Gaullism is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic. Serge Berstein writes that Gaullism is "neither a doctrine nor a political ideology" and cannot be considered either left or right. Rather, "considering its historical progression, it is a pragmatic exercise of power, neither free from contradictions nor of concessions to momentary necessity if the imperious word of the general gives to the practice of Gaullism the allure of a program that seems profound and realized." Gaullism is "a peculiarly French phenomenon, without doubt the quintessential French political phenomenon of the twentieth century."Lawrence D. Kritzman writes that Gaullism may be seen as a form of French patriotism in the tradition of Jules Michelet, he writes: "Aligned on the political spectrum with the Right, Gaullism was committed to the republican values of the Revolution, so distanced itself from the particularist ambitions of the traditional Right and its xenophobic causes, Gaullism saw as its mission the affirmation of national sovereignty and unity, diametrically opposed to the divisiveness created by the leftist commitment to class struggle."
Berstein writes that Gaullism has progressed in multiple stages: The first phase occurred during World War II. In this period, Gaullism is identified with those French who rejected the armistice with Nazi Germany and the Vichy collaborators led by Philippe Pétain, joined with General Charles de Gaulle and the Free French Forces, who sought to put France back in the war on the Allied side. In the second phase, Gaullism was a type of opposition to the Fourth French Republic. Gaullists in this period challenged the unstable parliamentary government of the Fourth Republic and advocated its replacement with "a president of the republic with preeminent constitutional powers." In the third phase, "Gaullism was nothing other than the support given to the general's own politics after he returned to power in 1958 and served as president of the newly formed Fifth Republic from 1959 until his resignation in 1969."Since 1969, Gaullism is used to describe those identified as heirs to de Gaulle's ideas. The "fundamental principle" of Gaullism is a "certain idea of France" as a strong state.
This idea appears in de Gaulle's War Memoirs, in which he describes France as "an indomitable entity, a'person' with whom a mystical dialogue was maintained throughout history. The goal of Gaullism, therefore, is to give precedence to its interests, to ensure that the voice is heard, to make it respected, to assure its survival … to remain worthy of its past, the nation must endow itself with a powerful state." Kritzman writes that "the Gaullist idea of France set out to restore the honor of the nation and affirm its grandeur and independence" with de Gaulle seeking to "construct a messianic vision of France's historic destiny, reaffirm its prestige in the world, transcend the national humiliations of the past. Accordingly, de Gaulle urged French unity over divisive "partisan quarrels" and emphasized French heritage, including both the Ancien Régime and the Revolution; the French political figures most admired by de Gaulle "were those responsible for national consensus—Louis XIV, Georges Clemenceau—who saw as their goal the creation of political and social unity by a strong state."In order to strengthen France, Gaullists emphasize the need for "a strong economy and a stable society."
Gaullism believes, according to Berstein, that "it is the imperative of the state, as guardian of the national interest, to give impetus to economic growth and to guide it. Liberal opinion is accepted; as for social justice, so long as its natural distrust of big business can be allayed, it is less a matter of doctrine than a means of upholding stability. To put an end to class struggle, Gaullists hope to make use of participation, a nineteenth-century concept of which the general spoke but which he allowed his associates to ignore."As part of a strong state, de Gaulle emphasized the need to base state institutions on a strong executive. This was a departure from the French republican tradition, which emphasized the role of the elected assembly. De Gaulle, during his time in office, sought to establish authority by holding direct universal votes and popular referenda and by directly engaging with the nation. While de Gaulle spoke on his respect for democracy, his political opponents perceived in his rule a tendency toward dictatorial power.
