In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins". It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death, in the state or process of purification called Purgatory; the Catechism of the Catholic Church describes an indulgence as "a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has been forgiven, which the faithful Christian, duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption and applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and all of the saints". The recipient of an indulgence must perform an action to receive it; this is most the saying of a specified prayer, but may include the visiting of a particular place, or the performance of specific good works. Indulgences were introduced to allow for the remission of the severe penances of the early Church and granted at the intercession of Christians awaiting martyrdom or at least imprisoned for the faith.
They draw on the treasury of merit accumulated by Christ's superabundantly meritorious sacrifice on the cross and the virtues and penances of the saints. They are granted for specific good works and prayers in proportion to the devotion with which those good works are performed or prayers recited. By the late Middle Ages, the abuse of indulgences through commercialization, had become a serious problem which the Church recognized but was unable to restrain effectively. Indulgences were, from the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, a target of attacks by Martin Luther and all other Protestant theologians; the Catholic Counter-Reformation curbed the excesses, but indulgences continue to play a role in modern Catholic religious life. Reforms in the 20th century abolished the quantification of indulgences, expressed in terms of days or years; these days or years were meant to represent the equivalent of time spent in penance, although it was taken to mean time spent in Purgatory. The reforms greatly reduced the number of indulgences granted for visiting particular churches and other locations.
"When a person sins, he acquires certain liabilities: the liability of guilt and the liability of punishment." A mortal sin is equivalent to refusing friendship with God and communion with the only source of eternal life. The loss of eternal life with God, the eternal death of hell, the effect of this rejection, is called the "eternal punishment" of sin; the Sacrament of Penance removes the guilt and the liability of eternal punishment related to mortal sin. "Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be white as snow. An example of this can be seen in 2 Samuel 12 when after David repents of his sin, the prophet Nathan tells him that he is forgiven but, "Thus says the Lord God of Israel:... Now, the sword shall never depart from your house, because you have despised me and have taken the wife of Uriah to be your wife."In addition to this eternal punishment due to mortal sin, every sin, including venial sin, is a turning away from God through what the Catechism of the Catholic Church calls an unhealthy attachment to creatures, an attachment that must be purified either here on earth, or after death in the state called purgatory.
"The process of sanctification and interior renewal requires not only forgiveness from the guilt of sin, but purification from the harmful effects or wounds of sin." This purification process gives rise to "temporal punishment", not involving a total rejection of God, it is not eternal and can be expiated. "While patiently bearing sufferings and trials of all kinds and, when the day comes, serenely facing death, the Christian must strive to accept this temporal punishment of sin as a grace. He should strive by works of mercy and charity, as well as by prayer and the various practices of penance, to put off the'old man' and to put on the'new man."The temporal punishment that follows sin is thus undergone either during life on earth or in purgatory. In this life, as well as by patient acceptance of sufferings and trials, the necessary cleansing from attachment to creatures may, at least in part, be achieved by turning to God in prayer and penance and by works of mercy and charity. Indulgences are a help towards achieving this purification.
An indulgence does not forgive the guilt of sin, nor does it provide release from the eternal punishment associated with unforgiven mortal sins. The Catholic Church teaches that indulgences relieve only the temporal punishment resulting from the effect of sin, that a person is still required to have his grave sins absolved, ordinarily through the sacrament of Confession, to receive salvation. An indulgence is not a permit to commit sin, a pardon of future sin, nor a guarantee of salvation for oneself or for another. Ordinarily, forgiveness of mortal sins is obtained through Confession. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The'treasury of the Church' is the infinite value, which can never be exhausted, which Christ's merits have before God, they were offered so that the whole of mankind could be set free from sin
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400. In 1386, Chaucer became Controller of Customs and Justice of Peace and, in 1389, Clerk of the King's work, it was during these years that Chaucer began working on The Canterbury Tales. The tales are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together from London to Canterbury to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral; the prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. After a long list of works written earlier in his career, including Troilus and Criseyde, House of Fame, Parliament of Fowls, The Canterbury Tales is near-unanimously seen as Chaucer's magnum opus, he uses the tales and descriptions of its characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time, of the Church. Chaucer's use of such a wide range of classes and types of people was without precedent in English.
