:00 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories honoring films released in 1985; the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Stanley Donen and directed by Marty Pasetta. Actors Alan Alda, Jane Fonda, Robin Williams co-hosted the show. Fonda hosted the gala for the second time, having been a co-host of the 49th ceremony held in 1977. Meanwhile, this was Williams's first Oscars hosting stint. Eight days earlier, in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 16, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Macdonald Carey. Out of Africa won seven awards including Best Picture. Other winners included Cocoon and Witness with two awards, Kiss of the Spider Woman, The Trip to Bountiful, Prizzi's Honor, The Official Story, Broken Rainbow, Witness to War: Dr. Charlie Clements, Molly's Pilgrim, Anna & Bella, White Nights, Back to the Future and Ran with one.
The nominees for the 58th Academy Awards were announced on February 5, 1986. The Color Purple and Out of Africa led all nominees with eleven each. Winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 24, 1986. With its 11 nominations and zero wins, The Color Purple joined The Turning Point as the most nominated films in Oscar history without a single win. At age 79, John Huston became the oldest person nominated for Best Director. By virtue of his father Walter's previous wins, John's daughter Anjelica's victory in the Best Supporting Actress category made her the first third-generation Oscar winner in history. For the first time in Academy Awards history, all lead acting nominees were born in the United States. Argentina's The Official Story became the first Latin American film to win the Best Foreign Language Film category. Winners are highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double dagger. Paul Newman Alex North Charles "Buddy" Rogers The following individuals, in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers.
Determined to revive interest surrounding the awards and reverse declining ratings, the Academy hired Stanley Donen in December 1985 to produce the telecast for the first time. The following February and comedian Robin Williams was selected as host of the 1986 telecast. Actor Alan Alda and two-time Academy Award-winning actress Jane Fonda were announced to join Williams in sharing emceeing duties. Several other people were involved with the production of the ceremony. Lionel Newman served as musical conductor for the ceremony. Actress Teri Garr performed the titular song from Flying Down to Rio during the opening segment. Singer Irene Cara sang the Cynthia Weil and Barry Mann-penned "Here's to the Losers" in honor of unsuccessful Oscar nominees throughout history. A song-and-dance number featuring actor and singer Howard Keel and several actresses including Cyd Charisse, Leslie Caron, Debbie Reynolds paid tribute to MGM musicals. At the time of the nominations announcement on February 5, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $119 million with an average of $23.9 million.
Witness was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $68.7 million in the domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by Out of Africa, The Color Purple, Prizzi's Honor and Kiss of the Spider Woman. Of the 50 grossing movies of the year, 42 nominations went to 12 films on the list. Only Back to the Future, Witness, Jagged Edge, The Color Purple, Prizzi's Honor, Agnes of God were nominated for Best Picture, acting, or screenplay; the other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Rambo: First Blood Part II, White Nights, Young Sherlock Holmes, Ladyhawke. Terrence O'Flaherty of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote, "Last night's sustained-release Oscar pill moved faster through the system than most, but from a standpoint of taste it was the worst in years." Regarding Alda and Williams hosting performance, he commented, "Together they placed a fatal suggestion in the viewer's mind that there must be a shortage of elegant people in the movie business today - a suspicion, substantiated again and again throughout this disjointed and unattractive program."
Chicago Tribune film critic Gene Siskel noted that after co-host Williams opened the ceremony with a slew of humorous jokes, "The show regrettably returned to its old bad habits with a boring onstage production number intended to be a tribute to old movies. Instead, it was a tribute to the continuing inability of the Oscar show producers to create fun for the home viewer rather than for the audience in the auditorium." The Record's Joel Pisetzner remarked "The program might as well have begun with the announcement'Dead, from L. A. it's Academy night!' "Television columnist John J. O'Connor of The New York Times quipped, "Suddenly, it seemed, somebody had listened to the complaints that had grown deadeningly familiar over the years. Clumpy film clips and smirking patronization were out. Spiffy electronic techniques and pure celebration were in, leavened with generous dollops of good-natured and sometimes outrageous humor." He added, "Mr. Williams's improvisational, on-the-precipice style of humor brought the event's comic tone thumpingly into the 1980's."
