A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural. Myths and stories about fairies do not have a single origin, but are rather a collection of folk beliefs from disparate sources. Various folk theories about the origins of fairies include casting them as either demoted angels or demons in a Christian tradition, as minor deities in pre-Christian Pagan belief systems, as spirits of the dead, as prehistoric precursors to humans, or as elementals; the label of fairy has at times applied only to specific magical creatures with human appearance, small stature, magical powers, a penchant for trickery. At other times it has been used to describe any magical creature, such as gnomes. Fairy has at times been used as an adjective, with a meaning equivalent to "enchanted" or "magical". A recurring motif of legends about fairies is the need to ward off fairies using protective charms. Common examples of such charms include church bells, wearing clothing inside out, four-leaf clover, food.
Fairies were sometimes thought to haunt specific locations, to lead travelers astray using will-o'-the-wisps. Before the advent of modern medicine, fairies were blamed for sickness tuberculosis and birth deformities. In addition to their folkloric origins, fairies were a common feature of Renaissance literature and Romantic art, were popular in the United Kingdom during the Victorian and Edwardian eras; the Celtic Revival saw fairies established as a canonical part of Celtic cultural heritage. The English fairy derives from Old French form faierie, a derivation from faie with the abstract noun suffix -erie. In Old French romance, a faie or fee was a woman skilled in magic, who knew the power and virtue of words, of stones, of herbs."Fairy" was used to represent: an illusion or enchantment. Faie became Modern English fay, while faierie became fairy, but this spelling exclusively refers to one individual. In the sense of "land where fairies dwell", archaic spellings faery and faerie are still in use.
Latinate fay is not related the fey, meaning "fated to die", but some dictionaries do list "fey" as a kind of fairy. Various folklore traditions refer to fairies euphemistically as wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair folk, etc; the term fairy is sometimes used to describe any magical creature, including goblins and gnomes, while at other times, the term describes only a specific type of ethereal creature or sprite. The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children. Historical origins include various traditions of Celtics, Germanic peoples, of Middle French medieval romances. Fairie was used adjectivally, meaning "enchanted", but became a generic term for various "enchanted" creatures during the Late Middle English period. Literature of the Elizabethan era conflated elves with the fairies of Romance culture, rendering these terms somewhat interchangeable.
The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways. Fairies are described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human child; these small sizes could be magically assumed, rather than constant. Some smaller fairies could expand their figures to imitate humans. On Orkney, fairies were described as short in stature, dressed in dark grey, sometimes seen in armour. In some folklore, fairies have green eyes; some depictions of fairies show them with others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and artworks, are rare in folklore. Modern illustrations include dragonfly or butterfly wings. Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin.
In folklore of Ireland, the mythic aes sídhe, or'little folk', have come to a modern meaning somewhat inclusive of fairies. The Scandinavian elves served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve, a kind of demon, a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, fallen angels; the folkloristic or mythological elements combine Celtic and Greco-Roman elements. Folklorists have suggested that'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity; these disparate explanations are not incompatible, as'fairies' may be traced to multiple sources. King James, in his dissertation Daemonologie, stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits that prophesied to, consorted with, transported the individuals they served. A Christian tenet held that fairies were a class of "demot
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories feature entities such as dwarfs, elves, giants, goblins, mermaids, talking animals, unicorns, or witches, magic or enchantments. In most cultures, there is no clear line separating myth from fairy tale. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicit moral tales, including beast fables; the term is used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries relates to children's literature. In less technical contexts, the term is used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" or "fairy-tale romance". Colloquially, the term "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. Legends are perceived as real. However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places and events. Fairy tales occur both in literary form.
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,500 years ago. Fairy tales, works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways; the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales; some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale" to refer to the genre over fairy tale, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvellous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses." The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls. Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute; the term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's Conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697. Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or mythical beings should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. To select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folklore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales.
His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself to tales that do not involve a quest, furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine:, a fairytale... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale when the animal is a mask on a human face, as in fables. In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, b
Christopher Allen Lloyd is an American actor, voice actor, comedian. Lloyd came to public attention in Northeastern theater productions during the 1960s and early 1970s, earning an Obie Award and a Drama Desk Award for his work, he made his screen debut in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, gained widespread recognition as Jim Ignatowski in the comedy series Taxi, for which he won two Emmy Awards. Lloyd starred as Emmett "Doc" Brown in the Back to the Future trilogy, Judge Doom in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Uncle Fester in The Addams Family and its sequel Addams Family Values. Lloyd earned a third Emmy for his 1992 guest appearance in Road to Avonlea, won an Independent Spirit Award for his performance in Twenty Bucks, he has done extensive voice work, including Merlock in DuckTales the Movie, Grigori Rasputin in Anastasia, the Woodsman in the Cartoon Network miniseries Over the Garden Wall, the Hacker in PBS Kids series Cyberchase, which earned him two further Emmy nominations. He has been nominated for two Saturn Awards and a BIFA Award.
