Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents. Influenced by Democritus and the Cynics, he turned against the Platonism of his day and established his own school, known as "the Garden", in Athens, he and his followers were known for eating simple meals and discussing a wide range of philosophical subjects, he allowed women to join the school as a matter of policy. An prolific writer, he is said to have written over 300 works on various subjects, but the vast majority of these writings have been lost. Only three letters written by him—the Letters to Menoeceus and Herodotus—and two collections of quotes—the Principle Doctrines and the Vatican Sayings—have survived intact, along with a few fragments and quotations of his other writings, his teachings are better recorded in the writings of authors, including the Roman poet Lucretius, the philosopher Philodemus, the philosopher Sextus Empiricus, the biographer Diogenes Laërtius.
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear— and aponia—the absence of pain— and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis is death denial, the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, hypocrisy. According to Epicurus, death is the end of both the body and the soul and therefore should not be feared. Epicurus taught that the gods, though they do exist, have no involvement in human affairs and do not punish or reward people for their actions. Nonetheless, he maintained that people should still behave ethically because amoral behavior will burden them with guilt and prevent them from attaining ataraxia. Like Aristotle, Epicurus was an empiricist, meaning he believed that the senses are the only reliable source of knowledge about the world.
He derived much of his cosmology from the earlier philosopher Democritus. Like Democritus, Epicurus taught that the universe is infinite and eternal and that all matter is made up of tiny, invisible particles known as atoms. All occurrences in the natural world are the result of atoms moving and interacting in empty space. Epicurus deviated from Democritus in his teaching of atomic "swerve", which holds that atoms may deviate from their expected course, thus permitting humans to possess free will in an otherwise deterministic universe. Though popular, Epicurean teachings were controversial from the beginning. Epicureanism reached the height of its popularity during the late years of the Roman Republic, before declining as the rival school of Stoicism grew in popularity at its expense, it died out in late antiquity in the wake of early Christianity. Epicurus himself was popularly, though inaccurately, remembered throughout the Middle Ages as a patron of drunkards and gluttons, his teachings became more known in the fifteenth century with the rediscovery of important texts, but his ideas did not become acceptable until the seventeenth century, when the French Catholic priest Pierre Gassendi revived a modified version of them, promoted by other writers, including Walter Charleton and Robert Boyle.
His influence grew during and after the Enlightenment, profoundly impacting the ideas of major thinkers, including John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Jeremy Bentham, Karl Marx. Epicurus was born in the Athenian settlement on the Aegean island of Samos in February 341 BC, his parents and Chaerestrate, were both Athenian-born, his father was an Athenian citizen. Epicurus grew up during the final years of the Greek Classical Period. Plato had died seven years before Epicurus was born and Epicurus was seven years old when Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont into Persia; as a child, Epicurus would have received a typical ancient Greek education. As such, according to Norman Wentworth DeWitt, "it is inconceivable that he would have escaped the Platonic training in geometry and rhetoric." Epicurus is known to have studied under the instruction of a Samian Platonist named Pamphilus for about four years. His Letter of Menoeceus and surviving fragments of his other writings suggest that he had extensive training in rhetoric.
After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Colophon, on the coast of what is now Turkey. After the completion of his military service, Epicurus joined his family there, he studied under Nausiphanes. Epicurus's teachings were influenced by those of earlier philosophers Democritus. Nonetheless, Epicurus differed from his predecessors on several key points of determinism and vehemently denied having been influenced by any previous philosophers, whom he denounced as "confused". Instead, he insisted that he had been "self-taught". According to DeWitt, Epicurus's teachings show influences from the contemporary philosophical school of Cynicism; the Cynic philosopher Diogenes of Sinope was still alive when Epicurus would have been in Athens for his required military training and it is possible they may have met. Diogenes's pupil Crates of Thebes was a close contemporary of Epicurus. Epicurus agreed with the Cynics' quest for honesty, but rejected their "insolence and vulgarity", instead teaching that honesty must be coupled with courtesy and kindness.
Epicurus shared this view with the comic playwright Menander. Epicurus's Lett
The tricorne or tricorn is a style of hat, popular during the 18th century, falling out of style by 1800, though not called a "tricorne" until the mid-19th century. During the 18th century, hats of this general style were referred to as "cocked hats". At the peak of its popularity, the tricorne varied in style and size, was worn not only by the aristocracy, but as common civilian dress, as part of military and naval uniforms. Made from animal fiber, the more expensive being of beaver-hair felt and the less expensive of wool felt, the hat's most distinguishing characteristic was that three sides of the brim were turned up and either pinned, laced, or buttoned in place to form a triangle around the crown; the style served two purposes: first, it allowed stylish gentlemen to show off the most current fashions of their wigs, thus their social status. Tricornes with laced sides could have the laces loosened and the sides dropped down to provide better protection from the weather and rain. Tricornes had a rather broad brim, pinned up on either side of the head and at the back, producing a triangular shape.
