Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia, part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island, located in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2. Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis; the Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java; the northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while off the southeastern coast lie the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeastern area contains large plains and lowlands with swamps, mangrove forest and complex river systems; the equator crosses the island at its center in West Riau provinces.
The climate of the island is tropical and humid. Lush tropical rain forest once dominated the landscape. Sumatra has a wide range of plant and animal species but has lost 50% of its tropical rainforest in the last 35 years. Many species are now critically endangered, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo, the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Sumatran orangutan. Deforestation on the island has resulted in serious seasonal smoke haze over neighbouring countries, such as the 2013 Southeast Asian haze causing considerable tensions between Indonesia and affected countries Malaysia and Singapore. Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, because of the gold deposits in the island's highlands; the first mention of the name of Sumatra was in the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh, the first landfall for traders.
The island is known by other names namely, Andalas or Percha Island. Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, a rising power until replaced by the Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, in letters addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1602, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra"; the word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean". Marco Polo named the kingdom Samara or Samarcha in the late 13th century, while the 14th century traveller Odoric of Pordenone used Sumoltra for Samudra. Subsequent European writers used similar forms of the name for the entire island. European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island; the Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya. Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs and Indian traders in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.
By the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292. Ibn Battuta visited with the sultan for 15 days, noting the city of Samudra was "a fine, big city with wooden walls and towers," and another 2 months on his return journey. Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War; the Free Aceh Movement fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005. Security crackdowns in 2001 and 2002 resulted in several thousand civilian deaths; the longest axis of the island runs 1,790 km northwest–southeast, crossing the equator near the centre. At its widest point, the island spans 435 km; the interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east.
Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia. To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula, separated by the Strait of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean; the Great Sumatran fault, the Sunda megathrust, run the entire length of the island along its west coast. On 26 December 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra Aceh province, were struck by a tsunami following the Indian Ocean earthquake; this was the longest earthquake recorded, lasting between 600 seconds. More than 170,000 Indonesians were killed in Aceh. Other recent earthquakes to strike Sumatra include the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake and the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami. To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountains, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. If unsuitable for farming, the area is of great economic importance for Indonesia, it produces oil from both above and below the soil -- petroleum.
Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Small-holders grow Arabica coffee in the highlands, while Rob
Arthur Conan Doyle bibliography
Arthur Conan Doyle KStJ, DL was a Scottish writer and physician. In addition to the series of stories chronicling the activities of Sherlock Holmes and his friend Dr John Watson for which he is well-known, Doyle wrote on a wide range of topics, both fictional and non-fictional. In 1876 Doyle entered the University of Edinburgh Medical School, where he became a pupil of Joseph Bell, whose deductive processes impressed his pupil so much that the teacher became the chief model for Holmes. Doyle began writing while still a student, in October 1879 he had his first work—"The Mystery of the Sasassa Valley"—published in Chambers's Journal, he continued writing short works—both fictional and non-fictional—throughout his career, had over 200 stories and articles published. In July 1891 Doyle published the short story "A Scandal in Bohemia" in The Strand Magazine—a "story which would change his life", according to his biographer, Andrew Lycett, as it introduced Holmes and Watson to a wide audience; the story in The Strand was one in a series of six, published in successive months.
They were well received by the public, the editors of the magazine commissioned a further six stories, another series of twelve. Doyle, fearful of having his other work overshadowed by his fictional detective, killed his creation off in December 1893 in "The Adventure of the Final Problem", he wrote four full-length Holmes works, as well as adventure novels and nine historical works of fiction. In 1912 he began the adventure series featuring Professor Challenger, who first appeared in The Lost World—both in short stories and novel form. Doyle wrote four volumes of poetry and a series of stage works—his first was Jane Annie, an unsuccessful attempt at a libretto to an operetta, which he wrote with J. M. Barrie. Doyle was an enthusiastic supporter of the Boer War, wrote two histories of the events. During the First World War he wrote extensively on that conflict, both short articles and a six-volume history. Owing to the close successive deaths of his son and brother, Doyle turned to spiritualism and wrote extensively on the subject.