Lloyd was born on October 22, 1938, in Stamford, the son of Samuel R. Lloyd, Jr, a lawyer, his wife Ruth, a singer and sister of San Francisco mayor Roger Lapham, he is the youngest of four girls and three boys, one of whom, Samuel Lloyd, was an actor in the 1950s and 1960s. Lloyd's maternal grandfather, Lewis Henry Lapham, was one of the founders of the Texaco oil company, Lloyd is a descendant of Mayflower passengers, including John Howland. Lloyd was raised in Connecticut. Lloyd began his career apprenticing at summer theaters in Mount Kisco, New York, Hyannis, Massachusetts, he took acting classes in New York City at age 19—some at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre with Sanford Meisner—and he recalled making his New York theater debut in a 1961 production of Fernando Arrabal's play And They Put Handcuffs on the Flowers, saying, "I was a replacement and it was my first sort of job in New York." He made his Broadway debut in the short-lived Red and Maddox, went on to Off-Broadway roles in A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Harlot and the Hunted, The Seagull, Total Eclipse, Macbeth, In the Boom Boom Room, Professional Resident Company, What Every Woman Knows, The Father, King Lear.
Power Failure, and, in mid-1972, appeared in a Jean Cocteau double bill and The Human Voice, at the Jean Cocteau Theater at 43 Bond Street. Lloyd returned to Broadway for the musical Happy End, he performed in Andrzej Wajda's adaptation of Dostoyevsky's The Possessed at Yale Repertory Theater, in Jay Broad's premiere of White Pelican at the P. A. F. Playhouse in Huntington Station, New York, on Long Island. In 1977, he said of his training at the Neighborhood Playhouse under Meisner, "My work up to had been uneven. I would be good one night, dull the next. Meisner made me aware of, but I guess nobody can teach you the knack, or whatever it is, that helps you come to life on stage."His first movie role was as a psychiatric patient in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. He is best known for his roles as "Reverend" Jim Ignatowski, the ex-hippie cabbie on the sitcom Taxi, for which he won two Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series. In 1985, he appeared in the pilot episode of Street Hawk.
In 1986, he played the reviled Professor B. O. Beanes on the television series Amazing Stories. Other roles include Klingon Commander Kruge in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, Professor Plum in Clue, Professor Dimple in an episode of Road to Avonlea. Lloyd portrayed the star character in the adventure game Toonstruck, released in November 1996. In 1999, he was reunited onscreen with Michael J. Fox in an episode of Spin City entitled "Back to the Future IV — Judgment Day", in which Lloyd plays Owen Kingston, the former mentor of Fox's character, Mike Flaherty's who stopped by City Hall to see him, only to proclaim himself God; that same year, Lloyd starred in the movie remake of the 1960s series My Favorite Martian. He starred on the television series Deadly Games in the mid-1990s and was a regular on the sitcom Stacked in the mid-2000s. In 2003, he guest-starred in three of the 13 produced episodes of Tremors: The Series as the character Cletus Poffenburger. In November 2007, Lloyd was reunited onscreen with his former Taxi co-star Judd Hirsch in the season-four episode "Graphic" of the television series Numb3rs.
