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The Prince

The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. From his correspondence, a version appears to have been distributed in 1513, using a Latin title, De Principatibus. However, the printed version was not published five years after Machiavelli's death; this was carried out with the permission of the Medici pope Clement VII, but "long before in fact since the first appearance of The Prince in manuscript, controversy had swirled about his writings". Although The Prince was written as if it were a traditional work in the mirrors for princes style, it is agreed that it was innovative; this is because it was written in the vernacular Italian rather than Latin, a practice that had become popular since the publication of Dante's Divine Comedy and other works of Renaissance literature. The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy modern political philosophy, in which the "effectual" truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal.

It is notable for being in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time those concerning politics and ethics. Although it is short, the treatise is the most remembered of Machiavelli's works and the one most responsible for bringing the word Machiavellian into usage as a pejorative, it contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words politics and politician in Western countries. In subject matter it overlaps with the much longer Discourses on Livy, written a few years later. In its use of near-contemporary Italians as examples of people who perpetrated criminal deeds for politics, another lesser-known work by Machiavelli which The Prince has been compared to is the Life of Castruccio Castracani; the descriptions within The Prince have the general theme of accepting that the aims of princes – such as glory and survival – can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends: He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation.

Each part of The Prince has been extensively commented on over centuries. The work has a recognizable structure, for the most part indicated by the author himself, it can be summarized as follows: Machiavelli prefaces his work with an introductory letter to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, the recipient of his work. The Prince starts by describing the subject matter. In the first sentence, Machiavelli uses the word "state" in order to cover, in neutral terms, "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely." The way in which the word state came to acquire this modern type of meaning during the Renaissance has been the subject of much academic debate, with this sentence and similar ones in the works of Machiavelli being considered important. Machiavelli says that The Prince would be about princedoms, mentioning that he has written about republics elsewhere, but in fact he mixes discussion of republics into this work in many places treating republics as a type of princedom and one with many strengths.

More and less traditionally, he distinguishes new princedoms from hereditary established princedoms. He deals with hereditary princedoms in Chapter 2, saying that they are much easier to rule. For such a prince, "unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that his subjects will be well disposed towards him". Gilbert, comparing this claim to traditional presentations of advice for princes, wrote that the novelty in chapters 1 and 2 is the "deliberate purpose of dealing with a new ruler who will need to establish himself in defiance of custom"; these types of works were addressed only to hereditary princes. He thinks Machiavelli may have been influenced by Tacitus as well as his own experience, but finds no clear predecessor to substantiate this claim; this categorization of regime types is "un-Aristotelian" and simpler than the traditional one found for example in Aristotle's Politics, which divides regimes into those ruled by a single monarch, an oligarchy, or by the people, in a democracy.

Machiavelli ignores the classical distinctions between the good and corrupt forms, for example between monarchy and tyranny. Xenophon, on the other hand, made the same distinction between types of rulers in the beginning of his Education of Cyrus where he says that, concerning the knowledge of how to rule human beings, Cyrus the Great, his exemplary prince, was different "from all other kings, both those who have inherited their thrones from their fathers and those who have gained their crowns by their own efforts". Machiavelli divides the subject of new states into "mixed" cases and purely new states. New princedoms are either new, or they are "mixed", meaning that they are new parts of an older state belonging to that prince. Machiavelli generalizes that there were several virtuous Roman ways to hold a newly acquired province, using a republic as an example of how new princes can act: to install one's princedom in the new acquisition, or to install colonies of one's people there, better.

To indulge the lesser powers of the area without increasing their power. To put down the powerful people. Not to allow a foreign power to gain reputation. More Machiavelli emphasizes that one should have regard not only for present problems but for the future ones. One should not "enjoy the benefit of time" but rather the benefit of one

James Stephens GAA

James Stephens is a Gaelic Athletic Association club located in Kilkenny, Ireland. The club has enjoyed equal success in both hurling and Gaelic football. James Stephens was founded in 1887 as a hurling club; the club is named after James Stephens, founding member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and took part in its first championship in 1888. The club was founded in the area of Patrick Street in Kilkenny city, an area locally known as'the Village.' The James Stephens colours of red and green were adopted as a result of the purchase of a set of jerseys from Erin's Own at a price of 30 shillings. The club's GAA grounds are located in Larchfield and are being looked after by player/caretaker Ray Lahart The club celebrated its 125-year anniversary with a book entitled ‘From the Arch to the Pump, James Stepehns GAA club 1887-2012’ written by Tommy Lanigan. All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championships: 3 1976, 1982, 2005 Leinster Senior Club Hurling Championships: 4 1975, 1981, 2004, 2005 Kilkenny Senior Hurling Championships: 9 1935, 1937, 1969, 1975, 1976, 1981, 2004, 2005, 2011 Beaten finalists - 8 1927, 1970, 1973, 1982, 1983, 1996, 2008, 2009 Kilkenny Senior Hurling League 2018 Kilkenny Under-21 Hurling Championships: 7 1969, 1970, 1987, 1993, 1994, 2000, 2002 Kilkenny Minor Hurling Championships: 13 1929, 1957, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1991, 1992, 2003, 2012 Kilkenny Junior Hurling Championships: 1924, 1929, 1955, 2000 This is a list of notable hurlers who have played for James Stephens.

This means players that have enjoyed much success with the club or have played for the Kilkenny senior hurling team. Kilkenny Senior Football Championships: 8 1976, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2003, 2008 Kilkenny Minor Football Championships: 11 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2011, 2012, 2017 Official James Stephens Website Information On James Stephens

Naesiotus

Naesiotus is a genus of tropical air-breathing land snails, a pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Bulimulidae. Species within the genus Naesiotus include: Naesiotus quitensis - Naesiotus luciae Naesiotus stenogyroides - endemic to Dominica Naesiotus subcostatus Distribution of the genus Naesiotus include Ecuador, Dominica, Peru... People are sometimes consuming them raw, but consumption of raw snails is not recommended because snails can be vector of number of parasites. Breure A. S. H.. "Caribbean land molluscs: Bulimulidae, II. Plekocheilus and Naesiotus". Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 46: 71-93, pls. 6-8, tables 8-14