The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters, Jagger–Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor. Taylor was replaced in 1975 by Ronnie Wood who has since remained. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers, Exile on Main St.. It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World"; the band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour. Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit.
By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales is 200 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US. In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary, they still continue to release albums to critical acclaim.
The group continues to sell out venues, with their recent No Filter Tour running for two years and concluding in August 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated; the group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts.
After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and Richards. In June 1962 the addition of the drummer Tony Chapman completed the line-up of Jagger, Richards, J
The Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa is a commitment by ten African countries to a multiyear process in favour of sustainable development. In May 2012, the heads of state of Botswana, Ghana, Liberia, Namibia, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania gathered in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana, for a two-day Summit for Sustainability in Africa, in the company of several public and private partners. At the summit, they adopted the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa. By adopting the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa, these ten countries have engaged in a multi-year process, they have recommitted to implementing all conventions and declarations promoting sustainable development and undertaken to: integrate the value of natural capital into national accounting and corporate planning and reporting processes and programmes. The overall objective of the Declaration was ‘to ensure that the contributions of natural capital to sustainable economic growth and improvement of social capital and human well-being are quantified and integrated into development and business practice.’ This statement was propelled by the signatories’ realization that GDP has its limitations as a measure of well-being and sustainable growth.
The interim secretariat of this initiative is being hosted by the Department of Environmental Affairs within the Botswanan Ministry of Environment Wildlife and Tourism, with technical support from Conservation International, a non-governmental organization. Conservation International has pledged funding for a situational analysis which will provide baseline information on where the ten countries stand with respect to the agreed actions outlined above and set priorities for moving forward. Since the 2012 summit, an implementation framework has been drafted to track progress. In 2012, Gabon adopted Emerging Gabon: Strategic Plan to 2025; the Strategic Plan identifies two parallel challenges: the need to diversify an economy dominated by oil exports and the imperative of reducing poverty and fostering equal opportunity. In conformity with the Gaborone Declaration, natural capital is to be integrated into the national accounting system; the plan foresees the adoption of a national climate plan to limit Gabon’s greenhouse gas emissions and forge an adaptation strategy, among other moves to foster sustainable development.
The National Climate Plan was presented to the president in November 2013 by the National Council on Climate Change, a body created by presidential decree in April 2010. The government has created a joint Centre for Environmental Research with the University of Oregon that will focus on the mitigation of, adaptation to, climate change and environmental governance, including the development of ecotourism; the share of hydropower in Gabon’s electricity matrix is to progress from 40% in 2010 to 80% by 2020. In parallel, inefficient thermal power stations are to be replaced with clean ones to bring the share of clean energy to 100%. By 2030, Gabon plans to export 3 000 MW of hydropower to its neighbours. Efforts will be made to improve energy efficiency and reduce pollution in such areas as construction and transportation; this new paradigm is to be ensconced in a law on sustainable development which will create a fund compensating the negative effects of development. This law was adopted in August 2014.
The law has raised some concerns in civil society as to whether it will protect the territorial rights of third parties those of local and indigenous communities. The three pillars of Emerging Gabon: Strategic Plan to 2025 are: Green Gabon: to develop the country’s natural resources in a sustainable manner, beginning with an inventory of 22 million ha of forest, 1 million ha of arable land, 13 national parks and 800 km of coastline. In order to adapt university curricula to market needs, existing universities will be modernized and a Cité verte de l’éducation et du savoir will be created in the heart of the country in Booué. Constructed using green materials and running on green energy, this complex will group a campus, research centres and modern housing. Foreign universities will be encouraged to set up campuses on site, it was Botswana which hosted the Summit for Sustainability in Africa in 2012. In 2013, Botswana initiated the development of a National Climate Change Action Plan. A climate change policy will be developed first, followed by the strategy.
The Adoration of the Magi is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was given the commission by the Augustinian monks of San Donato in Scopeto in Florence in 1481, but he departed for Milan the following year, leaving the painting unfinished, it has been in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 1670. The Virgin Mary and Child are depicted in the foreground and form a triangular shape with the Magi kneeling in adoration. Behind them is a semicircle of accompanying figures, including what may be a self-portrait of the young Leonardo. In the background on the left is the ruin of a pagan building, on which workmen can be seen repairing it. On the right are men on horseback fighting and a sketch of a rocky landscape; the ruins are a possible reference to the Basilica of Maxentius, according to Medieval legend, the Romans claimed would stand until a virgin gave birth. It is supposed to have collapsed on the night of Christ's birth; the ruins dominate a preparatory perspective drawing by Leonardo, which includes the fighting horsemen.