Although the characters are fictional, they still offer a variety of insights into customs and practices of the time. Such insight leads to a variety of discussions and disagreements among people in the 14th century. For example, although various social classes are represented in these stories and all of the pilgrims are on a spiritual quest, it is apparent that they are more concerned with worldly things than spiritual. Structurally, the collection resembles Giovanni Boccaccio's The Decameron, which Chaucer may have read during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372, it has been suggested that the greatest contribution of The Canterbury Tales to English literature was the popularisation of the English vernacular in mainstream literature, as opposed to French, Italian or Latin. English had, been used as a literary language centuries before Chaucer's time, several of Chaucer's contemporaries—John Gower, William Langland, the Pearl Poet, Julian of Norwich—also wrote major literary works in English.
It is unclear to. While Chaucer states the addressees of many of his poems, the intended audience of The Canterbury Tales is more difficult to determine. Chaucer was a courtier, leading some to believe that he was a court poet who wrote for nobility; the Canterbury Tales is thought to have been incomplete at the end of Chaucer's life. In the General Prologue, some 30 pilgrims are introduced. According to the Prologue, Chaucer's intention was to write four stories from the perspective of each pilgrim, two each on the way to and from their ultimate destination, St. Thomas Becket's shrine. Although incomplete, The Canterbury Tales is revered as one of the most important works in English literature, it is open to a wide range of interpretations. The question of whether The Canterbury Tales is a finished work has not been answered to date. There are 84 manuscripts and four incunabula editions of the work, dating from the late medieval and early Renaissance periods, more than for any other vernacular literary text with the exception of The Prick of Conscience.
This is taken as evidence of the Tales' popularity during the century after Chaucer's death. Fifty-five of these manuscripts are thought to have been complete, while 28 are so fragmentary that it is difficult to ascertain whether they were copied individually or as part of a set; the Tales vary in both major ways from manuscript to manuscript. Determining the text of the work is complicated by the question of the narrator's voice which Chaucer made part of his literary structure; the oldest surviving manuscripts of the Tales are not Chaucer's originals. The oldest is MS Peniarth 392 D, written by a scribe shortly after Chaucer's death; the most beautiful, on the other hand, is the Ellesmere Manuscript, a manuscript handwritten by one person with illustrations by several illustrators. The first version of The Canterbury Tales to be published in print was William Caxton's 1476 edition. Only 10 copies of this edition are known to exist, including one held by the British Library and one held by the Folger Shakespeare Library.
In 2004, Linne Mooney claimed that she was able to identify the scrivener who worked for Chaucer as an Adam Pinkhurst. Mooney a professor at the University of Maine and a visiting fellow at Corpus Christi College, said she could match Pinkhurst's signature, on an oath he signed, to his handwriting on a copy of The Canterbury Tales that might have been transcribed from Chaucer's working copy. Recent scholarship has cast severe doubt upon that identification. In the absence of consensus as to whether or not a complete version of the Tales exists, there is no general agreement regarding the order in which Chaucer intended the stories to be placed. Textual and manuscript clues have been adduced to support the two most popular modern methods of ordering the tales; some scholarly editions divide the Tales into ten "Fragments". The tales that make up a Fragment are related and contain internal indications of their order of presentation with one character speaking to and stepping aside for another character.
However, between Fragments, the connection is
Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis; the name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the father of Thomism, his influence on Western thought is considerable, much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity, his best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth, the Summa contra Gentiles, the Summa Theologiae. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.
The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines. Thomas Aquinas is considered philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This Order... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools." The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Thomas to be "one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world". Thomas was most born in the castle of Roccasecca, Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily, c. 1225, According to some authors, he was born in the castle of Landulf of Aquino.
Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles. Thomas's mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers, the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy. At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale established by Frederick in Naples, it was here that Thomas was introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy. It was during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.
There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia. At the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family. In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Thomas's choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, from Rome, to Paris. However, while on his journey to Rome, per Theodora's instructions, his brothers seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano. Thomas was held prisoner for one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas's release, which had the effect of extending Thomas's detention. Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas.
At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend, Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. By 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Thomas was sent first to Naples and to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order. In 1245 Thomas was sent to study at the Faculty of the Arts at the University of Paris, where he most met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus the holder of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris; when Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248, Thomas followed him, declining Pope Innocent
Gluttony means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items as status symbols. In Christianity, it is considered a sin if the excessive desire for food causes it to be withheld from the needy; some Christian denominations consider gluttony one of the seven deadly sins. In Deut 21:20 and Proverbs 23:21, it is זלל; the Gesenius Entry has indications of "squandering" and "profligacy". In Matthew 11:19 and Luke 7:34, it is φαγος, The LSJ Entry is tiny, only refers to one external source, Zenobius Paroemiographus 1.73. The word could mean "an eater", since φαγω means "eat". According to the list of 613 commandments that Jews must keep according to the Rambam, gluttony or excessive eating or drinking is prohibited, it is listed as #169: Church leaders from the ascetic Middle Ages took a more expansive view of gluttony: Pope Gregory I, a doctor of the Church, described the following ways by which one can commit sin of gluttony, corresponding biblical examples for each of them:1.
Eating before the time of meals in order to satisfy the palate. Biblical example: Jonathan eating a little honey, when his father Saul commanded no food to be taken before the evening. 2. Seeking delicacies and better quality of food to gratify the "vile sense of taste." Biblical example: When Israelites escaping from Egypt complained, "Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish. Seeking to stimulate the palate with overly or elaborately prepared food. Biblical example: Two sons of Eli the high priest made the sacrificial meat to be cooked in one manner rather than another, they were met with death.4. Exceeding the necessary quantity of food. Biblical example: One of the sins of Sodom was "fullness of bread."5. Taking food with too much eagerness when eating the proper amount, if the food is not luxurious. Biblical example: Esau selling his birthright for ordinary food of bread and pottage of lentils, his punishment was that of the "profane person... who, for a morsel of meat sold his birthright,": we learn that "he found no place for repentance, though he sought it with tears."
The fifth way is worse than all others, said St. Gregory, because it shows attachment to pleasure most clearly. To recapitulate, St Gregory the Great said that one may succumb to the sin of gluttony by: 1. Time. Quality. Stimulants. Quantity. Eagerness, he asserts that the irregular desire is the sin, not the food: "For it is not the food, but the desire, in fault". In his Summa Theologica, St. Thomas Aquinas reiterated the list of five ways to commit gluttony: Laute - eating food, too luxurious, exotic, or costly Studiose - eating food, excessive in quality Nimis - eating food, excessive in quantity Praepropere - eating hastily Ardenter - eating greedily St. Aquinas concludes that "gluttony denotes inordinate concupiscence in eating", he says that abstinence from food and drink overcome the sin of gluttony, the act of abstinence is fasting. In general, fasting is useful to restrain concupiscence of the flesh. St. Alphonsus Liguori wrote the following when explaining gluttony: "Pope Innocent XI has condemned the proposition which asserts that it is not a sin to eat or to drink from the sole motive of satisfying the palate.
However, it is not a fault to feel pleasure in eating: for it is speaking, impossible to eat without experiencing the delight which food produces. But it is a defect to eat, like beasts, through the sole motive of sensual gratification, without any reasonable object. Hence, the most delicious meats may be eaten without sin, if the motive be good and worthy of a rational creature. An interpretation of the meaning of a part of a Qur'anic verse is as follows: “and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance He likes not Al‑Musrifoon ” The Sunnah encourages moderation in eating, criticizes extravagance; the Prophet said: The son of Adam does not fill any vessel worse than his stomach. It is sufficient for the son of Adam to keep him going. If he must do that let him fill one third with food, one third with drink and one third with air.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi. Deuteronomy 21:20 - "And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice. Proverbs 23:20-21 - "Be not among winebibbers.
