The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction is a U. S. fantasy and science fiction magazine first published in 1949 by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of Lawrence Spivak's Mercury Press. Editors Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas had approached Spivak in the mid-1940s about creating a fantasy companion to Spivak's existing mystery title, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine; the first issue was titled The Magazine of Fantasy, but the decision was made to include science fiction as well as fantasy, the title was changed correspondingly with the second issue. F&SF was quite different in presentation from the existing science fiction magazines of the day, most of which were in pulp format: it had no interior illustrations, no letter column, text in a single column format, which in the opinion of science fiction historian Mike Ashley "set F&SF apart, giving it the air and authority of a superior magazine". F&SF became one of the leading magazines in the science fiction and fantasy field, with a reputation for publishing literary material and including more diverse stories than its competitors.
Well-known stories that appeared in its early years include Richard Matheson's Born of Man and Woman, Ward Moore's Bring the Jubilee, a novel of an alternative history in which the South has won the American Civil War. McComas left for health reasons in 1954, but Boucher continued as sole editor until 1958, winning the Hugo Award for Best Magazine that year, a feat his successor, Robert Mills, repeated in the next two years. Mills was responsible for publishing Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes, Rogue Moon by Algis Budrys, Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein, the first of Brian Aldiss's Hothouse stories; the first few issues featured cover art by George Salter, Mercury Press's art director, but other artists soon began to appear, including Chesley Bonestell, Kelly Freas, Ed Emshwiller. In 1962, Mills was succeeded as editor by Avram Davidson; when Davidson left at the end of 1964, Joseph Ferman, who had bought the magazine from Spivak in 1954, took over as editor, though his son Edward soon began doing the editorial work under his father's supervision.
At the start of 1966 Edward Ferman was listed as editor, four years he acquired the magazine from his father and moved the editorial offices to his house in Connecticut. Ferman remained editor for over 25 years, published many well-received stories, including Fritz Leiber's Ill Met in Lankhmar, Robert Silverberg's Born with the Dead, Stephen King's The Dark Tower series. In 1991 he turned the editorship over to Kristine Kathryn Rusch, who began including more horror and dark fantasy than had appeared under Ferman. In the mid-1990s circulation began to decline. Gordon Van Gelder replaced Rusch in 1997, bought the magazine from Ferman in 2001, but circulation continued to fall, by 2011 it was below 15,000. Charles Coleman Finlay took over from Van Gelder as editor in 2015; the first magazine dedicated to fantasy, Weird Tales, appeared in 1923. By the end of the 1930s, the genre was flourishing in the United States, nearly twenty new sf and fantasy titles appearing between 1938 and 1941; these were all pulp magazines, which meant that despite the occasional high-quality story, most of the magazines presented badly written fiction and were regarded as trash by many readers.
In 1941, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine appeared, edited by Fred Dannay and focusing on detective fiction. The magazine was published in digest format, rather than pulp, printed a mixture of classic stories and fresh material. Dannay attempted to avoid the sensationalist fiction appearing in the pulps, soon made the magazine a success. In the early 1940s Anthony Boucher, a successful writer of fantasy and sf and of mystery stories, got to know Dannay through his work on the Ellery Queen radio show. Boucher knew J. Francis McComas, an editor who shared his interest in fantasy and sf. By 1944 McComas and Boucher became interested in the idea of a fantasy companion to Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, spoke to Dannay about it. Dannay was interested in the idea, but paper was scarce because of World War II; the following year Boucher and McComas suggested that the new magazine could use the Ellery Queen name, but Dannay knew little about fantasy and suggested instead that they approach Lawrence Spivak, the owner of Mercury Press, which published Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine.
