The Picture of Dorian Gray is a Gothic and philosophical novel by Oscar Wilde, first published complete in the July 1890 issue of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. Fearing the story was indecent, the magazine's editor deleted five hundred words before publication without Wilde's knowledge. Despite that censorship, The Picture of Dorian Gray offended the moral sensibilities of British book reviewers, some of whom said that Oscar Wilde merited prosecution for violating the laws guarding public morality. In response, Wilde aggressively defended his novel and art in correspondence with the British press, although he made excisions of some of the most controversial material when revising and lengthening the story for book publication the following year; the longer and revised version of The Picture of Dorian Gray published in book form in 1891 featured an aphoristic preface—a defence of the artist's rights and of art for art's sake—based in part on his press defences of the novel the previous year.
The content and presentation of the preface made it famous in its own right, as a literary and artistic manifesto. In April 1891, the publishing firm of Ward and Company, who had distributed the shorter, more inflammatory, magazine version in England the previous year, published the revised version of The Picture of Dorian Gray; the Picture of Dorian Gray is the only novel written by Wilde. It exists in several versions: the 1890 magazine edition, with important material deleted before publication by the magazine's editor, J. M. Stoddart; as literature of the 19th century, The Picture of Dorian Gray "pivots on a gothic plot device" with strong themes interpreted from Faust. Dorian Gray is the subject of a full-length portrait in oil by Basil Hallward, an artist impressed and infatuated by Dorian's beauty. Through Basil, Dorian meets Lord Henry Wotton, he soon is enthralled by the aristocrat's hedonistic world view: that beauty and sensual fulfilment are the only things worth pursuing in life.
Newly understanding that his beauty will fade, Dorian expresses the desire to sell his soul, to ensure that the picture, rather than he, will age and fade. The wish is granted, Dorian pursues a libertine life of varied amoral experiences while staying young and beautiful; the Picture of Dorian Gray begins on a beautiful summer day in Victorian England, where Lord Henry Wotton, an opinionated man, is observing the sensitive artist Basil Hallward painting the portrait of Dorian Gray, a handsome young man, Basil's ultimate muse. While sitting for the painting, Dorian listens to Lord Henry espousing his hedonistic world view and begins to think that beauty is the only aspect of life worth pursuing, prompting Dorian to wish that his portrait would age instead of himself. Under Lord Henry's hedonistic influence, Dorian explores his sensuality, he discovers the actress Sibyl Vane, who performs Shakespeare plays in a dingy, working-class theatre. Dorian approaches and courts her, soon proposes marriage.
The enamoured Sibyl calls him "Prince Charming", swoons with the happiness of being loved, but her protective brother, warns that if "Prince Charming" harms her, he will murder him. Dorian invites Lord Henry to see Sibyl perform in Romeo and Juliet. Sibyl, too enamoured with Dorian to act, performs poorly, which makes both Basil and Lord Henry think Dorian has fallen in love with Sibyl because of her beauty instead of her acting talent. Embarrassed, Dorian rejects Sibyl. On returning home, Dorian notices. Conscience-stricken and lonely, Dorian decides to reconcile with Sibyl, but he is too late, as Lord Henry informs him that Sibyl has killed herself. Dorian understands that, where his life is headed and beauty shall suffice. Dorian locks the portrait up, over the following eighteen years, he experiments with every vice, influenced by a morally poisonous French novel that Lord Henry Wotton gave him. One night, before leaving for Paris, Basil goes to Dorian's house to ask him about rumors of his self-indulgent sensualism.
Dorian does not deny his debauchery, takes Basil to see the portrait. The portrait has become so hideous that Basil is only able to identify it as his by the signature he affixes to all his portraits. Basil is horrified, beseeches Dorian to pray for salvation. In anger, Dorian stabs him to death. Dorian calmly blackmails an old friend, the scientist Alan Campbell, into using his knowledge of chemistry to destroy the body of Basil Hallward. Alan kills himself. To escape the guilt of his crime, Dorian goes to an opium den, where James Vane is unknowingly present. James had been seeking vengeance upon Dorian since Sibyl killed herself, but had no leads to pursue: the only thing he knew about Dorian was the name Sibyl called him, "Prince Charming". In the opium den however he hears someone refer to Dorian as "Prince Charming", he accosts Dorian. Dorian deceives James into believing that he is too young to have known Sibyl, who killed herself 18 years earlier, as his face is still that of a young man.
