Frank Ferrer is an American rock drummer. Ferrer is best known as the drummer for American rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he has played and recorded since 2006. Ferrer was a member of The Psychedelic Furs, Love Spit Love as well as The Beautiful, he has recorded and worked with several high profile musicians including Robi "Draco" Rosa, Gordon Gano, PJ Harvey, Tommy Stinson, Frank Black of The Pixies, Neil Young, Perry Farrell and Cheetah Chrome of The Dead Boys. Ferrer was a member of New York based band The Beautiful; the band featured Ferrer on drums along with Jonathan Lacey on vocals and guitar, bassist Perry Bottke. The band released a self-titled EP in 1990, a full-length album Storybook, in May 1992. Ferrer joined Love Spit Love in 1992; the band was formed by Richard Butler with Ferrer and Richard Fortus while The Psychedelic Furs were on hiatus. Love Spit Love released their self titled album Love Spit Love in 1994 and Trysome Eatone in 1997. During this time Ferrer played on demos Dripping Goss' album Gift of Demise.
From 2001 until 2008, Ferrer joined the touring lineup of The Psychedelic Furs. Ferrer is drummer for the New York City based band The Compulsions; the band features Rob Carlyle on vocals and rhythm guitar, fellow Guns N' Roses member Richard Fortus on lead guitar, bassist Sami Yaffa. In 2011, the band released their first full-length studio album. In July 2006, Frank Ferrer joined Guns N' Roses during their European Tour to replace Bryan "Brain" Mantia, who had returned to the United States when his wife had a child. Tommy Stinson and Richard Fortus, whom Ferrer had both recorded with in the past, reached out to Ferrer to fill the drum position. Ferrer played his first show with the band on June 24, 2006 in Dessel, Belgium at Graspop Metal Meeting. Expected to be just a touring drummer filling in for 2 weeks, Ferrer became the official drummer in late 2006, he plays drums on tracks "Chinese Democracy", "Better", "If the World", "There Was a Time" and "I. R. S." for the album Chinese Democracy. Ferrer toured with the group through the end of the Chinese Democracy Tour, as well as the Up Close and Personal Tour & Appetite for Democracy Tour.
He tours with the band as part of the Not in This Lifetime... Tour featuring classic era members Slash and Duff McKagan, he appears in the live video release Appetite for Democracy 3D. Ferrer recorded drums for their 2014 EP Face I Love. Ferrer was raised in New York, his father was a Latin percussionist. At age 11, Ferrer fell in love with rock music. Ferrer's daughter Olivia was a member of the band indie-pop band Supercute!. Ferrer uses Remo drumheads, Sabian cymbals and Vater drumsticks, his drum setup according to his official website consists of a 26x14" kick drum, a 12x12" rack tom and 14x14 and 16x16" floor toms, sometimes using 16x16 and 18x16 floor toms. His Sabian cymbal setup varies from time to time along with drumheads, his choice of sticks are Vater Power 5Bs. Ferrer uses various handheld tambourines, he used Pork Pie Percussion drums and Zildjian cymbals until 2014. The Beautiful US Love Spit Love US/EUROPE Rebecca Blasband US Robi "Draco" Rosa Latin America/Puerto Rico/US Doro Pesch Germany The Psychedelic Furs US/Canada/UK Gordon Gano US Guns N' Roses Chinese Democracy Tour 2006 Europe, North America Guns N' Roses Chinese Democracy Tour 2007 Mexico, New Zealand, Japan Guns N' Roses Chinese Democracy Tour 2009/2011 Asia, North America, South America, Central America, Europe Guns N' Roses Up Close and Personal Tour United States, Europe Guns N' Roses Appetite for Democracy Tour Las Vegas, Nevada USA 10/31/2012 – 11/24/2012 Guns N' Roses Not in this Lifetime...