In January 1946, Boucher and McComas went to New York and met with Spivak, who let them know in the year that he wanted to go ahead. At Spivak's request they began acquiring material for the new magazine, including a new story by Raymond Chandler, reprint rights to stories by H. P. Lovecraft, John Dickson Carr, Robert Bloch. Spivak planned the first issue for early 1947, but delayed the launch because of poor newsstand sales of digest magazines, he suggested that it should be priced at 35 cents an issue, higher than the original plan, to provide a financial buffer against poor sales. In May 1949 Spivak suggested a new title, The Magazine of Fantasy, in August a press release announced that the magazine would appear in October. On October 6, 1949, Boucher and McComas held a luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Edgar Allan Poe and to launch "a new fantasy anthology periodical". Invitees included Carr, Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff.
The first issue, published by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of American Mercury, sold 57,000 co
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth, it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture. Saturn's interior is composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock; this core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's; the outer atmosphere is bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear.
Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h, higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune. In January 2019, astronomers reported that a day on the planet Saturn has been determined to be 10h 33m 38s + 1m 52s− 1m 19s , based on studies of the planet's C Ring; the planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring system, composed of ice particles, with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. At least 62 moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are named; this does not include the hundreds of moonlets in the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, the second-largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere. Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of helium, it lacks a definite surface. Saturn's rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid, its equatorial and polar radii differ by 10%: 60,268 km versus 54,364 km. Jupiter and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are oblate but to a lesser extent.
The combination of the bulge and rotation rate means that the effective surface gravity along the equator, 8.96 m/s2, is 74% that at the poles and is lower than the surface gravity of Earth. However, the equatorial escape velocity of nearly 36 km/s is much higher than that for Earth. Saturn is the only planet of the Solar System, less dense than water—about 30% less. Although Saturn's core is denser than water, the average specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times Earth's mass, Saturn is 95 times Earth's mass. Together and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. Despite consisting of hydrogen and helium, most of Saturn's mass is not in the gas phase, because hydrogen becomes a non-ideal liquid when the density is above 0.01 g/cm3, reached at a radius containing 99.9% of Saturn's mass. The temperature and density inside Saturn all rise toward the core, which causes hydrogen to be a metal in the deeper layers. Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium with trace amounts of various volatiles.
This core is more dense. Examination of Saturn's gravitational moment, in combination with physical models of the interior, has allowed constraints to be placed on the mass of Saturn's core. In 2004, scientists estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of Earth, which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km; this is surrounded by a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that transitions to a gas with increasing altitude. The outermost layer consists of gas. Saturn has a hot interior, reaching 11,700 °C at its core, it radiates 2.5 times more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Jupiter's thermal energy is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism of slow gravitational compression, but such a process alone may not be sufficient to explain heat production for Saturn, because it is less massive. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior.
As the droplets descend through the lower-density hydrogen, the process releases heat by friction and leaves Saturn's outer layers depleted of helium. These descending droplets may have accumulated into a helium shell surrounding the core. Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur within Saturn, as well as in Jupiter and ice giants Uranus and Neptune; the outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 3.25 % helium by volume. The proportion of helium is deficient compared to the abundance of this element in the Sun; the quantity of elements heavier than helium is not known but the proportions are assumed to match the primordial abundances from the formation of the Solar System. The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19–31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. Trace amounts of ammonia, ethane, propane and methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere; the upper clouds are composed of ammonia crystals, while the lower level clouds appear to consist of either ammonium hydrosulfide or water.
Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes methane ph
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder. Communications satellites are used for television, radio and military applications. There are 2,134 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Many are in geostationary orbit 22,200 miles above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it; the high frequency radio waves used for telecommunications links travel by line of sight and so are obstructed by the curve of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between separated geographical points. Communications satellites use a wide range of microwave frequencies. To avoid signal interference, international organizations have regulations for which frequency ranges or "bands" certain organizations are allowed to use.
This allocation of bands minimizes the risk of signal interference. The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, along with Vahid K. Sanadi building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled "Extraterrestrial Relays" in the British magazine Wireless World; the article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. Thus, Arthur C. Clarke is quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite and the term'Clarke Belt' employed as a description of the orbit. Decades a project named Communication Moon Relay was a telecommunication project carried out by the United States Navy, its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of wireless communication by using the Moon as a passive reflector and a natural communications satellite. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1. Put into orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, it was equipped with an on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequencies: 20.005 and 40.002 MHz.