The hat was worn with one point facing forward, though it was not at all unusual for soldiers, who would rest a rifle or musket on their left shoulder, to wear the tricorne pointed above their left eyebrow to allow better clearance. The crown is low, unlike the top hat of the 19th century. Tricornes ranged from the simple and cheap to the extravagant incorporating gold or silver lace trimming and feathers. In addition and naval versions bore a cockade or other national emblem at the front; this style of hat remains in use in a number of countries to the present day as an item of ceremonial dress. The tricorne appeared as a result of the evolution of the broad-brim round hat used by Spanish soldiers in Flanders during the 17th century. By pledging the brims, a triangular shape was obtained; this shape was favored by Spanish soldiers, as when standing at arms their muskets could be held at their shoulders right or left without hitting the hat brim. War broke out between France and Spain in 1667 over the Spanish Netherlands, during the subsequent struggle its use spread to the French armies.
The style was brought back to France, where its usage spread to the French population and the royal court of King Louis XIV, who made it fashionable throughout Europe, both as a civilian and military wear. By the end of the 17th century, the tricorne was popular in both civilian fashion and in military uniforms, they remained one of the predominant European styles of hat throughout the 18th century. In the United States, only the first five Presidents, from George Washington to James Monroe, wore this style of hat according to the fashion of the 18th century. James Monroe earned the nickname "The Last Cocked Hat" because of this; the tricorne declined in use at the end of the 18th century. It evolved into the bicorne, used by military officers in Europe from the 1790s until World War I, not fading out of style until World War II. For enlisted soldiers, the tricorne was replaced by the shako at the turn of the 19th century, which had become the new dominant style of military headgear from 1800 on.
At the turn of the 19th century, as the fashionable hat for civilian men, the tricorne was overtaken by the top hat. In 1917, the Women's Royal Naval Service introduced a smaller, modernised version of the tricorne for female officers. Tricornes survive today as part of the traditional dress of the Chelsea Pensioners and the Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps of the United States Army, the distinctive hat of the Spanish Guardia Civil, called a tricornio in Spanish, originates from the tricorne. In the UK, a black feathered tricorne hat is part of the ceremonial dress of most Lord Mayors. In the British Parliament until both the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker of the House of Commons used to carry plain black tricornes as part of their formal dress each day when on duty. In the United States, the tricorne is associated with the American Revolution and American Patriots of that era Minutemen. Participants in reenactment events don tricornes, they can be seen in sports culture as worn by fans of teams with Revolutionary names, such as the New England Patriots, the New England Revolution, the United States men's national soccer team, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the George Washington University.
The Tea Party movement uses the tricorne as an icon to associate itself with the American Revolution. In France, synagogue wear the tricorne on formal occasions. In the French navy and air force, tricornes are still worn by women as a piece of uniform; the tricorne is a key feature in the University of Minho's academic dress, in Portugal. Its origins are as far as 18th century, as being the academic dress of Colégio de Estudos Superiores de S. Paulo, as depicted by tile panels in the Archbishop's Palace of Braga (now R
The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare written in 1610–1611, thought to be one of the last plays that Shakespeare wrote alone. After the first scene, which takes place on a ship at sea during a tempest, the rest of the story is set on a remote island, where the sorcerer Prospero, a complex and contradictory character, lives with his daughter Miranda, his two servants — Caliban, a savage monster figure, Ariel, an airy spirit; the play contains music and songs. It explores many themes including magic, betrayal and family. In act four, a wedding masque serves as a play-within-the play, contributes spectacle and elevated language. Though The Tempest is listed in the First Folio as the first of Shakespeare’s comedies, it deals with both tragic and comic themes, modern criticism has created a category of romance for this and others of Shakespeare’s late plays; the Tempest has been subjected to varied interpretations—from those that see it as a fable of art and creation, with Prospero representing Shakespeare, Prospero’s renunciation of magic signaling Shakespeare's farewell to the stage, to interpretations that consider it an allegory of European man colonizing foreign lands.