Tour United States, North America, South America, New Zealand, Europe Tool – February 1, 2012 – Izod Center East Rutherford, NJ. Lateralus drum duel performance. Tool – August 1, 2009 – All Points West Festival, Liberty Park, NJ. Lateralus drum duel performance. Tool – August 15, 2002 – Continental Arena, NJ. Second drummer on the song called "Triad". Wyclef Jean – Reggae Sunsplash 1999 Tommy Stinson – Series of shows in 2004 featuring Richard Fortus Frank Black/Gordon Gano – October 11, 2003 Troubadour, LA Thunderchucker Records – inception October 2004 New York, NY Perry Farrell – live show at Hiro Ballroom, NYC fashion week 2005 Nena Vienna, Austria 2008 Discogs.com
Richard Fortus is an American guitarist. He is best known as a member of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he has been a member since 2002, with whom he has recorded one studio album. Fortus has collaborated extensively with The Psychedelic Furs frontman Richard Butler and fellow Guns N' Roses bandmate Frank Ferrer. Aside from lead singer Axl Rose, keyboardist Dizzy Reed, Fortus is the longest tenured member of Guns N' Roses, having been with the band continuously since 2002. Alongside his work in Guns N' Roses, Fortus is a former member of Love Spit Love, Thin Lizzy and The Dead Daisies. Fortus was born in Missouri, he began learning the drums a year later. Fortus studied at the Conservatory of the Arts in St. Louis and Southern Illinois University and played in several youth symphonies in the St. Louis area. Fortus founded the band The Eyes in 1984; the four-piece alternative band independently released "Freedom in a Cage", produced by David Probst. After signing with Atlantic Records, they changed their name to Pale Divine.
They subsequently toured the U. S. in support of their only album, Straight to Goodbye, opening for The Psychedelic Furs. After the Psychedelic Furs split up, Fortus formed Love Spit Love with Richard Butler and Frank Ferrer in 1992; when the Furs reformed in 2000, Fortus joined the group as second guitarist and played on the live album Beautiful Chaos: Greatest Hits Live. Love Spit Love went on an indefinite hiatus soon after. Loup Garou Fortus joined this nyc outfit for club dates and festivals over a three year hitch that included dates in Europe and culminated with the recording of the bands 3rd CD "Ten Wines from Job's Vineyard". In 1999, Fortus was contacted by Guns N' Roses to audition as a potential replacement for the departing Robin Finck. However, the spot was filled by Buckethead. In 2002, guitarist Paul Tobias left Guns N' Roses. Fortus was touring Europe as guitarist for Enrique Iglesias in May 2002 when he got a call from his friend Tommy Stinson asking him to fly out to audition for the band.
Fortus joined Guns N' Roses in July 2002. In Guns N' Roses, Fortus plays occasional lead guitar. Lead singer Axl Rose is pleased with Fortus's work and has said, "He's an amazing lead player and technically skilled, he likes the pocket that Brain sets and the two of them click with Tommy so we have the real deal rhythm section, as Richard is a proven professional. Richard's the guy that we always were looking for."Fortus recorded guitars for the band's 2008 album Chinese Democracy and appears on the live release Appetite for Democracy 3D. Fortus has been present at every tour since 2002, most at the Not in This Lifetime... Tour, playing alongside classic era members Slash and Duff McKagan. In 2013, Fortus joined the Dead Daisies with the likes of Jon Stevens and Dave Lowy as well as Guns N' Roses bandmates Frank Ferrer and Dizzy Reed, their eponymous debut album was released on August 9, 2013. A second album "Revolucion" was released in 2015. Fortus left the Dead Daisies in 2016 to focus on Guns N' Roses.
Fortus was in a group called Honky Toast with Frank Ferrer, singer Eric J. Toast and bassist E. Z. Bake; the group released one album, 1999's Watcha Gonna Do Honky?. Fortus has collaborated with techno-rock musician BT on several occasions, including touring with him in 2000. In March 2008 Fortus was one of the guest guitarists for the reunion shows of X Japan at the Tokyo Dome, he played with them three more times in 2018, on April 10 and 11 at Zepp Divercity and on April 14 at Coachella. In 2008 he joined the Storm, on their tour. Fortus played guitar on their first record, "Where the Storm Meets the Ground," and is a personal friend of leadsinger Pernille Rosendahl and lead guitarist Johan Wohlert. Fortus provided guitar for former The Replacements and Guns N' Roses bassist Tommy Stinson's two solo albums. Fortus recorded a cover of the James Bond theme for Guitar Hero World Tour and played the song live as a solo spot during Guns N' Roses's 2012 tour, he has collaborated with singer-songwriter Lásse Kvernmo in a project called Sáivu.
