The Other Boleyn Girl (2008 film)

The Other Boleyn Girl is a 2008 historical romantic drama film directed by Justin Chadwick. The screenplay by Peter Morgan was adapted from Philippa Gregory’s 2001 novel of the same name, it is a fictionalised account of the lives of 16th-century aristocrats Mary Boleyn, one-time mistress of King Henry VIII, her sister, who became the monarch's ill-fated second wife, though much history is distorted. Production studio BBC Films owns the rights to adapt the sequel novel, The Boleyn Inheritance, which tells the story of Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Jane Parker. King Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon is troubled as she has not produced a living male heir to the throne, having only one surviving child, Mary. Mary Boleyn marries William Carey. After the festivities, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and his brother-in-law Thomas Boleyn plan to install Boleyn's eldest daughter, Anne Boleyn, as the king's mistress, with the hope that Anne will bear him a son and that she'll be able to improve her family's wealth and status.

Anne's mother, Lady Elizabeth Boleyn, is disgusted by the plot, but Anne agrees as a way to please her father and uncle. While visiting the Boleyn estate, Henry is injured in a hunting accident, indirectly caused by Anne. Urged by her scheming uncle, Mary nurses Henry. Henry becomes smitten with Mary and invites her to court, to which Mary and her husband reluctantly agree, aware that the king has invited her because he desires her. Mary and Anne become ladies-in-waiting to Queen Catherine and Henry sends William Carey abroad on an assignment. Separated from her husband, Mary begins an affair with the king and finds herself falling in love with him. Anne secretly marries the nobleman Henry Percy, although he is betrothed to Lady Mary Talbot. Anne confides in George Boleyn, about the marriage. Overjoyed, George proceeds to tell Mary. Fearing Anne will ruin the Boleyn family by marrying such a prominent earl without the king's consent, Mary alerts her father and uncle, they confront Anne, forcibly annul the marriage, exile her to France.

Mary becomes pregnant with Henry's child. Her family receives new grants and estates, their debts are paid, Henry arranges George's marriage to Jane Parker; when Mary nearly suffers a miscarriage, she is confined to bed. Norfolk recalls Anne to England and is tasked to keep Henry's attention from wandering to another rival while Mary is confined. Believing that Mary had her exiled to increase her own status, Anne gets back at her by winning Henry over; when Mary gives birth to a son, Henry Carey and Norfolk are overjoyed, but the celebration is short lived as Anne tells Henry that the baby is born a bastard and that, for her to accept his advances, he must stop talking to Mary. This infuriates Norfolk. Henry has Mary sent to the countryside at Anne's request. Shortly after, Mary is widowed. Anne encourages Henry to break from the Catholic Church when the Pope refuses to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine. Henry succumbs to Anne's demands, declares himself Supreme Head of the Church of England, gets Cardinal Thomas Wolsey to annul the marriage.

Having fulfilled Anne's requests, Henry comes to Anne's room but she refuses to have sex with him until they are married. In a fit of rage, he rapes her. A pregnant Anne becomes Queen of England; as a wife, Henry starts despising her, and, as a queen, she is hated by the public, being deemed a witch. Despite the birth of a healthy daughter, Henry blames Anne for not producing a son and begins courting Jane Seymour in secret. After Anne suffers the miscarriage of a son, she begs George to have sex with her to replace the child she lost, for fear of being passed over by Henry and burned as a witch. George at first reluctantly agrees, realising that it is Anne's only hope, but they do not go through with it. However, George's neglected wife Jane, under orders from Norfolk to spy on Anne, witnesses enough of their encounter to become suspicious, she reports what she has seen, both Anne and George are arrested. The two are found guilty and sentenced to death for treason and incest. Distraught by the news of the execution of George, his mother disowns her husband and brother, vowing never to forgive them for what their greed has done to her children.

After Mary learns that she was late for George's execution, she returns to court to plead for Anne's life. Believing that Henry will spare her sister, she leaves to see Anne right before the scheduled execution. Anne asks Mary to take care of her daughter Elizabeth. Mary watches from the crowd as Anne makes her final speech, waiting for the execution to be cancelled as Henry promised. A letter from Henry is given to Mary, warning her not to come to his court any more, implicitly revealing his decision to execute Anne after all. Ten days after Anne's execution and Jane Seymour are married. Norfolk is imprisoned and the next three generations of his family are executed for treason in their turn. Mary marries William Stafford and they have two children and Edward. Mary takes an active role in raising Anne's daughter Elizabeth, who grows up to become the future Queen of England, reigns for 44 years. Natalie Portman as Anne Boleyn. Portman was attracted to the role because it was a character that she "hadn’t played before", describes Anne as "strong, yet she can be vulnerable and she's ambitious and calculating and will step on people but feels remorse for it".