France remained a democracy, de Gaulle's decision to step down as president following voters' rejection of the April 1969 constitutional referendum showed that his commitment to democracy was not a rhetorical ploy. In foreign policy, Gaullists are identified with both realism and French exceptionalism, de Gaulle sought to impose French influence on the global order. Gaullists supported decolonization; this was reflected in de Gaulle's resolution of the Algeria crisis, influenced by de Gaulle's realpolitik, or "keen sense of political expediency." De Gaulle realized that decolonization was inevitable, that a continued crisis and extended Algerian War would harm the French economy and perpetuate national disunity. Accordingly, "de Gaulle felt that it was in France's best interests to grant independence and desist from military engagement," thereby preserving French unity and grandeur. Gaullists emphasize t
Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
Annie Genevard is a French politician representing the Republicans. She was elected to the French National Assembly on 18 June 2017, representing the department of Doubs. French legislative election, 2017
Rue de Vaugirard
Rue de Vaugirard is the longest street inside Paris' walls, at 4.3 km. It spans the 15th arrondissements. Rue de Vaugirard is a one-way street from the Latin Quarter towards the edge of Paris. Traffic flows in both directions between the Place de l'Odéon. Numbering starts in the Latin Quarter, it is one of the longest streets in Paris. "Vaugirard" came from an old French noun-and-genitive construction "val Girard" = "valley of Girard", after an Abbé Girard, who owned the land over which the road passes. The road appeared in the 15th century, led from Philip II's city walls towards the village of Vaugirard; this route was itself based on an old Roman road. A substantial chunk of Line 12 of the Paris Metro follows Rue de Vaugirard; the following stations have entrances on the road: Porte de Versailles Convention Vaugirard Volontaires Pasteur Falguière Saint Placide
Christian Jacob (politician)
Christian Jacob was the Minister of French Civil Service in Jacques Chirac's second term as President of France. Before being appointed to cabinet position in 2002, he was deputy for the 4th circonscription of Seine-et-Marne. A farmer, Christian Jacob has been in position of responsibility in farm trade unions, local, départemental, regional national, he was the President of the CNJA from 1992 to 1994. French government ministers
Nathalie Geneviève Marie Kosciusko-Morizet referred to by her initials NKM, is a French politician. She was deputy of the 4th electoral constituency of Essonne from 2002 to 2017, mayor of Longjumeau from 2008 to 2013, an unsuccessful mayoral candidate for Paris in the local elections in 2014, she has held the positions of Regional Councillor for Île-de-France. She was Assistant General Secretary of the UMP and spokesperson to Nicolas Sarkozy in the 2012 presidential election. Since standing for the Paris mayoralty in March 2014, she has been leader of the opposition of the Council of Paris. From December 2014 to December 2015 she was Vice President of the UMP. Kosciusko-Morizet was born on 14 May 1973, she was raised Roman Catholic. She comes from the Kosciusko-Morizets, her grandfather, Jacques Kosciusko was an academic, a member of the French Resistance during the war, a Gaullist politician and former French ambassador in the US whose father-in-law, André Morizet, was a socialist senator and mayor of Boulogne-Billancourt.
Her father François Kosciusko-Morizet was the mayor of Sèvres. She is the sister of Pierre Kosciusko-Morizet, one of the founders of Priceminister.com, the third ranked e-commerce site in France. According to genealogists, she is related to Lucrezia Borgia from her mother's side, the Treuille family, she graduated from the Collège des Ingénieurs. As a twenty-nine-year-old, she was elected a member of the French National Assembly in 2002, representing the department of Essonne, to the south of Paris, serving out the term for Pierre-André Wiltzer, appointed deputy minister, she was reelected in 2007 and 2012. She was elected mayor of Longjumeau in March 2008. In 2007, she became a state secretary in the French government responsible for the environment. In 2009 she became state secretary with responsibility for Forward Planning, Assessment of Public Policies and Development of the Digital Economy, before being appointed Minister for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing in November 2010. In 2012, she left her position as minister to become spokesperson for Nicolas Sarkozy during his presidential reelection campaign.
In February 2013, she announced she would be a candidate for the Mayor of Paris in the 2014 local elections. She faced among others Rachida Dati in the UMP primary election; the polls had Kosciusko-Morizet as a favourite to win the primary. She was endorsed by François Fillon. On June 3, 2013 she won UMP's primaries for the office of Mayor of Paris with 58.16% of the vote. In the Mayoral elections held on March 23 and March 30, 2014, Kosciusko-Morizet's UMP lists were defeated by the lists led by Socialist Deputy Mayor Anne Hidalgo, elected Mayor of Paris on April 4, 2015; the Socialist and Communist parties created a coalition with 91 councillors, while the UMP and UDI-Modem parties were relegated to the opposition with 71 councillors. After Nicolas Sarkozy's return in politics in 2014, she has been appointed vice-president of the UMP to represent the moderate fringe of the party, while her rival Laurent Wauquiez represented the hardline part. After the 2015 regional elections, during which Wauquiez ran in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, she has been ousted by Sarkozy after criticizing his strategy and was replaced by Wauquiez.