Fortus has recorded or toured with acts such as Rihanna, N*SYNC, Nena and Ben Folds, among others. Fortus is a member of New York-based band The Compulsions. Fortus joined Thin Lizzy as lead guitarist in 2011. Guitars: Gibson'73 Les Paul Signature, Gretsch White Falcon, Effects: Hiwatt Tape Echo, Lexicon PCM80 Pedals: Klon Centaur, Hermida Mosferatu Amps: 2 channel Cornford,'73 Jose-modded Marshall 100, Plexi Marshalls, Diezel On November 5, 2005, Fortus' partner gave birth to a daughter, Paisley Piper Fortus, she gave birth to a second child, Clover Blue Fortus, on January 6, 2008. In September 2015, he was injured in a motorcycle crash, causing him to miss dates with the Dead Daisies. Fortus suffered a broken shoulder blade, a broken collarbone, six broken ribs, a broken toe, a bruised lung, a lacerated liver and a concussion. On December 10, 2016, Fortus married a St. Louis-based attorney; the couple resides in Missouri with their two daughters. With The Eyes/ Pale Divine Freedom in a Cage Straight to Goodbye With Love Spit Love Love Spit Love Trysome Eatone With Tommy Stinson Village Gorilla Head One Man Mutiny With Loup Garou Ten Wines from Job's Vineyard With Guns N' Roses: Chinese Democracy Appetite for Democracy 3D With The Dead Daisies: The Dead Daisies Revolución With The Compulsions: Dirty Fun 4tus.com – Official Website of Richard Fortus
Stephen Alan Lillywhite, is an English record producer. Since he began his career in 1977, Lillywhite has been credited on over 500 records, has collaborated with a variety of musicians including U2, the Rolling Stones, XTC, Dave Matthews Band, Steel Pulse, Peter Gabriel, Talking Heads, the Killers, Kirsty MacColl, the Pogues, David Byrne, Big Country, Blue October and the Banshees, Simple Minds, the Psychedelic Furs, Counting Crows and Joan Armatrading, he has won six Grammy Awards, including the Producer of The Year in 2006, was made a Commander of the Order of The British Empire in 2012 for his contributions to music. Lillywhite was born in England. From 1984 to 1994 he was married to Kirsty MacColl, with whom he had two sons and Louis, he has been married to Patricia Louise Galluzzi since 29 May 2004. He was made a Commander of the Order of The British Empire in 2012 for his contributions to music. Lillywhite entered the music industry in 1972, he produced a demo recording for Ultravox, which led to them being offered a recording contract with Island Records.
Lillywhite soon joined Island as a staff producer, where he worked with many of the leading new wave musicians, including his brother's band, The Members, guitarist Johnny Thunders, for whom he produced a solo album, So Alone. His first commercial success came in August 1978 as the producer of "Hong Kong Garden," the debut single from Siouxsie and the Banshees, he produced "Ku Klux Klan", the first single that Steel Pulse released on Island Records in 1978. In 1979, he scored two hits for Virgin records with The Members: the Surrey Anthem "Sound of the Suburbs" and protest reggae classic "Offshore Banking Business." Lillywhite along with Engineer Hugh Padgham began working with the English band XTC in June and July 1979 at Townhouse Studios in London for Virgin Records. The results, it is a classic example of the distinctive Lillywhite\Padgham big drum sound In February 1980 the Psychedelic Furs' self-titled debut album was released, produced by Lillywhite. He produced Peter Gabriel's critically acclaimed third solo album Peter Gabriel, released in May 1980 and topped the UK album chart.
It established Gabriel as "one of rock's most ambitious, innovative musicians" and "raised considerably" Lillywhite's profile. During the recording of the album he pioneered the gated reverb drum sound which became a hallmark of Phil Collins' solo career. In the year, the debut album of U2, was released, produced by Lillywhite. Lillywhite's collaboration with U2 continued with the albums War, he moved on to produce work by Bruce Foxton, Big Country, XTC, The Chameleons, Talking Heads and the Hot Rods, The Rolling Stones and the Shine album by the former ABBA vocalist Anni-Frid Lyngstad. Lillywhite was hired by Rush to produce their 1984 album, Grace Under Pressure but, much to their frustration, withdrew from the project to work with Simple Minds. Alex Lifeson, Geddy Lee, Neil Peart referred to Lillywhite as a man not of his word for not following through on what had been scheduled. In 1987 Lillywhite worked with the Pogues, producing "Fairytale of New York", his wife, Kirsty MacColl, provided the lead female vocal for the song, which became the band's biggest hit.