James relents and releases Dorian, but is approached by a woman from the opium den who reproaches James for not killing Dorian. She confirms that the man was Do
Bobby Stanley Pons is an American electrochemist known for his work with Martin Fleischmann on cold fusion in the 1980s and 1990s. Pons was born in North Carolina, he attended Valdese High School Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where he studied chemistry. He began his PhD studies in chemistry at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, but left before completing his PhD, his thesis resulted in a paper, co-authored in 1967 with Harry B. Mark, his adviser; the New York Times wrote that it pioneered a way to measure the spectra of chemical reactions on the surface of an electrode. He decided to finish his PhD in England at the University of Southampton, where in 1975 he met Martin Fleischmann. Pons was a student in Professor Alan Bewick's group. On March 23, 1989, while Pons was the chairman of the chemistry department at the University of Utah, he and Fleischmann announced the experimental production of "N-Fusion", labeled by the press as cold fusion. After a short period of public acclaim, hundreds of scientists attempted to reproduce the effects but failed.
After the claims were found to be unreproducible, the scientific community determined the claims were incomplete and inaccurate. Pons moved to France in 1992, along with Fleischmann; the laboratory closed in 1998 after a £12 million research investment without conclusive results. He became a French citizen. William J. Broad. "Brilliance and Recklessness Seen in Fusion Collaboration". New York Times
A trading fund is an executive agency, government department or simply a part of a department, that enables the department to handle its own revenues and expenses separately from overall government finances and more like a business, as opposed to having to obtain funding from the government's legislature and feeding income back into its treasury. A Hong Kong governmental study of trading funds in the UK and Hong Kong describes their nature and purpose as follows: A trading fund is a financial and accounting framework established by law to enable a government department, or part of a department, to adopt certain accounting and management practices common in the private sector. Operates on a self-financing basis and does not need to seek funding from the legislature to finance its daily operations after its establishment... the intention an institutional change would provide the appropriate flexibility in resource management and nurture a new working culture to improve services in terms of both quality and cost-effectiveness.
Each country has its own specific laws and regulations controlling the establishment and use of trading funds. The significance of a UK trading fund is that it has standing authority under the 1973 Act to use its receipts to meet its expenses or outgoings; some trading funds have, as their main function, the collection and supply of information to both public and private sectors. In the UK, a trading fund can only be established with the agreement of HM Treasury. To establish a fund, more than 50% of the trading fund's revenue will consist of receipts for goods and services provided by the department, where the responsible minister and the Treasury are satisfied that the setting up of the trading fund will lead to "improved efficiency and effectiveness in management of operations". Trading funds in the UK were established through the Government Trading Funds Act 1973, modified by the Government Trading Act 1990, along with other modifications through finance legislation. In 1993, Hong Kong followed suit with its Trading Funds Ordinance of that year.
Establishment and operation of a Hong Kong trading fund is subject to decisions made by the Legislative Council on the recommendation of the Financial Secretary. Date of establishment as trading fund is shown: Companies House - 1 October 1991 Crown Commercial Service - 1 April 1991 Driver & Vehicle Agency - 1 April 2007 Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency - 1 April 2015 FCO Services - 1 April 2008 HM Land Registry - 1 April 1993 Intellectual Property Office - 1 October 1991 Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency - 1 April 2003 Meteorological Office - 1 April 1996 Ordnance Survey - 1 April 1999 Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre - 1 April 1997 Registers of Scotland - 1 April 1996 Royal Mint - 1 April 1975 United Kingdom Hydrographic Office - 1 April 1996 Defence Science and Technology Laboratory - 1 July 2001 Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency - 1 April 2004 Army Base Repair Organisation – 1 April 2002 Central Office of Information – 1 April 1991 Chessington Computer Centre – 1 April 1993 Crown Suppliers - 1 April 1976 Defence Aviation Repair Agency - 1 April 2001 Defence Evaluation and Research Agency - 1 April 1995 Defence Research Agency - 1 April 1993 Defence Support Group - 1 April 2008 Driver and Vehicle Testing Agency - 1 April 1996 Driving Standards Agency - 1 April 1997 Fire Service College - 1 April 1992 Forensic Science Service - 1 April 1999 HM Stationery Office - 1 April 1980 Medicines Control Agency - 1 April 1993 NHS Estates - 1 April 1999 Royal Ordnance Factories - 1 July 1974 Vehicle and Operator Services Agency - 1 April 2003 Vehicle Inspectorate - 1 April 1991 Companies Registry – 1 August 1993 Electrical and Mechanical Services - 1 August 1996 Hongkong Post - 1 August 1995 Land Registry - 1 August 1993 Office of the Telecommunications Authority - 1 June 1995 Sewage Services - 11 March 1994