Sputnik 1 was launched as a major step in the exploration of rocket development. However, it was not placed in orbit for the purpose of sending data from one point on earth to another; the first satellite to relay communications was an intended lunar probe. Though the spacecraft only made it about halfway to the moon, it flew high enough to carry out the proof of concept relay of telemetry across the world, first from Cape Canaveral to Manchester, England; the first satellite purpose-built to relay communications was NASA's Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Courier 1B, built by Philco, launched in 1960, was the world's first active repeater satellite; the first artificial satellite used to further advances in global communications was a balloon named Echo 1. Echo 1 was the world's first artificial communications satellite capable of relaying signals to other points on Earth.
It soared 1,600 kilometres above the planet after its Aug. 12, 1960 launch, yet relied on humanity's oldest flight technology — ballooning. Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a 30-metre aluminized PET film balloon that served as a passive reflector for radio communications; the world's first inflatable satellite — or "satelloon", as they were informally known — helped lay the foundation of today's satellite communications. The idea behind a communications satellite is simple: Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. Echo 1 accomplished this by serving as an enormous mirror, 10 stories tall, that could be used to reflect communications signals. There are two major classes of communications satellites and active. Passive satellites only reflect the signal coming from the source, toward the direction of the receiver. With passive satellites, the reflected signal is not amplified at the satellite, only a small amount of the transmitted energy reaches the receiver. Since the satellite is so far above Earth, the radio signal is attenuated due to free-space path loss, so the signal received on Earth is very weak.
Active satellites, on the other hand, amplify the received signal before retransmitting it to the receiver on the ground. Passive satellites are little used now. Telstar was the second direct relay communications satellite. Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, the French National PTT to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, in the first sponsored space launch. Relay 1 was launched on December 13, 1962, it became the first satellite to transmit across the Pacific Ocean on November 22, 1963. An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was the Hughes Aircraft Company's Syncom 2, launched on July 26, 1963. Syncom 2 was the first communications satellite in a geosynchronous orbit, it revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion, special equipment was needed to track it. Its successor, Syncom 3 was the first geostationary communications satellite.
Syncom 3 obt
H. L. Gold
Horace Leonard "H. L." Gold was editor. Born in Canada, Gold moved to the United States at the age of two, he was most noted for bringing an innovative and fresh approach to science fiction while he was the editor of Galaxy Science Fiction, wrote for DC Comics. H. L. Gold was Jewish, there are claims that he at first had to write under pseudonyms because publishers feared the readers' potential antisemitism, he was drafted in to the US Army during the Second World War, serving in the Pacific theater of Operations. His marriage to Evelyn Stein ended in divorce in 1957, his second marriage was to Muriel "Nicky" Conley, he died in 1996. His brother Floyd C. Gold, writing under the pen name Floyd C. Gale, was the primary book reviewer for Galaxy from 1955-1963, his son E. J. Gold is an artist, writer and one of the oldest online gamers. After becoming editor of Galaxy Gold wrote that as a "dazzled boy" he "discovered science fiction in 1927, at the age of 13": Amazing Stories had been out for a year but it was Wells' War of the Worlds, sitting innocently on a Providence library shelf, that I found first.
The personal impact was that of an explosive harpoon, when I belatedly discovered those beautifully garish Paul covers, decorated with heroically paralyzed men in jodhpurs and simperingly paralyzed women in blowy veils, among giant insects and plants with leering heads, I was hooked. During the 1930s, Gold unsuccessfully wrote stories for pulp magazines; the day he was fired from his regular job because his boss believed that a writer should not work as a busboy, Gold learned that he had made his first sale. Beginning with "Inflexure" in Astounding Science Fiction, Gold worked for Standard Magazines, Fawcett Comics and Timely Comics, he used the Campbell pen-name for his first half-dozen or so stories in 1934/35. When he resumed his writing career in 1938 he took the billing Horace L. Gold, but soon shortened it to the now more familiar H. L. Gold. Gold's most noted stories tended more toward fantasy, like his "Trouble with Water". In 1939-41 he was an assistant editor on a trio of science fiction magazines -- Captain Future, Thrilling Wonder Stories and Startling Stories.