The single narrowly missed being the UK Christmas number one single, but was still one of the biggest selling records that year. The song "Cotton Fields," from the Pogues' 1989 album Peace and Love, includes a reference to "Steve Lillywhite's drunken mix". During the 1990s, Lillywhite produced the multi platinum albums Under the Table and Dreaming and Before These Crowded Streets by the Dave Matthews Band. In 1991, he continued to produce Morrissey and co-produced songs from U2's Achtung Baby, working alongside Brian Eno, Daniel Lanois and Flood; that same year he returned to Dublin to produce Engine Alley's debut album entitled A Sonic Holiday, Kirsty MacColl again provided additional vocals, this time for the single "Song for Someone". He produced albums by Travis and the debut by The La's. In 1996, he produced Phish's Billy Breathes, he returned to produce Joy in 2009. Lilywhite was featured as the subject for a BBC Radio 1 documentary series on record producers. In 1999, he produced the US band Guster's Gone Forever.
In 2000, Lillywhite was fired from the fourth album by the Dave Matthews Band after band members cited creative differences. In 2001, a number of their recordings emerged on a bootleg album, known now as The Lillywhite Sessions; the unfinished tracks appeared online, the majority of the tracks were re-recorded, without Lillywhite, with Stephen Harris as the preferred choice by the band. In 2002, Universal Music Group head Lucian Grainge invited Lillywhite to become managing director. Lillywhite signed singer-songwriter Darius Danesh and served as executive producer for his debut album Dive In, which spawned three Top 10 hits, Mercury Records' first number one in eighteen years, he signed Razorlight, produced Jason Mraz's Mr. A-Z. In September 2005 Lillywhite joined Columbia Records as a Senior Vice-President of A&R. During his tenure he signed MGMT, he left the label at the end of 2006. Lillywhite collected consecutive Grammy Awards for Record of the Year with U2's "Beautif
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
The Psychedelic Furs (album)
The Psychedelic Furs is the debut studio album by the English rock band the Psychedelic Furs. It was released on 7 March 1980 by Columbia Records, it was reissued with bonus tracks in 2002 by Columbia/Legacy. The original UK LP had nine tracks; the US LP contained 10 tracks, deleting one track from the UK LP and adding two others, changing the order of the tracks significantly. The CD reissue contained 13 tracks, beginning with the original nine UK LP tracks adding the two additional tracks from the US LP release, plus a version of "Mack the Knife" and a demo of the album track "Flowers". All songs were written and arranged by the Psychedelic Furs, with words by Richard Butler, produced by Steve Lillywhite, except where noted. Side 1"India" – 6:21 "Sister Europe" – 5:38 "Imitation of Christ" – 5:28 "Fall" – 2:40 "Pulse" – 2:37 Side 2"We Love You" – 3:26 "Wedding Song" – 4:19 "Blacks/Radio" – 6:56 "Flowers" – 4:10 Side 1"India" – 6:21 "Sister Europe" – 5:38 "Susan's Strange" – 3:13 "Fall" – 2:40 "We Love You" – 3:26 Side 2"Soap Commercial" – 2:53 "Imitation of Christ" – 5:28 "Pulse" – 2:37 "Wedding Song" – 4:19 "Flowers" – 4:10 "India" – 6:21 "Sister Europe" – 5:38 "Imitation of Christ" – 5:28 "Fall" – 2:40 "Pulse" – 2:37 "We Love You" – 3:26 "Wedding Song" – 4:19 "Blacks/Radio" – 6:56 "Flowers" – 4:10 "Susan's Strange" – 3:13 "Soap Commercial" – 2:53 "Mack the Knife" – 4:18 "Flowers" – 5:36 The Psychedelic FursRichard Butler – lead and background vocals John Ashton – guitar Tim Butler – bass guitar Vince Ely – drums Roger Morris – guitar Duncan Kilburn – saxophonesTechnicalHoward Thompson - executive producer Phil Thornalley - engineer Steve Lillywhite - producer Album Singles The Psychedelic Furs at Discogs
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe