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The Pirates of Penzance

The Pirates of Penzance. The opera's official premiere was at the Fifth Avenue Theatre in New York City on 31 December 1879, where the show was well received by both audiences and critics, its London debut was on 3 April 1880, at the Opera Comique, where it ran for 363 performances, having been playing for more than three months in New York. The story concerns Frederic, having completed his 21st year, is released from his apprenticeship to a band of tender-hearted pirates, he meets Mabel, the daughter of Major-General Stanley, the two young people fall in love. Frederic soon learns, that he was born on the 29th of February, so, technically, he has a birthday only once each leap year, his indenture specifies that he remain apprenticed to the pirates until his "twenty-first birthday", meaning that he must serve for another 63 years. Bound by his own sense of duty, Frederic's only solace is that Mabel agrees to wait for him faithfully. Pirates was the fifth Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration and introduced the much-parodied "Major-General's Song".

The opera was performed for over a century by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in Britain and by many other opera companies and repertory companies worldwide. Modernized productions include Joseph Papp's 1981 Broadway production, which ran for 787 performances, winning the Tony Award for Best Revival and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical, spawning many imitations and a 1983 film adaptation. Pirates remains popular today, taking its place along with The Mikado and H. M. S. Pinafore as one of the most played Gilbert and Sullivan operas; the Pirates of Penzance was the only Gilbert and Sullivan opera to have its official premiere in the United States. At the time, American law offered no copyright protection to foreigners. After the pair's previous opera, H. M. S. Pinafore, achieved success in London in 1878 150 American companies mounted unauthorised productions that took considerable liberties with the text and paid no royalties to the creators. Gilbert and Sullivan hoped to forestall further "copyright piracy" by mounting the first production of their next opera in America, before others could copy it, by delaying publication of the score and libretto.

They succeeded in keeping for themselves the direct profits of the first American production of The Pirates of Penzance by opening the production themselves on Broadway, prior to the London production, they operated profitable US touring companies of Pirates and Pinafore. However, Gilbert and their producer, Richard D'Oyly Carte, failed in their efforts, over the next decade, to control the American performance copyrights to Pirates and their other operas. Fiction and plays about pirates were ubiquitous in the 19th century. Walter Scott's The Pirate and James Fenimore Cooper's The Red Rover were key sources for the romanticised, dashing pirate image and the idea of repentant pirates. Both Gilbert and Sullivan had parodied these ideas early in their careers. Sullivan had written a comic opera called The Contrabandista, in 1867, about a hapless British tourist, captured by bandits and forced to become their chief. Gilbert had written several comic works that involved bandits. In Gilbert's 1876 opera Princess Toto, the title character is eager to be captured by a brigand chief.

Gilbert had translated Jacques Offenbach's operetta Les brigands, in 1871. As in Les brigands, The Pirates of Penzance absurdly treats stealing as a professional career path, with apprentices and tools of the trade such as the crowbar and life preserver. While Pinafore was running at the Opera Comique in London, Gilbert was eager to get started on his and Sullivan's next opera, he began working on the libretto in December 1878, he re-used several elements of his 1870 one-act piece, Our Island Home, which had introduced a pirate "chief", Captain Bang. Bang was mistakenly apprenticed to a pirate band as a child by his deaf nursemaid. Bang, like Frederic in The Pirates of Penzance, had never seen a woman before and felt a keen sense of duty, as an apprenticed pirate, until the passage of his twenty-first birthday freed him from his articles of indenture. Bernard Shaw believed that Gilbert drew on ideas in Les brigands for his new libretto, including the businesslike bandits and the bumbling police.

Gilbert and Sullivan inserted into Act II an idea they first considered for a one-act opera parody in 1876 about burglars meeting police, while their conflict escapes the notice of the oblivious father of a large family of girls. As in Pinafore, "there was a wordful self-descriptive set-piece for Stanley, introducing himself much as Sir Joseph Porter had done... a lugubrious comic number for the Sergeant of Police... a song of confession for Ruth, the successor Little Buttercup", romantic material for Frederic and Mabel, "ensemble and chorus music in turn pretty and atmospheric."Gilbert and Carte met by 24 April 1879 to make plans for a production of Pinafore and the new opera in America. Carte travelled to New York in the summer of 1879 and made arrangements with theatre manager John T. Ford to present, at the authorised productions, he returned to London. Meanwhile, once Pinafore became a hit in London, the author and producer had the financial resources to produce future shows themselves, they executed a plan to free themselves from their financial backers in the "Comedy Opera Company".

Carte formed a new partnership with Gilbert and Sullivan to divide profits among themselves after the expenses of each of their shows. In November 1879, Gilbe

Liskinsky District

Liskinsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-two in Voronezh Oblast, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the oblast; the area of the district is 2,033 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Liski. Population: 105,704; the population of Liski accounts for 52.9% of the district's total population. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г.. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №85-ОЗ от 2 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров муниципальных образований Лискинского и Подгоренского районов, образовании в их составе новых муниципальных образований», в ред.