He played Ebenezer Scrooge in a 2008 production of A Christmas Carol at the Kodak Theatre with John Goodman and Jane Leeves. In 2009, he appeared in a comedic trailer for a faux horror film entitled Gobstopper, in which he played Willy Wonka as a horror-movie-style villain. In October 2009, he did a two-man show with comic performer Joe Gallois in several Midwest cities. In the summer of 2010, he starred as Willy Loman in a Weston Playhouse production of Death of a Salesman; that September, he reprised his role as Doctor Emmett Brown in Back to the Future: The Game, an episodic adventure game series developed by Telltale Games. On January 21, 2011, he appeared in "The Firefly" episode of the J. J. Abrams telev
Franklin Wendell Welker is an American voice actor best known for his role as Fred Jones from the Scooby-Doo franchise since its inception in 1969 and as the voice of Scooby-Doo since 2002. He is known as the voice of Megatron in the Transformers franchise and as the voice and vocal effects of Nibbler on Futurama. In 2016, Welker was honored with an Emmy Award for his lifetime achievement. Welker was born in Denver, Colorado, on March 12, 1946, he moved to California and attended Santa Monica College in Santa Monica, where he majored in theatrical arts. In 1966, he received honors for his performance as the Cowardly Lion in the college's theater production of The Wizard of Oz. During his transition between college and his voice-acting career, his first voice-over role was in a commercial for Friskies dog food; the producer's girlfriend informed him of auditioning for Hanna-Barbera during the casting of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, where he auditioned for the title character but instead won the role of Fred Jones.
Welker's first voice role came as Fred Jones in the Scooby-Doo franchise. Welker has voiced Fred in every series and incarnation of the Scooby-Doo animated franchise and has provided the voice of Scooby-Doo since 2002; as of 2019, Welker is the only remaining original voice actor still involved in the series. His next major character voice was for Marvin White on the 1973 series Super Friends; that same year, he played Pudge and Gabby on DePatie-Freleng Enterprises' animated series Bailey's Comets. Welker continued to provide voices for many characters for Hanna-Barbera for several years, which include Jabberjaw, Dog Wonder, the Shmoo in The New Fred and Barney Show and its spin-off, The Flintstones Comedy Show. Frank Welker described the voice he used for the Shmoo as "a bubble voice". In 1978, he played the title character on Fangface and in its spin-off and Fangpuss, voiced Heckle and Jeckle and Quackula on The New Adventures of Mighty Mouse and Heckle & Jeckle, Tom Cat, Jerry Mouse, Tyke, Slick Wolf and Barney Bear on The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Welker became a busy actor, providing the voice for many popular cartoon characters in multiple series, including Brain, Doctor Claw, M. A. D. Cat on Inspector Gadget. I. Joe heroes and villains, he voiced various characters on The Simpsons, such as Santa's Little Helper, Snowball II, various other animals from 1991 to his departure from the show in 2002. Welker provided both the speaking animal sounds for Nibbler on Matt Groening's Futurama, he provided the voices for Mr. Plotz, Ralph the Guard and other characters on Animaniacs, Gogo Dodo, Furball and others on Tiny Toon Adventures, Pepé Le Pew on The Sylvester & Tweety Mysteries, McWolf the main antagonist to Droopy and his nephew Dripple on Tom and Jerry Kids Show and Droopy, Master Detective. Welker has created the vocal effects for many animals and creatures in films, including Abu the monkey, Rajah the tiger, the Cave of Wonders in Aladdin, its two sequels, the television series, Arnold the Pig in the television film Return to Green Acres, the Martians in Tim Burton's Mars Attacks!, the penguins in Mr. Popper's Penguins.
He performed Spock's screams in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock and voiced The Thing in The Golden Child, Jinx the robot in SpaceCamp, Totoro in the 2005 English version of Studio Ghibli's film My Neighbor Totoro, Alien Sil in Species, Malebolgia in Spawn, Gargamel's cat Azrael in Sony Pictures Animation's live action/animated film versions of The Smurfs. In 2006, he began voicing George in the popular children's series Curious George, he voiced George in the animated film of the same name that same year. In 2007, Welker became the new voice of Garfield, succeeding the original actor Lorenzo Music, who died in 2001. Welker voiced Garfield in Garfield Gets Real, Garfield's Fun Fest, Garfield's Pet Force, on the series The Garfield Show, which ran from 2008 to 2016. In 2011, he provided the voice of Batman in a Scooby-Doo crossover segment of the Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode, "Bat-Mite Presents: Batman's Strangest Cases!". In the same episode, he voiced Batboy, the classic Mad Magazine Batman spoof created by Wally Wood.