The majority of Doyle's poetry falls into the genre of war poetry. Works by Arthur Conan Doyle at Project Gutenberg Works at Project Gutenberg Australia Online works available from The University of Adelaide Library
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Rodney Stone is a Gothic mystery and boxing novel by Scottish writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first published in 1896. The eponymous narrator is a Sussex country boy, taken to London by his uncle Sir Charles Tregellis, a respected gentleman and arbiter of fashion, on familiar terms with the most important people of Great Britain; the novel interweaves Rodney's coming-of-age story with that of his friend Boy Jim's boxing endeavors, a large portion of it deals with the famous bare-knuckle boxers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, such as Jem Belcher, John Jackson, Daniel Mendoza, Dutch Sam, others. The book includes vignettes of a number of historical personages, notably the Prince Regent, Lord Nelson, Sir John Lade, Lord Cochrane and Beau Brummell, it was adapted into The House of Temperley, directed by Harold M. Shaw. Rodney Stone at Project Gutenberg
The Narrative of John Smith
The Narrative of John Smith is a novel written in 1883 by Arthur Conan Doyle, published posthumously by The British Library. In a work of narrative fiction, Doyle writes from the perspective of a middle-aged bachelor named John Smith recovering from rheumatic gout. Unlike his work in detective fiction and science fiction, this novel unfolds through a series of tangential, essay-like thoughts stemming from observations on everyday life; the subjects are of a “personal-social-political complexion”. Each day is represented by a chapter. Beginning with John Smith's diagnosis of rheumatic gout, the doctor confines him to bed rest for one week. Dr. Turner encourages Smith that the mind can “make a heaven of hell” and that he should set to work writing a book, they begin to debate the circumstances which might drive talent out of a man, after the doctor exits, Smith considers the immense service a doctor contributes to the world. After many short, uncorrelated thoughts, Smith dwells on his surroundings as stimulants and companions.
This leads the internal conversation towards personal anecdotes and various thoughts on a broad spectrum. Smith describes his landlady, Mrs. Rundle, observes her three children on their way home fighting over a penny; because of this, he notes, “Remember that the era of civilization is but the narrow golden border which trims the dense blackness of primeval history.”The second chapter begins with the Doctor, discussing current medical topics with Smith. Left to his own devices alone again, Smith expresses hopes for Lamarckism: the eradication of disease and of the perfection of the human race through education and invention, he introduces his neighbors, the Olivers: an old man and his daughter, a painter about the age of thirty. The two have fallen on hard times and Smith secretly commissions Miss Oliver through Mrs. Rundle. Smith debates Roman Catholicism as the Doctor defends Anglican Protestantism upon his return. Afterwards, a veteran known as “the Major” enters with a limp and grey eyes—they converse on the tragedy of war, condemning Imperialism.
Smith reveals himself as an art enthusiast. He tells a joke about his poverty during the gold rush in Australia—his friends having bought scrap meat claiming it was for dogs; this leads Smith to analyze humor genius, instinct, after which he writes about the labors of writing, including instruction as well as opinion on popular literature. Looking for something to debate, Smith asks the Doctor about the ideal conditions for human life and if eternal life can be attained; this leads into his thoughts about evolution leaving the human race hairless and toothless becoming demigods. Smith mourns the present plagued condition of humanity and dying; the Major enters, suited for war claiming able-bodiedness at age sixty, ready to fight the Russians advancing towards China, at which the narrator is alarmed and internally states the Major's uncharacteristic over eagerness for war. Smith reflects on medicinal goal of lengthening human life compared to war, slaying for the greater good, and, true philanthropy.
Without prior notice, Miss Oliver visits Smith, revealing her knowledge of his commission through Mrs. Rundle and thanking him. Showing him the drawings, he approves cordially, she notes that his room is decorated with masterpieces, to which he responds that he is speculating her impending fame. He requests another picture. Upon her departure, Smith considers marriage “the great female destiny—to become the supplement of a man”, his thoughts continue onto Britain's political standing among the nations of the world, the unpredictability of literary success, the creation of man. A curate visits, listening to Smith's opinions about Jesus Christ and organized religion, questioning if he is a “dissenter” determining that he is a prideful infidel, leaving insulted; the final chapter is of the doctor discussing disease as a battle. They begin to discuss leucocytes in the bloodstream; the introduction describes the novel's loosely developed characters as “extensions of ”. Their purpose in many scenarios seems to be to probe the inner workings of John Smith through action or dialogue.
Some of the characters, became prototypes for more developed characters in the Sherlock Holmes stories. John Smith is a fifty-year-old man confined to bed rest for one week on account of rheumatic gout; the novel, being told from his point of view, consists of conscious thought as well as dialogue on contemporary topics with external figures. He characterizes himself by his activeness and identity as writer; the doctor begins as Dr. Turner, midway through chapter two changes to Dr. Pontiphobus, in chapter four becomes Dr. Julep, in chapter six loses his name to “doctor”; the morphing of his name may suggest his various purposes throughout. Noted by the editors, “In the name ‘Dr. Pontiphobus’ Conan Doyle may have been suggesting ‘aversion to Pontiffs,’ or Popes—i.e. The Roman Catholic Church, which he had renounced without having embraced Dr. Pontiphobus's Anglican Church instead.’ Julep is a Middle English slang term for a syrupy substance used to sweeten medicine. This is his name during a debate between Roman Catholicism, of which Smith becomes an advocate, Anglican Protestantism, defended by the doctor.