His 1939 novel, None But Lucifer in Unknown was a collaboration with L. Sprague de Camp. During the early 1940s, Gold teamed with Kendell Foster Crossen on comic book scripts, freelancing with DC Comics writing for Batman, Superboy, Boy Commandos and Wonder Woman from "roughly the end of 1942" until World War II interrupted his career, he was drafted in 1944, although he was Canadian, flatfooted and had a newborn child. He returned on compassionate leave to be at his dying father Henry's bedside in Fall River, Massachusetts, he had been offered directorship of Armed Forces Radio postwar. After serving, he returned to New York City. Gold's story "The Old Die Rich", written at the same time as Marcia Davenport's My Brother's Keeper, may have been inspired by the New York Times articles about the Collyer brothers as was Davenport's novel. Gold found story ideas in newspaper clippings. H. L. Gold is best known as a leading magazine editor during the American post-World War II science fiction boom. In 1949 he began in that direction, launched Galaxy Science Fiction in 1950, soon followed by its companion fantasy magazine, Beyond Fantasy Fiction.
Gold's Galaxy "made a startling impact on the world of science fiction", successor Frederik Pohl said in 1965, with "wit and relevance". Some writers saw Gold as "a sort of slave-driver" but, Pohl said, "as one of the most flogged of the slaves... the results were worth it". With Galaxy Gold created a different kind of science fiction magazine by focusing less on technology and pulp adventures. Instead, he introduced themes leaning toward sociology and satire, he paid more than was common at the time and had the advantage that several talented authors had become alienated from John W. Campbell due to his enthusiasm for Dianetics. Gold edited several anthologies related to the magazine, he suffered from increasing agoraphobia, retired from Galaxy in 1961 due to his health problems. Gold lived the rest of his life in seclusion, though he published occasional short stories and guest editorials through the early 1980s, his collection The Old Die Rich includes "And Three to Get Ready", "At the Post", "The Biography Project", "Don't Take It to Heart", "Hero", "Love in the Dark", "Man of Parts", "The Man with English", "No Charge for Alterations", "The Old Die Rich", "Problem in Murder" and "Trouble with Water".
While Anthony Boucher praised Gold as "almost the only s.f. writer capable of creating lower and lower-middle class background," he found that the stories "are not up to the standards of craftsmanship" that Gold set as an editor. 1953 - Hugo for Best Prozine Editor 1975 - Westercon Life Achievement Award 1987 - Milford Award "Inflexure", Astounding Science Fiction "Trouble with Water" "The Old Die Rich", Galaxy Science Fiction "Someone to Watch Over Me", Galaxy Science Fiction "Inside Man", Galaxy Science Fiction, October 1965 "The Transmogrification of Wamba's Revenge", October 1967 "The Riches of Embarrassment", April 1968 "The Villains from Vega IV", October 1968 "And Three to Get Ready" "At t
Roger William Corman is an American director and actor. He has been called "The Pope of Pop Cinema" and is known as a trailblazer in the world of independent film. Much of Corman's work has an established critical reputation, such as his cycle of low-budget cult films adapted from the tales of Edgar Allan Poe. Admired by members of the French New Wave and Cahiers du cinéma, in 1964 Corman was the youngest filmmaker to have a retrospective at the Cinémathèque Française, as well as the British Film Institute and the Museum of Modern Art, he was the co-founder of New World Pictures, a prolific multimedia company that helped to cement Fox as a major American television network, is a longtime member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 2009, he was awarded an Honorary Academy Award "for his rich engendering of films and filmmakers."Corman mentored and gave a start to many young film directors such as Francis Ford Coppola, Ron Howard, Martin Scorsese, Jonathan Demme, John Sayles, James Cameron, was influential in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 70s.