Закона №209-ОЗ от 30 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об установлении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров муниципальных образований Лискинского и Подгоренского районов, образовании в их составе новых муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Коммуна", №189, 4 декабря 2004 г

National Congress of the Canaries

The National Congress of the Canaries is a separatist political party in the Canary Islands, Spain. CNC supports independence for the Canary Islands; the CNC was founded in 1986 by Antonio Cubillo, former general secretary of MPAIAC, after Cubillo returned from Algiers, where he lived. The CNC's symbol consists of Berber letter "Z", reflecting Antonio Cubillo's policy of "reverting to Berber roots." However, as the polls show, few Canarians support the history of violent actions of Antonio Cubillo's movement. The CNC achieved representation in a municipal council of the Canary Islands only once, in the 1987 elections, it won one seat. In 1991, the CNC made a coalition with FREPIC-AWAÑAK under the name "Coalición Canarias por la Independencia". However, the CNC obtained fewer votes than. Presently it does not take part in the electoral process of the Canary Islands and it shows few signs of political activity; the youth wing of the National Congress of the Canaries became the group, today known as Azarug.

In 1992 Azarug initiated its own course. In January 2009 the National Congress of the Canaries formed a new youth section under the name Juventudes del Congreso Nacional de Canarias. Canarian nationalism List of active separatist movements in Africa CNC website

Ruger LCR

The Ruger LCR is a compact revolver built by Ruger and announced in January 2009. LCR stands for'Lightweight Compact Revolver', it incorporates several novel features such as a polymer grip and trigger housing, monolithic receiver, constant force trigger. At 13.5 oz, the LCR is nearly 50% lighter than the stainless steel SP101 and only the barrel and fluted cylinder are made of stainless steel. The frame is aluminum alloy and synthetic glass-filled polymer finished in matte black with Synergistic Hard Coat; the LCR operates in double-action only as the hammer is concealed within the frame handle's fire control housing and cannot be cocked prior to firing. In order to create a lighter trigger pull, it features a friction reducing cam; the LCR was released chambered in.38 Special. In June 2010, Ruger released the LCR-357 chambered for.357 Magnum. With the rising popularity of the LCR, in December 2011 Ruger announced the new Ruger LCR 22, chambered in.22 LR with an eight round capacity. In Summer 2013, Ruger introduced a.22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire version of the LCR, with a six-round capacity.

In the autumn of 2014, Ruger introduced a five-shot 9mm version and in fall 2015 a six-shot.327 Federal Magnum version of the LCR. Ruger announced the LCRx variant in December 2013, which features an external hammer, allowing it to be fired in single or double action. All the other features of the LCR are present in the LCRx including the polymer grip, trigger housing, fluted stainless steel cylinder. A 1.87-inch barrel version of the LCRx in.357 Magnum and a 3-inch barrel version in.22 LR became available in April 2017. The 1.87″ barrel version became available as a five-shot 9mm and a six-shot.327 Magnum in fall 2017. Ruger LCR official page Review of the Ruger LCR from American Rifleman

Buccal fat pad

The buccal fat pad, is one of several encapsulated fat masses in the cheek. It is a deep fat pad located on either side of the face between the buccinator muscle and several more superficial muscles; the inferior portion of the buccal fat pad is contained within the buccal space. It should not be confused with the malar fat pad, directly below the skin of the cheek, it should not be confused with jowl fat pads. It is implicated in the formation of hollow cheeks and the nasolabial fold, but not in the formation of jowls; the buccal fat pad is composed of several parts, although how many parts seems to be a point of disagreement and no single consistent nomenclature of these parts has been observed. It was described as being divided into three lobes, the anterior and posterior, “according to the structure of the lobar envelopes, the formation of ligaments, the source of the nutritional vessels”. There are four extensions from the body of the buccal fat pad: the sublevator, the melolabial, the buccal, the pterygoid.

The nomenclature of these extensions derives from their proximal muscles. The anterior lobe of the buccal fat surrounds the parotid duct, which conveys saliva from the parotid gland to the mouth, it is a triangular mass with one vertex at the buccinators, one at the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, one at the orbicularis oris. The intermediate lobe lies between the posterior lobes over the maxilla; the intermediate lobe seems to lose a significant amount of volume between adulthood. The posterior lobe of the buccal fat pad runs from the infraorbital fissure and temporal muscle to the upper rim of the mandible and back to the mandibular ramus; some people describe the buccal fat pad’s primary function in relation to chewing and suckling in infants. This theory derives some support from the loss of volume to the intermediate lobe, which would be most directly involved in chewing and sucking, from infancy to adulthood. Another proposed function is as gliding pads that facilitate the action of the muscles of mastication.

The buccal fat pad may function as a cushion to protect sensitive facial muscles from injury due to muscle action or exterior force. The Buccal fat pad is used in facial recontouring. Several authors discuss the importance of the buccal fat pad in attaining good results from a facelift. Buccal flaps are used in reconstruction of the periorbital area after injury, they are used to repair congenital defects of the oral cavity or for repair of congenital cleft palate. Removal of the buccal fat pad is sometimes used to reduce cheek prominence, although this procedure may carry with it a significant risk of damage to the buccal branch of the facial nerve and the parotid ducts

International Copyright Act of 1891

The International Copyright Act of 1891 is the first U. S. congressional act that extended limited protection to foreign copyright holders from select nations. Formally known as the "International Copyright Act of 1891", but more referred to as the "Chace Act" after Sen. Jonathan Chace of Rhode Island; the International Copyright Act of 1891 was created because many people shunned the idea of literary piracy. It was the first U. S. congressional act that offered copyright protection in the United States to citizens of countries other than the United States. The act extended limited protection to foreign copyright holders from select nations, it was important for American creators since they were more to have international copyright protection in countries that were offered the same protection by the United States. The Act empowered the President to extend copyright to works of foreign nationals; the act was passed on March 1891, by the 51st Congress. The Act went into effect on July 1, 1891. On July 3, 1891, the first foreign work, a play called Saints and Sinners by British author Henry Arthur Jones, was registered under the act.

During the time when the United States was just beginning to develop a literary tradition of its own, this nation refused to protect foreign works. As a result of this, American works were unprotected abroad and domestic publishers had to compete with each other for cheap editions of foreign works. Prior to the International Copyright Act, the first national copyright law was passed in 1790 and provided a copyright protection for 14 years, but only for authors who were citizens or residents of the United States. In order to get copyright protection in the rest of the world American authors were required to gain residency in the country in which they desired copyright protection. For example, Mark Twain obtained residency in Canada to protect his publication of The Prince and the Pauper. To protect foreign literature in the United States, British authors would have an American citizen serve as a collaborator in the publishing process, have the book registered in Washington, D. C. under the collaborator's name.

It was not until the 1830s that the pressure to extend American copyright to foreign authors first developed. Both American and British authors and publishers joined forces and pushed for a bilateral treaty between the United States and England. Famous authors such as Charles Dickens came to the United States to show their support for international copyright, their biggest problem were American printers that were protected by a high tariff on imported works, who had no wish to pay royalties to English writers or publishers. The United States discussed international copyright with Great Britain over the years. Congress requested correspondence to this effect in 1842. There was a proposed treaty in 1853 under Millard Fillmore, consideration of its ratification continued into an extension provided during Franklin Pierce's presidency in 1854. Nonetheless, in the United States, only works published in the United States could be restricted with copyright. Authors including Mark Twain, Louisa May Alcott, Edward Eggleston, Bill Nye wrote letters in the mid-1880s to the Century requesting international copyright.

These letters to the journals had a strong effect on this issue, as did the American Copyright League, formed in 1883. The League was a great supporter of an International Copyright Act and, at the Madison Square Theater in 1885, the League sponsored readings by American authors in aid of the League's cause. In 1885, United States Senator Joseph Roswell Hawley introduced a bill aimed at extending copyright to foreign authors for consideration by Congress. A chief difference between the Hawley Bill and the eventual Chace Bill was Hawley's removal of publisher and book-sellers' interests in the copyright process, it was unsuccessful, though Mark Twain involved himself in the lobbying process and influenced President Grover Cleveland's thinking on the matter. Cleveland asked Congress for legislation to this effect in his State of the Union address that December. While the United States was refusing any protection for foreign literary works and more countries in Europe started adapting the principle of "national treatment".

This principle meant that each nation that signed the treaty was obligated to protect works produced by nationals of all other treaty members on the same terms that it protects its own nationals. In 1884, academics and diplomats met in Berne, Switzerland, to begin the work to form a multilateral copyright treaty; this was based on the principle of national treatment together with minimum standards so that a member country would be free to treat the copyrighted work of its own nationals however they chose to, but when it came to the works from other treaty members it would have to obey certain minimum standards. The treaty was signed in 1886 but the United States was not one of its founding members. American representatives had attended the Bern conference only as observers and it would take another 5 years until the United States took its first step to protect foreign works. Since the first national copyright law in 1790, the United States had required certain "statutory formalities" to acquire copyright protection.

These formalities served as a test of an author's intention to claim protection for her work. The International Copyright Act of 1891 now applied these formalities to foreign publishers as well, but added an extra requirement called the "Manufacturing Clause"; the Manufacturing Clause required that all copies of foreign literary works should be printed from type set in the United States if they were to have American protection. This was an obvious concession to American printers, since they might otherwi