She announced her candidacy for the primary. Despite some difficulties, she got the sufficient number of supports to run, she finished fourth with only 2.6% of the vote, far behind Nicolas Sarkozy. She endorsed Alain Juppé for the second round. In the French legislative election of 2017, she stood in Paris's 2nd constituency held by former prime minister François Fillon. During the campaign, she was hospitalised for a night after falling on the pavement and hitting her head when a protester threw a batch of election leaflets in her face, she was defeated in the second round of the election by La République En Marche! Candidate Gilles Le Gendre. Although close to Jacques Chirac throughout his presidency, she is a strong advocate of green issues, can be described as a part of the "blue ecologists" group. In an interview to the Daily Telegraph in March 2013, she said she held "a lot of admiration" for former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, she is married to Jean-Pierre Philippe and has two sons, born in 2005 and 2009.
In March 2016, she announced that JP Philippe had divorced by mutual consent. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Ecology: 2007–2009. Secretary of State and Prospective Development of the Digital Economy: 2009–2010. Minister for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing: November 2010 – February 2012. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Essonne: 2002–2007. Elected in 2002, reelected in 2007. Regional Council Regional councillor of Ile-de-France: 2004–2010. Reelected in 2010. Municipal Council Mayor of Longjumeau: Since 2008. Municipal councillor of Longjumeau: Since 2008. Agglomeration Community Council Vice-president of the Europ'Essonne Agglomeration Community Council: Since 2008. Member of the Europ'Essonne Agglomeration Community Council: Since 2008. Mme Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, Assemblée nationale
The Senate is the upper house of the French Parliament. Indirectly elected by elected officials, it represents territorial collectivities of the Republic and French citizens living abroad; the Senate enjoys less prominence than the directly elected National Assembly. The Senate is housed inside the Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, it is guarded by Republican Guards. In front of the building lies the Senate's gardens, the Jardin du Luxembourg, open to the public. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. There were Senates in both the First and Second Empires, but these were only nominally legislative bodies – technically they were not legislative, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life.
The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was replaced by the Council of the Republic, but its function was the same. With the new Constitution of the Fifth Republic enforced on 4 October 1958, the older name of Senate was restored. In 2011, the Socialist Party won control of the Senate for the first time since the foundation of the Fifth Republic. In 2014, the centre-right Gaullists and its allies won back the control of the Senate. Under the Constitution of France, the Senate has nearly the same powers as the National Assembly. Bills may be submitted by either house of Parliament; because both houses may amend the bill, it may take several readings to reach an agreement between the National Assembly and the Senate. When the Senate and the National Assembly cannot agree on a bill, the administration can decide, after a procedure called commission mixte paritaire, to give the final decision to the National Assembly, whose majority is on the government's side, but as regarding the constitutionnal laws the administration must have the Senate's agreement.
This does not happen frequently. This power however gives the National Assembly a prominent role in the law-making process since the administration is of the same side as the Assembly, for the Assembly can dismiss the administration through a motion of censure; the power to pass a vote of censure, or vote of no confidence, is limited. As was the case in the Fourth Republic's constitution, new cabinets do not have to receive a vote of confidence. A vote of censure can occur only after 10 percent of the members sign a petition. If the petition gets the required support, a vote of censure must gain an absolute majority of all members, not just those voting. If the Assembly and the Senate have politically distinct majorities, the Assembly will in most cases prevail, open conflict between the two houses is uncommon; the Senate is the representative of the territories and defends the regions and mayors, see the article 24 of the Constitution. The Senate serves to monitor the administration's actions by publishing many reports each year on various topics.
Until September 2004, the Senate had 321 members, each elected to a nine-year term. That month, the term was reduced to six years, while the number of senators progressively increased to 348 in 2011, in order to reflect the country's population growth. Senators were elected in thirds every three years; the President of the Senate is elected by Senators from among their members. The current incumbent is Gérard Larcher; the President of the Senate is, under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, first in the line of succession—in case of death, resignation or removal from office —to the presidency of the French Republic, becoming Acting President of the Republic until a new election can be held. This happened twice for Alain Poher—once at the resignation of Charles de Gaulle and once at the death of Georges Pompidou; the President of the Senate has the right to designate three of the nine members of the Constitutional Council, serving for nine years. Senators are elected indirectly by 150,000 officials, including regional councillors, department councillors, municipal councillors in large communes, as well as members of the National Assembly.
However, 90 % of the electors are delegates appointed by councillors. This system introduces a bias in the composition of the Senate favoring rural areas; as a consequence, while the political majority changes in the National Assembly, the Senate has remained politically right, with one brief exception, since the foundation of the Fifth Republic, much to the displeasure of the Socialists. This has spurred controversy after the 2008 election in which the Socialist Party, despite controlling all but two of France's regions, a majority of departments, as well as communes representing more than 50 % of the population, still failed to achieve a majority in the Senate. The