In other scenarios, the doctor humors Smith in short-lived discussions oscillating between religion and disease, one exampl
The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes
The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes is the final set of twelve Sherlock Holmes short stories by Arthur Conan Doyle first published in the Strand Magazine between October 1921 and April 1927. The first British edition and the first American edition of the collection were both published in June 1927. However, they had different titles; the title of the British collection was The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes, whereas the title of the American edition was The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes. Further confusing the issue of the title, some publishers released the collection under the title The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes; the first edition of The Case-Book, published by John Murray in 1927, does not present the stories in the order in which they were published: The copyrights for Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories expired in 1980 in Canada and in 2000 in the United Kingdom. In the United States, the only Sherlock Holmes works by Doyle still protected by copyrights are nine of the twelve short stories from The Case Book.
The first three stories are in the public domain since they were published before 1924. The other stories will enter the public domain on 1 January of the year after the 95th anniversary of each story's publication: 1 January 2020 for "The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire", "The Adventure of the Three Garridebs" and "The Adventure of the Illustrious Client"; the Conan Doyle Estate Ltd. claim. The company has a web page setting out its views about other claimants to those rights. For background, see a note by Peter Blau, January 2011; as 2013 came to an end, the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois handed down a ruling about copyright protection, not for the stories themselves, but for the characters of Holmes and Watson. The defendant in the case was Conan Doyle Estate Ltd; the plaintiff was well-known Sherlockian editor, Los Angeles entertainment lawyer, Leslie S. Klinger. In the case of Klinger vs. Conan Doyle Estate Ltd. the court ruled that the Holmes and Watson characters as described in the "story elements" that stem from most of the stories—those published before 1924—are in the public domain.
Although some of the stories are comparable with Doyle's earlier work, this collection is considered a lesser entry in the Sherlock Holmes canon. David Stuart Davies has commented that "The Adventure of the Creeping Man" "veers towards risible science fiction". Kyle Freeman suggests that "The Mazarin Stone" and "The Three Gables" may not be Conan Doyle's work, stating that "lmost nothing about either of "The Mazarin Stone" or "The Three Gables" has the true ring of Conan Doyle's style about them."Three stories of the collection are not narrated by Dr. Watson, as most Sherlock Holmes stories are. "The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone" is narrated in the third person, since it was adapted from a stage play in which Watson hardly appeared. "The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier" and "The Adventure of the Lion's Mane" are both narrated by Holmes himself, the latter being set after his retirement. The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes was adapted for BBC Radio 4 in 1994–5 as part of Bert Coules' complete radio adaptation of the canon, starring Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williams as Watson.
Notable guest stars included Robert Glenister as James Dodd in "The Blanched Soldier" and Harriet Walter as Eugenia Ronder in "The Veiled Lodger". The episodes were written by Bert Coules, Roger Danes, Peter Ling, David Ashton, Robert Forrest, Michael Bakewell, directed by Enyd Williams and Patrick Rayner. Redmond, Christopher. "The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes". Sherlock Holmes Handbook. Dundurn. Pp. 34–36. ISBN 978-1-77070-592-0. Retrieved 2018-02-16 – via Google Books. Pugh, Brian W.. A Chronology of the Life of Arthur Conan Doyle. Andrews UK. ISBN 978-1-78092-199-0. Retrieved 2018-02-16 – via Google Books. Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes at Faded Page "The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone" "The Problem of Thor Bridge"
The Tragedy of the Korosko
The Tragedy of the Korosko is a novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. It was serialized a year earlier in The Strand magazine between May and December 1897, was turned into a play Fires of Fate. A group of European tourists are enjoying their trip to Egypt in the year 1895, they are sailing up the Korosko. They intend to travel to Abousir at the southern frontier of Egypt, after which the Dervish country starts, they are abducted by a marauding band of Dervish warriors. The novel contains a strong defence of British Imperialism and in particular the Imperial project in North Africa, it reveals the great suspicion of Islam felt by many Europeans at the time. Doyle adapted his novel into a play Fires of Fate; the play was in turn twice adapted into films. The Tragedy of the Korosko at Project Gutenberg The Tragedy of the Korosko public domain audiobook at LibriVox In Desert and Wilderness