Proverbs 23:2 - "When thou sittest to eat with a ruler, consider diligently what is before thee. And put a knife to thy throat, if thou be a man given to appetite." Proverbs 25:16 - "Hast thou found honey? Eat so mu
The Wizarding World is a fantasy media franchise and shared fictional universe centred on a series of films, based on the Harry Potter novels by British author J. K. Rowling; the films have been in production since 2000, in that time ten films have been produced—eight are adaptations of the Harry Potter novels and two are part of the Fantastic Beasts series. The films are distributed by Warner Bros.. Pictures, three more are in various stages of production; the series has collectively grossed over $9.1 billion at the global box office, making it the third-highest-grossing film franchise of all-time. David Heyman and his company Heyday Films have produced every film in the Wizarding World. Chris Columbus and Mark Radcliffe served as producers on Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, David Barron began producing the films with the 2007 film Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix and ending with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011, Rowling produced the final two films in the Harry Potter series.
Heyman, Steve Kloves and Lionel Wigram have produced both films in the Fantastic Beasts series. The films are written and directed by several individuals and feature large ensemble, casts. Many of the actors, including Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, Emma Watson and Eddie Redmayne, star in numerous films. Soundtrack albums have been released for each of the films; the franchise includes a stage production, a digital publication, a video game label and The Wizarding World of Harry Potter–themed areas at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world. The first film in the Wizarding World was Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, followed by seven Harry Potter sequels, beginning with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets in 2002, ending with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011, nearly ten years after the first film's release. Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them is the first film in the spin-off prequel Fantastic Beasts series. A sequel, titled Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald, has been released in November 2018, while three additional instalments have been announced, including one scheduled for 2020.
Harry Potter, a ordinary eleven-year-old boy, is a wizard and survivor of Lord Voldemort's attempted rise to power. Harry is rescued by Rubeus Hagrid from his unkind Muggle relatives and takes his place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, where he and his friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger become entangled in the mystery of the Philosopher's Stone, being kept within the school. In October 1998, Warner Bros. purchased the film rights to the first four novels of the Harry Potter fantasy series by J. K. Rowling for a seven-figure sum, after a pitch from producer David Heyman. Warner Bros. took particular notice of Rowling's wishes and thoughts about the films when drafting her contract. One of her principal stipulations was that they be shot in Britain with an all-British cast, adhered to. On 8 August 2000, the unknown Daniel Radcliffe and newcomers Rupert Grint and Emma Watson were selected to play Harry Potter, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. Chris Columbus was hired to direct the film adaptation of Philosopher's Stone, with Steve Kloves selected to write the screenplay.
Filming began on 29 September 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and concluded on 23 March 2001, with final work being done in July. Principal photography took place on 2 October 2000 at North Yorkshire's Goathland railway station. Warner Bros. had planned to release the film over 4 July 2001 weekend, making for such a short production window that several proposed directors removed themselves from consideration. Because of time constraints, the date was put back, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was released in the United Kingdom and the United States on 16 November 2001. Harry and Hermione return to Hogwarts for their second year, but a mysterious chamber, hidden in the school, is opened leaving students and ghosts petrified by an unknown agent, they must solve the mystery of the chamber, discover its entrance to find and defeat the true culprit. Columbus and Kloves returned as director, screenwriter for the film adaptation of Chamber of Secrets. Just three days after the wide release of the first film, production began on 19 November 2001 in Surrey, with filming continuing on location on the Isle of Man and at several other locations in Great Britain.