A ship is caught in a powerful storm, there is terror and confusion onboard, the ship is shipwrecked. But the storm is a magical creation carried out by the sprit and caused by the magic of Prospero, the Duke of Milan, before his dukedom was usurped and taken from him by his brother Antonio; that was twelve years ago, when he and his young daughter, were set adrift on the sea, stranded on an island. Among those onboard the shipwreck are Alonso. On the ship are Alonso's brother, "trusted counsellor", Gonzalo. Prospero plots to reverse what was done to him twelve years ago, regain his office. Using magic he separates the shipwreck survivors into groups on the island: Ferdinand, found by Prospero and Miranda, it is part of Prospero's plan to encourage a romantic relationship between Miranda. Trinculo, the king’s jester, Stephano, the king’s drunken butler; these three will raise a coup against Prospero. Alonso, Antonio and two attendant lords. Antonio and Sebastian conspire to kill Gonzalo so Sebastian can become King.
At Prospero's command Ariel thwarts this conspiracy, the three guilty nobles run off. The ship's captain and boatswain are asleep until the final act. Prospero betroths Miranda to marry Ferdinand, instructs Ariel to bring some other spirits and produce a masque; the masque will feature classical goddesses, Juno and Iris, will bless and celebrate the betrothal. The masque will instruct the young couple on marriage, on the value of chastity until then; the masque is interrupted when Prospero realizes he had forgotten the plot against his life. He orders Ariel to deal with this. Caliban and Stephano are chased off into the swamps by goblins in the shape of hounds. Prospero vows that once he achieves his goals, he will set Ariel free, abandon his magic, saying: I’ll break my staff, Bury it certain fathoms in the earth, And deeper than did plummet sound I’ll drown my book. Ariel brings on Alonso and Sebastian. Prospero forgives all three, raises the threat to Antonio and Sebastian that he could blackmail them, though he won’t.
Prospero’s former title, Duke of Milan, is restored. Ariel fetches the sailors from the ship. Caliban, filled with regret, promises to be good. Ariel is told to provide good weather to guide the king's ship back to the royal fleet and to Naples, where Ferdinand and Miranda will be married. After this, Ariel is set free. In the epilogue, Prospero requests -- with their applause; the Tempest begins with the spectacle of a storm-tossed ship at sea, there is a second spectacle—the masque. A masque in Renaissance England was a festive courtly entertainment that offered music, elaborate sets and drama. A masque would begin with an "anti-masque", that showed a disordered scene of satyrs, for example and dancing wildly; the anti-masque would be dispersed by the spectacular arrival of the masque proper in a demonstration of chaos and vice being swept away by glorious civilization. In Shakespeare’s play, the storm in scene one functions as the anti-masque for the masque proper in act four; the masque in The Tempest is not an actual masque, it is an analogous scene intended to mimic and evoke a masque, while serving the narrative of the drama that contains it.
The masque is a culmination of the primary action in The Tempest: Prospero’s intention to not only seek revenge on his usurpers, but to regain his rightful position as Duke of Milan. Most important to his plot to regain his power and position is to marry Miranda to Ferdinand, heir to the King of Naples; this marriage will secure Prospero’s position by securing his legacy. The chastity of the bride is considered essential and valued in royal lineages; this is true not only in Prospero’s plot, but notably in the court of the virgin queen, Elizabeth. Sir Walter Raleigh had in fact named one of the new world colonies "Virginia" after his monarch’s chastity, it was understood by James, king when The Tempest was first produced, as he arranged political marriages for his grandchildren. What could possible go wrong with Pro
Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. In what is regarded as the greatest victory achieved by Napoleon, the Grande Armée of France defeated a larger Russian and Austrian army led by Emperor Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II; the battle occurred near the town of Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire. Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians in the month; the battle is cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Gaugamela. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces seized Vienna in November 1805; the Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but ordered his forces to retreat so he could feign a grave weakness. Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near Austerlitz.
He deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened the allied center on the Pratzen Heights, viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process; the Allied disaster shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. France and Austria agreed to an armistice and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers; the treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to France, in Germany to Napoleon's German allies.
It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Critically, victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and Central Europe; the Confederation rendered the Holy Roman Empire useless, so the latter collapsed in 1806 after Francis abdicated the imperial throne, keeping Francis I of Austria as his only official title. These achievements, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent. Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In 1797, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition, an alliance of Austria, Great Britain and various Italian states. A Second Coalition, led by Britain and Russia, including the Ottoman Empire and Naples, was formed in 1798, but by 1801, this too had been defeated, leaving Britain the only opponent of the new French Consulate.
In March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, but many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty difficult. The British government resented having to return the Cape Colony and most of the Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic. Napoleon was angry; the tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent an expeditionary force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France. In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of diplomatic activity geared towards forming a new coalition against France, by April 1805, Britain and Russia had signed an alliance. Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France, being keen on revenge, Austria joined the coalition a few months later. Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, called the Armée d'Angleterre around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France.
He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England, was so confident of success that he had commemorative medals struck to celebrate the conquest of the English. Although they never invaded, Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for any possible military operation. Boredom among the troops set in, but Napoleon paid many visits and conducted lavish parades in order to boost morale; the men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon would call La Grande Armée. At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36 to 40 cannon each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue. A single corps could survive at least a day without support, giving the Grande Armée countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. In addition to these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of
The queue or cue is a hairstyle worn by the Jurchen and Manchu people of Manchuria, required to be worn by male subjects of Qing dynasty China. Hair on top of the scalp is grown long and is braided, while the front portion of the head is shaved; some early modern military organizations have used similar styles. The requirement that Han Chinese and others under Manchu rule give up their traditional hairstyles and wear the queue was met with resistance, although opinions about the queue did change over time. Jurchen men, like their Manchu descendants, wore their hair in queues. In 1126, the Jurchen ordered male Han within their conquered territories to adopt the Jurchen hairstyle by shaving the front of their heads and to adopt Jurchen dress, but the order was lifted; some Han rebels impersonated Jurchen by wearing their hair in the Jurchen "pigtail" to strike fear within the Jurchen population. The queue was a male hairstyle worn by the Manchu people from central Manchuria and imposed on the Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty.
The hair on the front of the head was shaved off above the temples every ten days and the remainder of the hair was braided into a long braid. The Manchu hairstyle was forcefully introduced to Han Chinese in the early 17th century during the Manchu conquest of China. Nurhaci of the Aisin Gioro clan declared the establishment of the Later Jin dynasty becoming the Qing dynasty of China, after Ming dynasty forces in Liaodong defected to his side; the Ming general of Fushun, Li Yongfang, defected to Nurhaci after Nurhaci promised him rewards and Nurhaci's own granddaughter in marriage. Other Han Chinese generals in Liaodong proceeded to defect with their armies to Nurhaci and were given women from the Aisin Gioro family in marriage. Once in power, Nurhaci commanded all men in the areas he conquered to adopt the Manchu hairstyle; the Manchu hairstyle signified Han submission to Qing rule, aided the Manchu identification of those Han who refused to accept Qing dynasty domination. The hairstyle was compulsory for all males and the penalty for non-compliance was execution for treason.
In the early 1910s, after the fall of the Qing dynasty, the Chinese no longer had to wear the Manchu queue. While some, such as Zhang Xun, still did so as a tradition, most of them abandoned it after the last Emperor of China, cut his queue in 1922; the Queue Order, or tonsure decree, was a series of laws violently imposed by the Qing dynasty in the seventeenth century. It was imposed on Taiwanese aborigines in 1753, Koreans who settled in northeast China in the late 19th century, though the Ryukyuan people, whose kingdom was a tributary of China and were granted an exemption from the mandate. Traditionally, adult Han Chinese did not cut their hair for cultural reasons. According to the Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius said As a result of this ideology, both men and women wound their hair into a bun or other various hairstyles. In 1644, Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, a minor Ming dynasty official turned leader of a peasant revolt; the Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell, marking the official end of the Ming dynasty.
The Han Chinese Ming general Wu Sangui and his army defected to the Qing and allowed them through Shanhai pass. They seized control of Beijing, overthrowing Li's short-lived Shun dynasty, they forced Han Chinese to adopt the queue as a sign of submission. A year after the Qing armies reached South China, on July 21, 1645, Dorgon issued an edict ordering all Han men to shave their foreheads and braid the rest of their hair into a queue identical to those worn by the Manchus; the Han Chinese were given 10 days to face death. Although Dorgon admitted that followers of Confucianism might have grounds for objection, most Han officials cited the Ming dynasty's traditional System of Rites and Music as their reason for resistance; this led Dorgon to question their motives: "If officials say that people should not respect our Rites and Music, but rather follow those of the Ming, what can be their true intentions?"The slogan adopted by the Qing was "Cut the hair and keep the head, keep the hair and cut the head".