The palm tree in the center has associations with the Virgin Mary due to the phrase "You are stately as a palm tree" from the Song of Solomon, believed to prefigure her. Another aspect of the palm tree can be the usage of the palm tree as a symbol of victory for ancient Rome, whereas in Christianity it is a representation of martyrdom—triumph over death—so in conclusion we can say that the palm in general represents triumph; the other tree in the painting is from the carob family, the seeds from the tree are used as a unit of measurement. They measure valuable jewels; this tree and its seeds are associated with crowns, suggesting Christ as the king of kings or the Virgin as the future queen of heaven, as well as that this is nature's gift to the new born Christ. As with Michelangelo's Doni Tondo, the background is supposed to represent the Pagan world supplanted by the Christian world, as inaugurated by the events in the foreground; the artist uses bright colors to illuminate the figures in the foreground of the painting.
Jesus and the Virgin Mary are, in fact, painted the color of light. The trees are painted an unusual color for trees of any kind. On the right side the most credible self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci as a 30-year-old can be seen, according to several critics. Much of the composition of this painting was influenced by an earlier work of the Northern artist Rogier van der Weyden; the relationship between figures and the viewer's standpoint, the high horizon raised viewpoint, space receding into the far distance, a central figural group poised before a rock formation in the middle of the landscape are all copied from van der Weyden's Entombment of Christ. Owing to the painting's unfinished status in 1481, the commission was handed over to Filippino Lippi, who painted another Adoration of the Magi, completed in 1496, in substitution of the one commissioned to Leonardo, it is housed in the Uffizi in Florence. Domenico Ghirlandaio completed a separate painting, expanding upon Leonardo's theme, in 1488.
In 2002, Dr. Maurizio Seracini, an art diagnostician alumnus of the University of California, San Diego and a native Florentine, was commissioned by the Uffizi to undertake a study of the paint surface to determine whether the painting could be restored without damaging it. Seracini, who heads Editech, a Florence-based company he founded in 1977 focused on the "diagnostics of cultural heritage", used high-resolution digital scans as well as thermographic, ultrasound and infrared diagnostic techniques to study the painting in ultra-fine detail, he concluded that the painting could not be restored without damaging it and that Leonardo only did the underdrawing. Another artist was responsible for all of the existing paintwork on top of the underdrawing. Seracini stated that "none of the paint we see on the Adoration today was put there by Leonardo." As a part of his diagnostic survey on the Adoration of the Magi, Seracini completed more than 2,400 detailed infrared photographic records of the painting's elaborate underdrawing, scientific analyses.
The new images revealed by the diagnostic techniques used by Seracini were made public in 2002 in an interview with New York Times reporter Melinda Henneberger. In 2005, nearing the end of his investigation, Seracini gave another interview, this time to Guardian reporter John Hooper. Seracini published his results in 2006: M. Seracini, "Diagnostic Investigations on the Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci" in The Mind of Leonardo – The Universal Genius at Work, exhibit catalogue edited by P. Gauluzzi, Giunti Florence, 2006, pp. 94–101. In the Smithsonian Channel TV program, Da Vinci Detective, Seracini conjectures that, upon seeing the preliminary drawings for the altarpiece they had commissioned, they rejected it due to the sensational scenario presented to them. Expecting a traditional interpretation including the three wise men, they were instead confronted with a maelstrom of unrelated, half-emaciated figures surrounding the Christ-Child, as well as a full-blown battle scene in the rear of the picture.
They chose instead to relegate it to a storage house, rather than to destroy the original work. It was only much and in the context of the subsequent rise in value of Leonardo artworks, that it was resurrected and painted over by unknown persons to make it more "sale-able." This re-working of the panel resulted in alterations to Leonardo's original design for the piece. The Uffizi Gallery has completed a six-year restoration of the work, it has been cleaned with years of dirt and old varnish