Yardena Arar from the Los Angeles Daily News said, "This time, the ABC telecast didn't drown in the thank yous -- or, fo
Plaza de Mayo
The Plaza de Mayo is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor and Plaza de Armas, by that time known as Plaza de la Victoria and Plaza 25 de Mayo respectively; the city centre of Buenos Aires, Plaza de Mayo has been the scene of the most momentous events in Argentine history, as well as the largest popular demonstrations in the country. On the occasion of the one-year anniversary of the May Revolution in 1811, the Pirámide de Mayo was inaugurated in the square's hub, becoming Buenos Aires' first national monument, it is located in the financial district known within the barrio of Monserrat. It is bounded by Bolívar, Hipólito Yrigoyen and Avenida Rivadavia streets. In the square's surroundings are several major monuments and points of interest: the Cabildo, the Casa Rosada, the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Buenos Aires City Hall and the Bank of the Argentine Nation's headquarters.
Underneath its land are the Underground stations of Plaza de Mayo and Bolívar. The modern plaza took form in 1884 when the colonnade separating the Plaza de la Victoria and the Plaza del Fuerte was demolished, its origins, can be traced back to Juan de Garay's foundation of Buenos Aires itself, in 1580. Newly arrived to the dusty riverbank settlement, Jesuit clergymen in 1608 secured a title to much of the 2 hectares lot, on which Garay's earlier plans for a central plaza had been abandoned. In 1661, the local governor purchased the eastern half for inclusion into the grounds of the city's new fort. Completed in 1804, the Romanesque structure became the plaza's market and the lot to the west of the colonnade became the Plaza de la Victoria; the area continued divided between these two plazas until 1883 and with only minor changes in landscaping, chief among them the 1811 addition of the May Pyramid, a monument put up to commemorate the newly independent "Provinces of the Rio de la Plata". That year, Mayor Torcuato de Alvear ordered the space modernized, resulting in the demolition of the colonnade and the creation of the modern Plaza de Mayo.
The Plaza de Mayo has always been the focal point of political life in Buenos Aires. Its current name commemorates the May Revolution of 1810, which started the process towards the country's independence from Spain in 1816. On October 17, 1945, mass demonstrations in the Plaza de Mayo organized by the CGT trade union federation forced the release from prison of Juan Domingo Perón, who would become President of Argentina. Many other presidents, both democratic and military, have saluted people in the Plaza from the balcony of the Casa Rosada. In an attempt to overthrow President Perón, the plaza was bombed during one of the populist leader's many rallies there on 16 June 1955, killing 364. Years in 1974, Perón president for the third time, expelled from the Plaza members of the Montoneros, an armed organisation on the far left that had contributed to the aging leader's return from exile the previous year and had since demanded influence within the national government. Perón's final appearance at the plaza, on 12 June, was marked by an acrimonious break with the far left, leading to two years of violence and repression and a coup d'état.
Crowds gathered once again on April 2, 1982 and several occasions thereafter to hail de facto President Leopoldo Galtieri for Argentina's invasion of the Falkland Islands, which launched the Falklands War. The plaza, since 1977, is where the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have congregated with signs and pictures of desaparecidos, their children, who were subject to forced disappearance by the Argentine military in the Dirty War, during the National Reorganization Process. People perceived to be supportive of subversive activities would be illegally detained, subject to abuse and torture, murdered in secret; the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo took advantage of the symbolic importance of the Plaza to open the public's eyes to what the military regime was doing. Protests have continued on taking place, with the major last one being during the December 2001 riots when five protesters were killed and several others injured by police as they rioted around the Plaza de Mayo. Today, Plaza de Mayo continues to be an indispensable tourist attraction for those who visit Buenos Aires.
Several of the city's major landmarks are located around the Plaza: the Cabildo, the Casa Rosada, the Metropolitan Cathedral of Buenos Aires, the May Pyramid, the Equestrian monument to General Manuel Belgrano, the current city hall or municipalidad, the headquarters of the Nación Bank. The Buenos Aires financial district, affectionately known as la City lies besides the Plaza. Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Grandmother