South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
The Holdfast Bay is a small bay in Gulf St Vincent, next to Adelaide, South Australia. Along its shores lie the popular beach-side suburb of Glenelg; the bay was named by Colonel William Light, South Australian surveyor general, in mid-1836. In his journal he expressed his pleasure at the quality of the anchorage after riding out a storm. Holdfast Bay was the site of the landings in 1836 and 1837 by pioneers who were to set up the colony of South Australia. On 8 November 1836 Robert Gouger, Colonial Secretary and Chief Magistrate, arrived there aboard the Africaine and set up camp near The Old Gum Tree. With the arrival of Governor Hindmarsh on 28 December and the proclamation of the new colony, the Holdfast Bay settlement became the first seat of government of South Australia. On 31 December 1836 the Holdfast Bay settlement was renamed Glenelg; the Corporate Town of Glenelg was established at Glenelg in 1855 to locally govern the township and its surrounds. History of South Australia Holdfast Bay, Glenelg - Historic Landing Spot
Eucalyptus camaldulensis known as the river red gum, is a tree, endemic to Australia. It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white flowers and hemispherical fruit with the valves extending beyond the rim. A familiar and iconic tree, it is seen along many watercourses across inland Australia, providing shade in the extreme temperatures of central Australia. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree that grows to a height of 20 metres but sometimes to 45 metres and does not develop a lignotuber; the bark is smooth white or cream-coloured with patches of pink or brown. There is loose, rough slabs of rough bark near the base; the juvenile leaves are lance-shaped, 80 -- 13 -- 25 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped to curved, the same dull green or geyish green colour on both sides, 50–300 mm long and 7–32 mm wide on a petiole 8–33 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in groups of seven, nine or sometimes eleven, in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–28 mm long, the individual flowers on pedicels 2–10 mm long.
Mature buds are oval to more or less spherical, green to creamy yellow, 6–9 mm long and 4–6 mm wide with a prominently beaked operculum 3–7 mm long. Flowering occurs in summer and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, hemispherical capsule 2–5 mm long and 4–10 mm wide on a pedicel 3–12 mm long with the valves raised above the rim. The limbs of river red gums, sometimes whole trees fall without warning so that camping or picnicking near them is dangerous if a tree has dead limbs or the tree is under stress. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was first formally described in 1832 by Friedrich Dehnhardt who published the description in Catalogus Plantarum Horti Camaldulensis. Seven subspecies of E. camaldulensis have been described and accepted by the Australian Plant Census. The most variable character is the shape and size of the operculum, followed by the arrangement of the stamens in the mature buds and the density of veins visible in the leaves; the subspecies are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp.
Acuta Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds with a pointed operculum 6–9 mm long and erect stamens and broadly lance-shaped or egg-shaped juvenile leaves. Arida Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has bluish green adult leaves with only a few veins and mature flowers buds with a curved to rounded operculum 3–7 mm long. Subsp. Camaldulensis has a beaked operculum, incurved or irregularly bent stamens and narrow lance-shaped juvenile leaves. Minima Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds that are small with a conical operculum 2–4 mm long and broad juvenile leaves that are covered with a powdery bloom. Obtusa Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has white, powdery bark in some months and mature flower buds with a curved, conical operculum 4–7 mm long. Refulgens Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has glossy green adult leaves with a dense network of veins. Simulata Ian Brooker & Kleinig. has a horn-shaped operculum 9–16 mm long. The specific epithet is a reference to a private estate garden near the Camaldoli monastery in Naples, where Frederick Dehnhardt was the chief gardener.