People resisted the order and the Qing struck back with deadly force, massacring all who refused to obey. Han rebels in Shandong tortured to death the Qing official who suggested the queue order to Dorgon, killed his relatives; the imposition of this order was not uniform. It was Han Chinese defectors. Li Chengdong, a Han Chinese general who had served the Ming but defected to the Qing, ordered troops to carry out three separate massacres in the city of Jiading within a month, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths; the third massacre left few survivors. The three massacres at Jiading District are some of the most infamous, with estimated death tolls in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Jiangyin held out against about 10,000 Qing troops for 83 days; when the city wall was breached on October 9, 1645, the Qing army, led by the Han Chinese Ming defector Liu Liangzuo, ordered to "fill the city with corpses before you sheathe your swords," massacred the entire population, killing between 74,000 and 100,000 people.
Han Chinese soldiers in 1645 under Han General Hong Chengchou
The Gallic rooster is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, its values: the Republic. The rooster is the symbol of the Wallonia region and the French Community of Belgium. During the times of Ancient Rome, Suetonius, in The Twelve Caesars, noticed that, in Latin and Gauls were homonyms. However, the association of the Gallic rooster as a national symbol is apocryphal, as the rooster was neither regarded as a national personification nor as a sacred animal by the Gauls in their mythology and because there was no "Gallic nation" at the time, but a loose confederation of Gallic nations instead, but a closer review within that religious scheme indicates that "Mercury" was portrayed with the cockerel, a sacred animal among the Continental Celts. Julius Caesar in De Bello Gallico identified some gods worshipped in Gaul by using the names of their nearest Roman god rather than their Gaulish name, with Caesar saying "Mercury" was the god most revered in Gaul.
The Irish god Lug identified as samildánach led to the widespread identification of Caesar's Mercury as Lugus and thus to the sacred cockerel, the Gallic rooster, as an emblem of France. Its association with France dates back from the Middle Age and is due to the play on words in Latin between Gallus, meaning an inhabitant of Gaul, gallus, meaning rooster, or cockerel, its use, by the enemies of France, dates to this period a pun to make fun of the French, the association between the rooster and the Gauls/French was developed by the kings of France for the strong Christian symbol that the rooster represents: prior to being arrested, Jesus predicted that Peter would deny him three times before the rooster crew on the following morning. At the rooster's crowing, Peter remembered Jesus's words, its crowing at the dawning of each new morning made it a symbol of the daily victory of light over darkness and the triumph of good over evil. It is an emblem of the Christian's attitude of watchfulness and readiness for the sudden return of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, the final judgment of humankind.
That is why, during the Renaissance, the rooster became a symbol of France as a Catholic state and became a popular Christian image on weather vanes known as weathercocks. The popularity of the Gallic rooster as a national personification faded away until its resurgence during the French Revolution; the republican historiography modified the traditional perception of the origins of France. Until the royal historiography dated the origins of France back to the baptism of Clovis I in 496, the "first Christian king of France"; the republicans rejected this royalist and Christian origin of the country and trace the origins of France back to the ancient Gaul. Although purely apocryphal, the rooster became the personification of the early inhabitants of France, the Gauls; the Gallic rooster, colloquially named Chanteclair, had been a national emblem since during the Third Republic. The rooster was featured on the reverse of French 20-franc gold pieces from 1899 to 1914. After World War I it was depicted on countless war memorials.
Today, it is used as a national mascot in sporting events such as football and rugby. The 1998 FIFA World Cup, hosted by France, adopted; the France national rugby league team are known as the Chanteclairs referring to the cockerel's song. The popularity of the symbol extends into business. Le Coq Sportif, is a French manufacturer of sports equipment using a stylized rooster and the colors of the French tricolour as its logo. Moreover, it is the logo of Pathé, a French-born, now international company of film production and distribution. Another heraldic animal used by the French nation was the French Imperial Eagle, symbol of the First and Second French Empire under Napoleon I and Napoleon III. In 1913, the Gallic rooster was adopted as the symbol of Walloon movement, it represents a "bold rooster", raising its claws, instead of the "crowing rooster", traditionally depicted in France. This symbol known as the Walloon rooster, was adopted as the symbol of Wallonia and the French Community of Belgium.
In France and Wallonia, the French onomatopoeia for the rooster crowing sound, "cocorico", is sometimes used to express national pride. Rooster of Barcelos Media related to Gallic rooster at Wikimedia Commons Embassy of France in the United States - additional information French Prime Minister's office - additional information Images of Footix, the cockerel mascot of the 1998 FIFA World Cup. France plucks its bird from peril, from BBC. A plan to preserve the genetic heritage of the French cockerel