Leavesden Film Studios in London made several scenes for Hogwarts. Principal photography concluded in the summer of 2002; the film spent until early October in post-production. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets premiered in the United Kingdom on 3 November 2002 before its wide release on 15 November, one year after the Philosopher's Stone. A mysterious convict, Sirius Black, escapes from Azkaban and sets his sights on Hogwarts, where Dementors are stationed to protect Harry and his peers. Harry learns his connection with the escaped prisoner. Professor Lupin teaches Harry an advanced spell to help him. Weasley twins Fred and George give Harry a magical map of Hogwarts, which Harry keeps for the rest of the series. Columbus, the director of the two previous films, decided not to return to helm the third instalment, but remained as a producer alongside Heyman. Warner Bros. drew up a three-name, short list for Columbus' replacement, which comprised Callie Khouri, Kenneth Branagh and the eventual director Alfonso Cuarón.
Cuarón was nervous about accepting the job having not read any of the books, or seen the films, but signed on a
Flax known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world; the textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, traditionally used for bed sheets and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant; the plant species is known only as a cultivated plant, appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne, called pale flax. Several other species in the genus Linum are similar in appearance to L. usitatissimum, cultivated flax, including some that have similar blue flowers, others with white, yellow, or red flowers. Some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, an annual plant. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, 3 mm broad; the flowers are 15 -- 25 mm in diameter, with five petals.
The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm in diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long. The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia, where spun and knotted wild flax fibers were found in Dzudzuana Cave and dated to the Upper Paleolithic, 30,000 years ago. Flax was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region. Evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed size by 9,000 years ago from Tell Ramad in Syria. Use of the crop spread, reaching as far as Switzerland and Germany by 5,000 years ago. In China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated at least 5,000 years ago. Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt, where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, mummies were entombed in linen. Egyptian priests wore only linen. Phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean and the Romans used it for their sails; as the Roman Empire declined, so did flax production, but Charlemagne revived the crop in the eighth century CE with laws designed to publicize the hygiene of linen textiles and the health of linseed oil.
Flanders became the major center of the linen industry in the European Middle Ages. In North America, flax was introduced by the colonists and it flourished there, but by the early 20th century, cheap cotton and rising farm wages had caused production of flax to become concentrated in northern Russia, which came to provide 90% of the world's output. Since flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, due to the easy availability of more durable fibres. Flax is grown for its seeds, which can be ground into a meal or turned into linseed oil, a product used as a nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen; the specific epithet, means "most useful". Flax fibers taken from the stem of the plant are two to three times as strong as cotton fibers. Additionally, flax fibers are smooth and straight. Europe and North America both depended on flax for plant-based cloth until the 19th century, when cotton overtook flax as the most common plant for making rag-based paper.
Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil, used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in products such as linoleum and printing inks. Linseed meal, the byproduct of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used to feed livestock, it is a protein-rich feed for ruminants and fish. Flaxseeds occur in two basic varieties/colors: brown or yellow. Most types of these basic varieties have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids; the exception is a type of yellow flax called solin, which has a different oil profile and is low in omega-3s. Flaxseeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, one of the oldest commercial oils, it is an edible oil sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing. Although brown flaxseed varieties may be consumed as as the yellow ones, have been for thousands of years, its better-known uses are in paints, for fiber, for cattle feed.
A 100-gram portion of ground flaxseed supplies about 534 calories, 41 g of fat, 28 g of fiber, 20 g of protein. Flaxseed sprouts are edible and have a spicy flavor profile. Excessive consumption of flaxseeds with inadequate amounts of water may cause bowel obstruction. In northern India, called tisi or alsi, is traditionally roasted and eaten with boiled rice, a little water, a little salt. In India, linseed oil is known as javas in Marathi, it is used in Savji curries, such as mutton curries. Whole flaxseeds are chemically stable, but ground flaxseed meal, because of oxidation, may go rancid when left exposed to air at room temperature in as little as one week. Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. Under conditions similar to those found in commercial bakeries, trained sensory panelists could not detect differences between bread made with freshly ground flaxseed and bread made with flaxseed, milled four months earlier and stored at room temperature.
This shows, if packed without exposure to air and light, milled flaxseed is stable against