The type specimen was grown in the gardens from seed collected in 1817 near Condobolin by Allan Cunningham, was grown there for about one hundred years before being removed in the 1920s. Although Dehnhardt was the first to formally describe E. camaldulensis, his book was unknown to the botanical community. In 1847 Diederich von Schlechtendal gave the species the name Eucalyptus rostrata but the name was illegitimate because it had been applied by Cavanilles to a different species. In the 1850s, Ferdinand von Mueller labelled some specimens of river red gum as Eucalyptus longirostris and in 1856 Friedrich Miquel published a description of von Mueller's specimens, formalising the name E. longirostris. In 1934, William Blakely recognised Dehnhardt's priority and the name E. camaldulensis for river red gum was accepted. Northern Territory aboriginal names for this species are: aper, aper or per, aylpele, ngapiri, yitara apara, piipalya, kunjumarra and ngapiri. Dimilan is the name of this tree in the Miriwoong language of the Kimberley.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis has the widest natural distribution of any eucalyptus species. It is found along waterways and there are only a few locations where the species is found away from a watercourse. Subspecies acuta is common along rivers from south of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland to the north west slopes and plains of New South Wales but is absent from coastal areas and the arid inland. Subspecies arida has the widest distribution of the subspecies and is found in all mainland states except Victoria, it grows in arid regions but only. Subspecies camaldulensis is the dominant eucalypt along the Murray-Darling river system and its tributaries, it occurs on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island in South Australia and in some locations along the Hunter River in New South Wales. I
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of a monarch's accession to the throne. A proclamation day may celebrate the independence of a country, the end of a war, or the ratification of an important treaty. Proclamation Day in South Australia celebrates the establishment of government in South Australia as a British province; the province itself was created and proclaimed in 1834 when the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act, which empowered King William IV to create South Australia as a British province and to provide for its colonisation and government. It was ratified 19 February 1836; the proclamation announcing the establishment of Government was made by Captain John Hindmarsh beside The Old Gum Tree at the present-day suburb of Glenelg North on 28 December 1836. The proclamation specified the same protection under the law for the local native population as for the settlers.
The date 28 December as a public holiday in South Australia was modified to the first working day after the Christmas Day public holiday. Formal ceremonies involving the most senior current officials and politicians, followed by public celebrations, continue to be held at the still-extant Old Gum Tree at Glenelg North on 28 December; the proclamation was drafted aboard HMS Buffalo by Hindmarsh's private secretary, George Stevenson, printed by Robert Thomas, who came from England with his family on Africaine, arriving at Holdfast Bay on 8 November 1836. Thomas brought with him the first printing press to reach South Australia; the press was a Stanhope Invenit No. 200, was on display in the State Library until 2001. It may be surmised that, from the quilled text of the proclamation provided to him by the officials, it was Thomas himself who made a more striking layout for print most familiar to the public; the colonising fleet prior to Buffalo consisted of 8 vessels which had first arrived at Nepean Bay on Kangaroo Island before being directed to Holdfast Bay on the mainland.
The first vessel to arrive at Nepean Bay was Duke of York on 27 July 1836 which did not proceed to Holdfast Bay but instead set off on a whaling expedition. Africaine was the seventh to arrive to arrive at Nepean Bay, discharging settlers at Holdfast Bay on 9 November 1836. Seven of these earlier ships preceded Governor John Hindmarsh on Buffalo to enable preparations in advance of his formal arrival on 28 December. Thomas's wife Mary published The Diary of Mary Thomas, in which she described the journey on Africaine and the early years in South Australia. An extract from the diary reads: About December 20th 1836, we built a rush hut a short distance from our tents for the better accommodation of part of our family... and in this place the first printing in South Australia was produced. One of the children of Robert and Mary Thomas was a surveyor who assisted Colonel William Light in the survey which led to the founding of the City of Adelaide. Another son, William Kyffin Thomas, inherited from his father the newspaper of the time, The Register, which his parents had set up.
William had a son called Robert, who became senior proprietor of The Register. He was knighted by King Edward VII in 1909 when President of the first great Press Conference in London. A majestic statue of that king stands prominently outside the South Australian Institute building in North Terrace, Adelaide. In 1876 Parliament decreed that the Proclamation Day holiday, a gala occasion when thousands descended on Glenelg, would henceforth be celebrated on 27 December in lieu of the 28th, in order to make a three-day Christmas holiday. H. J Moseley, proprietor of the Glenelg's Pier Hotel, was the first and loudest protester against the move, rescinded. Proclamation Day refers to 21 October 1890, the day that Western Australia achieved self-government, with its own constitution and self-elected parliament. Proclamation Day was a public holiday, but its significance was overshadowed by the celebrations of the Eight Hours Day, which were held on the same day, by 1919 the public holiday had been replaced by Labour Day.