He helped to launch the careers of actors like Peter Fonda, Jack Nicholson, Dennis Hopper, Bruce Dern, Sylvester Stallone, Diane Ladd, William Shatner. Corman has taken minor acting roles in the films of directors who started with him, including The Silence of the Lambs, The Godfather Part II, Apollo 13, The Manchurian Candidate and Philadelphia. A documentary about Corman's life and career entitled Corman's World: Exploits of a Hollywood Rebel, directed by Alex Stapleton, premiered at the Sundance and Cannes Film Festivals in 2011; the film's TV rights were picked up by A&E IndieFilms after a well-received screening at Sundance. Corman was born in Detroit, the son of Anne and William Corman, an engineer, his younger brother, Eugene Harold "Gene" Corman, has produced numerous films, sometimes in collaboration with Roger. Corman and his brother were baptized in the Catholic faith. Corman went to Beverly Hills High School and to Stanford University to study Industrial Engineering. While at Stanford, Corman realised.
He enlisted in the V-12 Navy College Training Program with six months of study to complete. He served in the navy from 1944 to 1946, he returned to Stanford to finish his degree, receiving a Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering in 1947. While at Stanford University, Corman was initiated in the fraternity Sigma Alpha Epsilon. In 1948, he worked at U. S. Electrical Motors on Slauson Avenue in Los Angeles, but his career in engineering lasted only four days, his brother Gene was working in the film industry as an agent and Roger decided to go into filmmaking instead. Corman found work at 20th Century Fox in the mail room, he worked his way up to a story reader. The one property that he liked the most and provided ideas for was filmed as The Gunfighter with Gregory Peck; when Corman received no credit at all he decided he would work in film by himself. Under the GI Bill, Corman studied English Literature at Oxford University and lived in Paris for a time, he returned to Los Angeles and tried to re-establish himself in the film industry.
He took various jobs, including a messenger at Fox. He worked as an assistant to a literary agent. Corman wrote a script in his spare time and sold it to William F. Broidy at Allied Artists for $2,000. "Dick thought it was funny and let me pay myself a commission," said Corman. Called House in the Sea, it was retitled as Highway Dragnet, starred Richard Conte and Joan Bennett. Corman worked as associate producer on the film for nothing, just for the experience. Corman used his script fee and personal contacts to raise $12,000 to produce his first feature, a science fiction film, The Monster From the Ocean Floor, it was produced by Corman's own company, Palo Alto, released by Robert L. Lippert; the film did well enough to encourage Corman to produce another film, the racing car thriller The Fast and the Furious, directed by its star, John Ireland, co-starring Dorothy Malone. Corman sold the movie to a new independent company, the American Releasing Company, run by James H. Nicholson and Samuel Z. Arkoff.
Although Corman had a number of offers for the film from Republic and Columbia, he elected to go with ARC because they undertook to advance money to enable him to make two more movies. Corman's second film for ARC was one he decided to direct, Five Guns West, a Western, made in colour for around $60,000, with Malone and John Lund; the script was written by Robert Wright Campbell, who would work with Corman on several more occasions. Corman announced he would make four more projects for ARC: High Steel, Fortress Beneath the Sea, an untitled film from Campbell. Instead Corman did some uncredited directing on The Beast with a Million Eyes made another Western, Apache Woman, starring Lloyd Bridges, written by Lou Rusoff. Rusoff and Corman reunited on Day the World Ended, a post-apocalyptic science fiction film, popular. Corman was to make The Devil on Horseback by Charles B. Griffith about the Brownsville Raid but it was too expensive; the Woolner Brothers, Louisiana drive-in owners, financed Corman's, Swamp Women, a girls-on-the-lam saga.
He returned to ARC for The Oklahoma Woman and Gunslinger. He bought a script from The Girl from Beneath the Sea. Harrington wo