Welker has provided voices for many video game characters, most notably Disney's Oswald the Lucky Rabbit and The Shadow Blot in Epic Mickey and its sequel Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two, as well as Zurvan called the Ancient One, on StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm. He provided the voice of the mad mage Xzar for the Baldur's Gate video game series, reprised his role from Avengers Assemble as Odin for Lego Marvel's Avengers. Welker's first on-camera film role was as a college kid from Rutgers University who
Moby-Dick. The book is sailor Ishmael's narrative of the obsessive quest of Ahab, captain of the whaling ship Pequod, for revenge on Moby Dick, the white whale that on the ship's previous voyage bit off Ahab's leg at the knee. A contribution to the literature of the American Renaissance, the work's genre classifications range from late Romantic to early Symbolist. Moby-Dick was published to mixed reviews, was a commercial failure, was out of print at the time of the author's death in 1891, its reputation as a "Great American Novel" was established only in the 20th century, after the centennial of its author's birth. William Faulkner confessed he wished he had written the book himself, D. H. Lawrence called it "one of the strangest and most wonderful books in the world" and "the greatest book of the sea written", its opening sentence, is among world literature's most famous. Melville began writing Moby-Dick in February 1850, would take 18 months to write the book, a full year more than he had first anticipated.
Writing was interrupted by his making the acquaintance of Nathaniel Hawthorne in August 1850, by the creation of the "Mosses from an Old Manse" essay as a first result of that friendship. The book is dedicated to Hawthorne, "in token of my admiration for his genius"; the basis for the work is Melville's 1841 whaling voyage aboard the Acushnet. The novel draws on whaling literature, on literary inspirations such as Shakespeare and the Bible; the white whale is modeled on the notoriously hard-to-catch albino whale Mocha Dick, the book's ending is based on the sinking of the whaleship Essex in 1820. The detailed and realistic descriptions of whale hunting and of extracting whale oil, as well as life aboard ship among a culturally diverse crew, are mixed with exploration of class and social status and evil, the existence of God. In addition to narrative prose, Melville uses styles and literary devices ranging from songs and catalogs to Shakespearean stage directions and asides. In October 1851, the chapter "The Town Ho's Story" was published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine.
The same month, the whole book was first published as The Whale in London, under its definitive title in a single-volume edition in New York in November. There are hundreds of differences between the two editions, most slight but some important and illuminating; the London publisher, Richard Bentley, censored or changed sensitive passages. The whale, appears in the text of both editions as "Moby Dick", without the hyphen. One factor that led British reviewers to scorn the book was that it seemed to be told by a narrator who perished with the ship: the British edition lacked the Epilogue, which recounts Ishmael's survival. About 3,200 copies were sold during the author's life. Ishmael travels in December from Manhattan Island to New Bedford, Massachusetts with plans to sign up for a whaling voyage; the inn where he arrives is overcrowded, so he must share a bed with the tattooed cannibal Polynesian Queequeg, a harpooneer whose father was king of the fictional island of Rokovoko. The next morning and Queequeg attend Father Mapple's sermon on Jonah head for Nantucket.
Ishmael signs up with the Quaker ship-owners Peleg for a voyage on their whaler Pequod. Peleg describes Captain Ahab: "He's a grand, god-like man" who "has his humanities", they hire Queequeg the following morning. A man named Elijah prophesies a dire fate should Queequeg join Ahab. While provisions are loaded, shadowy figures board the ship. On a cold Christmas Day, the Pequod leaves the harbor. Ishmael discusses cetology, describes the crew members; the chief mate is 30-year-old Starbuck, a Nantucket Quaker with a realist mentality, whose harpooneer is Queequeg. When Ahab appears on the quarterdeck, he announces he is out for revenge on the white whale which took one leg from the knee down and left him with a prosthesis fashioned from a whale's jawbone. Ahab will give the first man to sight Moby Dick a gold coin, which he nails to the mast. Starbuck objects that he has not come for vengeance but for profit. Ahab's purpose exercises a mysterious spell on Ishmael: "Ahab's quenchless feud seemed mine".
Instead of rounding Cape Horn, Ahab heads for the equatorial Pacific Ocean via southern Africa. One afternoon, as Ishmael and Queequeg are weaving a mat — "its warp seemed necessity, his hand free will, Queequeg's sword chance" — Tashtego sights a sperm whale. Five unknown men appear on deck and are revealed to be a special crew selected by Ahab and explain the shadowy figures seen boarding the ship, their leader, Fedallah, a Parsee, is Ahab's harpooneer. The pursuit is unsuccessful. Southeast of the Cape of Good Hope, the Pequod makes the first of nine sea-encounters, or "gams", with other ships: Ahab hails the Goney to ask whether they have seen the White Whale, but the trumpet through which her captain tries to speak falls into the sea before he can answer. Ishmael explains that because of Ahab's absorption with Moby Dick, he sails on without the customary "gam", which defines as a "social meeting of two Whale-ships", in which the two captains remain on one ship and the chief mates on the other.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
Sir Patrick Stewart is an English actor whose work has included roles on stage and film in a career spanning six decades. He has been nominated for Olivier, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild, Saturn Awards throughout his career. Beginning his career with a long run with the Royal Shakespeare Company, Stewart received the 1979 Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for his performance in Antony and Cleopatra in the West End. Stewart's first major screen roles were in BBC-broadcast television productions during the mid-late 1970s, including Hedda, the I, Claudius miniseries. From the 1980s onward, Stewart began working in American television and film, with prominent leading roles such as Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: The Next Generation and its successor films, as Professor Charles Xavier in the X-Men series of superhero films, the lead of the Starz TV series Blunt Talk, voice roles such as CIA Deputy Director Avery Bullock in American Dad! and the narrator in Ted.