Privy Council of the United Kingdom. "Letters Patent establishing the Province of South Australia 19 February 1836". Museum of Australian Democracy. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh KH RN was a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838. His grandfather William Hindmarsh was a gardener in County Durham, his father, John Hindmarsh, was born on 27 June 1753 and baptized at St Cuthbert's Church, Darlington. He was pressed into the Royal Navy, became a warrant officer of the Bellerophon. On 23 August 1784, Hindmarsh married Mrs Mary Roxburgh, a widow, at St George's-in-the East, Middlesex. At the time of the Battle of the Nile, Hindmarsh was the gunner of the Bellerophon, Hindmarsh was John and Mary Hindmarsh's eldest son, was baptized on 25 May 1785 at St Mary's Church, Kent. Hindmarsh joined the Royal Navy either in April 1793, or on 19 July 1790. In 1793 he was listed on the muster roll of the Bellerophon as the servant of his father, he was schooled by the purser of the Bellerophon. He saw action on the Bellerophon at the Battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794 and the Battle of the Nile in 1798.
He was promoted to First Class Volunteer, when he was nine, for his actions at the Battle of the Glorious First of June. During the Battle of the Nile on 1 August 1798, the fire on board the French line-of-battle ship l'Orient put the Bellerophon in danger. Captain Darby came on deck from having his wounds dressed. Nelson knew of this incident and referred to it five years when he gave Hindmarsh his promotion to lieutenant on 1 August 1803 on board the Victory. Hindmarsh suffered a contusion during the Battle of the Nile that resulted in him losing an eye. Hindmarsh transferred to the Spencer in May 1800, took part in the Battle of Algeciras Bay in 1801, he served on HMS Phoebe at the Battle of Trafalgar, was first lieutenant of the sloop Beagle, which took a conspicuous part in the Battle of the Basque Roads in 1809, on the same sloop in the Walcheren expedition in the year. He served in the Nisus in the invasion of Java in 1811, he was promoted to commander on 15 June 1814. A lengthy period of inaction on half-pay followed, but from March 1830 to December 1831 he commanded the Scylla, was promoted to captain on 3 September 1831.
He received his commission as governor and commander-in-chief of the province of South Australia on 14 July 1836. On 11 July 1836 Hindmarsh sailed for South Australia on the H. M. S. Buffalo as its first governor after winning influential support and applying to the Colonial Office; when the Naval General Service Medal, designed by William Wyon, was introduced in 1847, it was discovered that only two people were entitled to the medal with seven clasps: Sir John Hindmarsh and Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Alexander Gordon. The seven clasps on Hindmarsh's medal were for Java, Basque Roads 1809, Gut of Gibraltar 12 July 1801, Nile, 17 June 1795 and 1 June 1794, he was listed to be awarded a good service pension of £150 under the 1850-51 Navy Estimates. He was promoted to rear admiral on the retired list in 1856. "Bluff Jack Hindmarsh", as he came to be known, arrived in Holdfast Bay on 28 December 1836, in the Buffalo. Prior to this, earlier arrivals included the Survey Brig Rapid, Cygnet and Tam O'Shanter.
They landed on Kangaroo Island, sent out the team of surveyors led by Light to find a suitable place for the capital city of the new colony. Hindmarsh wanted it at Port Lincoln, instead of at the present site, selected by Light. Light chose the site of Adelaide, stationed the Cygnet at Port Lincoln to notify Hindmarsh that the capital would be located on the east Coast of Gulf St Vincent near Holdfast Bay, now known as Glenelg, South Australia; the name Adelaide was chosen by King William IV in honour of his consort Queen Adelaide. Hindmarsh's proclamation on 28 December 1836 announced the commencement of colonial government and stated that Aborigines were to be treated justly and were'equally entitled to the privileges of British subjects'. Although most South Australians have been taught that Hindmarsh's proclamation created the colony, it did not. William IV, having been empowered by an Act of Parliament in August 1834, in February 1836 Letters Patent'Erected and Established' the Province of South Australia.
No governor had the power to create colonies. There was some question as to the respective powers of the Governor and the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher, the two came into open conflict. Feeling ran high and when Hindmarsh went so far as to suspend Robert Gouger and other public officers, the commissioners brought the matter before the Secretary of State for the Colonies. Hindmarsh was recalled to London in 1838. In 1840 he was made Lieutenant-Governor of Heligoland, where he served until 7 March 1857. Hindmarsh was knighted by Queen Victoria on 7 August 1851, retired in 1857 to the seaside town of Hove, England. Issued at Glenelg on December 28, 1836: In announcing to the Colonists of His Majesty's Province of South Australia the establishment of the Government, I hearby call upon them to conduct themselves at all times with order and quietness, duly to respect the