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The Reverend

The Reverend is an honorific style most placed before the names of Christian clergy and ministers. There are sometimes differences in the way the style is used in different countries and church traditions; the Reverend is called a style but is and in some dictionaries called a title, form of address or title of respect. The style is sometimes used by leaders in non-Christian religions, such as Judaism; the term is an anglicisation of the Latin reverendus, the style used in Latin documents in medieval Europe. It is the gerundive or future passive participle of the verb revereri, meaning " to be revered/must be respected"; the Reverend is therefore equivalent to The Venerable. It is paired with a modifier or noun for some offices in some religious traditions: Anglican archbishops and most Roman Catholic bishops are styled The Most Reverend. With Christian clergy, the forms His Reverence and Her Reverence is sometimes used, along with its parallel in direct address, Your Reverence; the abbreviation HR is sometimes used.

In traditional and formal English usage, both British and American, it is still considered incorrect to drop the definite article, before Reverend. In practice, the is not used in both written and spoken English; when the style is used within a sentence, the is in lower-case. The usual abbreviations for Reverend are Rev'd; the Reverend is traditionally used as an adjectival form with first names and surname. Use of the prefix with the surname alone is considered a solecism in traditional usage: it would be as irregular as calling the person in question "The Well-Respected Smith". In some countries Britain, Anglican clergy are acceptably addressed by the title of their office, such as Vicar, Rector, or Archdeacon. In the 20th and 21st centuries it has been common for reverend to be used as a noun and for clergy to be referred to as being either a reverend or the reverend or to be addressed as Reverend or, for example, Reverend Smith or the Reverend Smith; this has traditionally been considered grammatically incorrect on the basis that it is equivalent to referring to a judge as being an honourable or an adult man as being a mister.

Although it is formally an incorrect use of the term, Reverend is sometimes used alone, without a name, as a reference to a member of the clergy and treated as a normal English noun requiring a definite or indefinite article but such usage is incorrect. It is incorrect to form the plural Reverends; some dictionaries, however, do place the noun rather than the adjective as the word's principal form, owing to an increasing use of the word as a noun among people with no religious background or knowledge of traditional styles of ecclesiastical address. When several clergy are referred to, they are styled individually. In some churches Protestant churches in the United States, ordained ministers are addressed as Pastor. Pastor, however, is considered more correct in some churches when the minister in question is the head of a church or congregation; some Protestant churches style their male ministers The Reverend Mister and a variation for female ministers. Male Christian priests are addressed as Father or, for example, as Father John or Father Smith.

However, in official correspondence, such priests are not referred to as Father John, Father Smith, or Father John Smith, but as The Reverend John Smith. Father as an informal title is used for Roman Catholic and Old Catholic priests and for many priests of the Anglican and Lutheran churches. In England, however Roman Catholic priests were referred to as "Mr" until the 20th century except when members of a religious order. "Mr" is still not incorrect for priests of the Church of England. Some female Anglican or Old Catholic priests use the style The Reverend Mother and are addressed as Mother. In a unique case, Reverend was used to refer to a local administrative body. "Reverend Coetus" and "Reverend assembly" were used to refer to the entire body of local officials during the transformation of the Dutch Reformed Church in the mid-18th century. The Reverend may be modified to reflect ecclesiastical rank. Modifications vary across religious countries; some common examples are: Religious sisters may be styled as Reverend Sister, though this is more common in Italy than in, for example, the United States.

They may be addressed as Sister. Deacons are addressed as The Reverend Deacon, or Father Deacon, or Deacon, if ordained permanently to the diaconate; the Reverend Mister may be used for seminiarians who are ordained to the diaconate, before being ordained presbyters. Priests, whether diocesan, or in an order of canons regular, in a monastic or a mendicant order, or clerics regular The Reverend or The Reverend Father. Protonotaries Apostolic, Prelates of Honor and Chaplains of His Holiness

Takotna Airport

Takotna Airport is a state owned, public use airport located one nautical mile north of Takotna, in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the U. S. state of Alaska. As per the Federal Aviation Administration, this airport had 206 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 128 in 2009, 190 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a general aviation facility. Takotna Airport covers an area of 7 acres at an elevation of 422 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 4/22 with a gravel surface measuring 4,000 by 75 feet. FAA Alaska airport diagram Topographic map from USGS The National Map Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for TCT AirNav airport information for TCT ASN accident history for TCT FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for TCT

Bernard Petitjean

Bernard Thaddée Petitjean was a French Roman Catholic priest who served as a missionary to Japan as well as becoming the country's first vicar apostolic. He was studied at the minor and major seminaries in Autun, he was ordained into the priesthood on 21 May 1853 and became a professor at the minor seminary in Autun followed by a parish ministry between 1854 and 1856 at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs. He was preached in several villages. On 27 December 1858 he was made almoner to the nuns of order of the Sisters of the Infant Jesus at Chauffailles - this experience of apostolic ministry and of spiritual direction moved him to enter the Missions étrangères de Paris seminary aged thirty. Nine months he set out for Japan, to which he had been designated by his superiors, he stayed for two years on the Ryūkyū Islands in 1863 moved to Yokohama Nagasaki with R. P. Furet. Japan had just been forced to re-admit foreigners after banning them for many years, he became a French teacher and took part in the construction of a church dedicated to the Twenty-Six Martyrs of Japan, overlooking the sea - it was designed by Girard and Furet and opened on 19 February 1865.

A few weeks after the church opened, it was where Petitjean met the descendants of the Kakure Kirishitan or'hidden Christians', who were drawn there by the construction of the church and its cross, like the crosses they had hidden in their homes. Simple fishing people or artisans, they only discretely introduced themselves to him, fearful of eventual reprisals, he decided to visit their villages. By 8 June 1865, Petitjean had met twenty five hidden Christians, who had kept up certain prayers, a cross and meeting with an elder. Pope Pius IX made Petitjean bishop of Myriophite in partibus and vicar apostolic of Japan on 11 May 1866, he was consecrated a bishop by Guillemin in Hong Kong the following 21 October. The imperial Japanese government imprisoned and killed many Christians in a wave of reprisals and in April and June 1868 two edicts forbade Christianity. From October 1869 to January 1870, 4,500 Christians were taken from Urakami and exiled to the Goto Islands by sea. Petitjean took part in the First Vatican Council in Rome.

He wrote to the Japanese authorities and to the representatives of the French government, but to no avail after the fall of Napoleon III's regime. The imperial repression of Christianity only ended in 1873 and that year Petitjean was allowed back by the Japanese authorities only on the condition that he only give the sacraments to foreign soldiers and merchants in Japan's ports. Pius IX sent Petitjean the apostolic letter Dum asperrimam in May 1873 to express his joy at the end of the persecution and the start of a limited degree of tolerance of Christianity by the authorities. Peitjean and his auxiliary bishop Laucaigne had to set up a Catholic hierarchy and structures in Japan from scratch. Missionaries were sent including some on scholarly and scientific missions. Nuns came over from the Sisters of the Infant Jesus nunneries at Saint-Maur and Chauffailles, sent by their founder, Mother Reine Antier. Towards the end of 1875, Petitjean went to Rome to ask that his vicariate be divided in two between north and south Japan, with him retaining the former.

The latter was entrusted to Pierre-Marie Osouf - Petitjean was one of two bishops to consecrate him in 1877 in the chapel of the Missions étrangères on rue de Bac in Paris. Based in Osaka, where he built a church, he returned to Nagasaki, he was buried at the foot of the altar in Oura Church. At the time of his death Japan had 30,230 Christians, two bishops, 53 European missionaries, three Japanese-born priests, two seminaries with 79 students and 65 schools with 3,331 pupils. Gules, a statue of Our Lady, bearing the Infant Christ in her arms, standing on a cloud at the base of the shield Motto: Ipse conteret caput. - Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis. Missions étrangères de Paris - Biography of Petitjean