Having remained with the Royal Shakespeare Company, in 2008 Stewart played King Claudius in Hamlet in the West End and won a second Olivier Award. In 1993, TV Guide named Stewart the Best Dramatic Television Actor of the 1980s, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on 16 December 1996. In 2010, Stewart was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to drama. Patrick Stewart was born on 13 July 1940 in Mirfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, to Gladys, a weaver and textile worker, Alfred Stewart, a regimental sergeant major in the British Army, he has two older brothers and Trevor. His parents did not give him a middle name, but he used the middle name "Hewes" professionally for a while in the 1980s. Stewart grew up in a poor household with domestic violence from his father, an experience which influenced his political and ideological beliefs, he spent much of his childhood in Jarrow. Stewart's father served with the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry and was regimental sergeant major of the 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment during the Second World War, having worked as a general labourer and as a postman.
As a result of his wartime experience during the Dunkirk evacuation, his father suffered from what was known as combat fatigue. In a 2008 interview, Stewart said, "My father was a potent individual, a powerful man, who got what he wanted, it was said. It was many years before I realised how my father inserted himself into my work. I've grown a moustache for Macbeth. My father didn't have one, but when I looked in the mirror just before I went on stage I saw my father's face staring straight back at me."Stewart attended Crowlees Church of England Junior and Infants School. He attributes his acting career to his English teacher, Cecil Dormand, who "put a copy of Shakespeare in my hand said,'Now get up on your feet and perform." In 1951, aged 11, having failed the eleven-plus examination, he entered Mirfield Secondary Modern School, where he continued to study drama. Around the same time he met the actor Brian Blessed at a Mytholmroyd drama course, the two have been friends since. At the age of 15, Stewart increased his participation in local theatre.
He gained a job as a newspaper reporter and obituary writer at the Mirfield & District Reporter, but after a year his employer gave him an ultimatum to choose acting or journalism, he left the job. His brother tells the story that Stewart had been attending rehearsals during work time and inventing the stories he reported. Stewart trained as a boxer. Stewart reported. Both Stewart and his friend Blessed received grants to attend the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School. Following a period with Manchester's Library Theatre, he became a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1966, remaining with them until 1982, he was an associate artist of the company in 1968. He appeared with actors such as Ian Richardson. In January 1967, he made his debut TV appearance on Coronation Street as a fire officer. In 1969, he had a brief TV cameo role as Horatio, opposite Ian Richardson's Hamlet, in a performance of the gravedigger scene as part of episode six of Sir Kenneth Clark's Civilisation television series, he made his Broadway debut as Snout in Peter Brook's legendary production of A Midsummer Night's Dream moved to the Royal National Theatre in the early 1980s.
Over the years, Stewart took roles in many major television series without becoming a household name. He appeared as Vladimir Lenin in Fall of Eagles, he took the romantic male lead in the 1975 BBC adaptation of Elizabeth Gaskell's North and South. He took the lead, playing psychiatric consultant Dr Edward Roebuck in BBC's Maybury in 1981. Stewart continued to play minor roles in films, such as King Leondegrance in John Boorman's Excalibur, the character Gurney Halleck in David Lynch's film version of Dune and Dr. Armstrong in Tobe Hooper's Lifeforce. Stewart preferred classical theatre to other genres, asking Doctor Who actress Lalla Ward why she would work in science fiction or on television. In 1987, he nonetheless agreed to work in Hollywood on a revival of an old science-fiction television show, after Robert H. Justman saw him while attending a literary reading at UCLA. Stewart knew nothing about the original show, Star Trek, or its iconic status in Amer