One month before filming began, Portman started taking daily classes to master the English accent under dialect coach Jill McCulloch, who stayed on set throughout the filmi

Gloria Greer

Gloria Greer was an American actress who played Oliver Hardy's girlfriend in the 1929 Laurel and Hardy short Men O' War. Born in Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Elbert Rush'Bert' and Lillian May Greer, she had two older sisters and Lillian; when she was three years old, her family moved to Ashland, where her father purchased the Ashland Daily Tidings newspaper. After graduating from Ashland High School, she attended the University of Oregon where she was a member of Chi Omega. Keen on pursuing a movie career she relocated to Los Angeles, California, in 1927 and adopted the stage name Gloria Greer. In 1928, she joined the Hal Roach Bathing Beauties, a group of young women who appeared in provocative bathing costumes in comedy short subjects and at promotional events. Her brief career included two speaking roles, one as Oliver Hardy's girlfiend in 1929's Men O' War and another as a honeymooner in the 1930 short Moonlight and Monkey Business. Greer married Carlos Noelle in 1930; the couple intended to relocate to Ashland.

They were visiting there when on May 28, 1931, Greer gave birth to a son, Carlos Noelle Jr. Greer died on June 6, 1931, of sepsis following complications from her son's birth, her funeral was held at the Ashland Presbyterian Church, her body was temporarily interred in the church cemetery's mausoleum. She was interred at a cemetery in Burbank, where her father was buried, her infant son was adopted by Vivian Dorothy Ling. Gloria Greer on IMDb Gloria Greer at Find a Grave

Formulary apportionment

Formulary apportionment known as unitary taxation, is a method of allocating profit earned by a corporation or corporate group to a particular tax jurisdiction in which the corporation or group has a taxable presence. It is an alternative to separate entity accounting, under which a branch or subsidiary within the jurisdiction is accounted for as a separate entity, requiring prices for transactions with other parts of the corporation or group to be assigned according to the arm's length standard used in transfer pricing. In contrast, formulary apportionment attributes the corporation's total worldwide profit to each jurisdiction, based on factors such as the proportion of sales, assets or payroll in that jurisdiction; when applied to a corporate group, formulary apportionment requires combined reporting of the group's results. The parent and all of its subsidiaries are viewed as though they were a single entity, the method is also known as worldwide unitary taxation. In the US, most states have adopted water's edge combined reporting which restricts the taxable group to just US domestic corporations and excludes "overseas business organization", i.e. unitary foreign affiliates and foreign parents.

Formulary methods are used in both the United States and Canada to apportion income of corporations between the sub-national jurisdictions in which they operate. In many U. S. states formulary apportionment is used to apportion the combined income of a related group of companies. Tax in each US state is thus assessed based on the unitary combination of all related entities; the related entities included in the unitary combination may be worldwide entities or only entities within the United States, depending on the state. The latter is known as water's edge combined reporting. Worldwide unitary combined reporting was first approved by the US Supreme Court in 1983 in Container Corp. v. Franchise Tax Board by a vote of 5-3; the court re-visited worldwide combined reporting in 1994 in Barclays Bank v. Franchise Tax Board and Colgate-Palmolive v. Franchise Tax Board and again approved its use by California but this time by larger majorities; the votes were 9-0, respectively. However, as a result of foreign retaliatory legislation and pressure from the federal government, all states have now abandoned mandatory worldwide combined reporting.

The use of formulary apportionment in the United States dates back to the late 19th century. At that time, there was no state or federal corporate income tax, but the states did assess property and capital stock taxes. With the growth of the transcontinental railroads, state taxation authorities faced companies which had not just immovable property but non-trivial movable property operating across state lines; the property value of a company assessable to state tax was thus assessed by examining the proportion of value of railway lines within the state, taking that proportion of the company's total value as the portion of value located within a certain state. When Wisconsin adopted a state income tax in 1911, it used formulary apportionment, pointing to the impracticality of otherwise calculating separate accounts for companies operating in multiple states. By the mid-20th century, the "Massachusetts Formula" had become a used standard of formulary apportionment; the formula placed an equal weight on three factors: group sales and property within each jurisdiction.

Out of the forty-four states which imposed a corporate income tax in 1978, all but Iowa used the Massachusetts Formula. Iowa's formula ignored payroll and property, looking at sales; this marked the beginning of a trend towards increasing weight on sales at the expense of the other two factors. Formulary apportionment is not used as a method of attributing profit between national tax jurisdictions; the adoption of formulary apportionment has been advocated at various times since the 1970s. The matter has been hotly debated by OECD member states beginning in the 1970s. In 2000 Joann Weiner and Charles E. McLure Jr. proposed the use of formulary apportionment within the European Union. In 2001, the EU issued a communication advocating the use of formulary apportionment. In 2007 Kimberley A. Clausing and Reuven Avi-Yonah suggested that the US Internal Revenue Service use formulary apportionment in the assessment of federal corporate income tax, believing it would lead to increased tax revenue in the face of a trend for multinational corporations to use transfer pricing to shift profits out of the US into low-tax countries.

None of these suggestions has been adopted. Several US states allow, but do not mandate, that a corporate group include foreign entities for the purpose of assessing factors used in formulary apportionment. California, for example, began to accept worldwide unitary combination in the 1940s. However, its attempt to require such combination led to strong protests from US trading partners; the UK-US double taxation treaty signed in 1975 included a provision to prohibit US states from "tak into account the income, receipts, or out-goings of a related enterprise" in the United Kingdom or any other coun