Colin George Blakely was a Northern Irish actor. He is known for his roles in the films A Man for All Seasons, The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, Murder on the Orient Express, Equus. Born in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, Blakely attended Sedbergh School in Yorkshire. At 18 he started work in his family's sports goods shop, before going on to work as a timber-loader on the railways. In 1957, after a spell of amateur dramatics with the Bangor Drama Club, he turned professional with the Group Theatre, Belfast. In 1957, at the age of 27, Blakely made his stage debut as Dick McCardle in Master of the House, he appeared in several Ulster Group Theatre productions, including Gerard McLarnon's Bonefire and Patricia O'Connor's A Sparrow Falls. From 1957 to 1959 he was at the Royal Court Theatre, appearing in Cock-A-Doodle Dandy, Serjeant Musgrave's Dance and, to critical approval, The Naming of Murderers Rock. In 1961, he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company at Stratford-upon-Avon and from 1963 to 1968 was with the National Theatre at the Old Vic.
On television, director Charles Crichton unusually cast Blakely in two different roles during the same run of episodes of the 1967 series Man in a Suitcase. In 1969, Blakely's controversial role as Jesus Christ in Dennis Potter's Son of Man gained him wide recognition. From that time onwards, he was a regular on British television, in the same year played the leading role in a BBC adaptation of Anthony Trollope's The Way We Live Now. Among the many stage plays in which he appeared were The Recruiting Officer, Saint Joan, The Royal Hunt of the Sun, Filumena Marturano and Oedipus, he returned to the Royal Shakespeare in 1972 in Harold Pinter's Old Times and was subsequently in many West End plays. Film roles included Maurice Braithwaite in This Sporting Life, Vahlin in The Long Ships, Dr. Watson to Robert Stephens's Holmes in The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, Joseph Stalin in Jack Gold's Red Monarch. In the 1975 British film, It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet, derived from the James Herriot books, Blakely played the eccentric Siegfried Farnon.
He appeared in A Man for All Seasons, Young Winston, The National Health, Murder on the Orient Express, The Pink Panther Strikes Again, The Dogs of War and Evil Under the Sun. A noted Shakespearean actor, Blakely appeared on television as Antony in Antony and Cleopatra, directed by Jonathan Miller as part of the BBC Television Shakespeare series. Other television appearances included Loophole, The Beiderbecke Affair, Operation Julie and Paradise Postponed. Blakely was married to British actress Margaret Whiting for 26 years and had three sons, including twins, he died of leukaemia at the peak of his career, aged 56. Colin Blakely on IMDb Colin Blakely at the TCM Movie Database
Arthur Christopher Orme Plummer is a Canadian actor whose career has spanned six decades, beginning with his film debut in Stage Struck. He is known for portraying Captain Georg von Trapp in The Sound of Music, has portrayed numerous major historical figures, including Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in Waterloo, Rudyard Kipling in The Man Who Would Be King, Mike Wallace in The Insider, Leo Tolstoy in The Last Station, Kaiser Wilhelm II in The Exception, J. Paul Getty in All the Money in the World. Plummer has received various accolades for his work, including an Academy Award, a Genie Award, two Emmy Awards, two Tony Awards, a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a British Academy Film Award, he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor at the age of 82 for Beginners, becoming the oldest actor to win an acting award, he received a nomination at the age of 88 for All the Money in the World, making him the oldest person to be nominated in an acting category. Plummer was born on December 1929 in Toronto, Ontario.
He is the only child of Isabella Mary, an artist, secretary to the Dean of Sciences at McGill University, John Orme Plummer, who sold stocks and securities. His great-grandfather on his mother's side was Canadian Prime Minister Sir John Abbott, his father's uncle was patent lawyer and agent F. B. Fetherstonhaugh. Plummer is a second cousin of British actor Nigel Bruce, known as Doctor Watson to Basil Rathbone's Sherlock Holmes, his parents divorced shortly after his birth, he was brought up in the Abbott family home in Senneville, Quebec outside of Montreal. He speaks both French fluently. Plummer began studying to be a concert pianist, but he developed a love for theatre at an early age, he began acting while he was attending the High School of Montreal, he attended McGill where he took up acting, after watching Laurence Olivier's film Henry V. In 1946, he caught the attention of Montreal Gazette's theatre critic Herbert Whittaker with his performance as Mr. Darcy in the Montreal High School production of Pride and Prejudice.
Whittaker was amateur stage director of the Montreal Repertory theatre, he cast Plummer at age 18 as Oedipus in Jean Cocteau's La Machine infernale. Plummer made his Broadway debut in January 1953 in The Starcross Story, a show that closed on opening night, his next Broadway appearance, Home is the Hero, lasted 30 performances from September to October 1954. He appeared in support of Broadway legend Katharine Cornell and film legend Tyrone Power in The Dark is Light Enough, which lasted 69 performances from February to April 1955; the play toured several cities, with Plummer serving as Power's understudy. That same year, he appeared in his first Broadway hit, opposite Julie Harris in Jean Anouilh's The Lark. After appearing in Night of the Auk, not a success, Plummer appeared in Elia Kazan's successful Broadway production of Archibald MacLeish's Pulitzer Prize-winning play J. B.. Plummer appeared less on Broadway in the 1960s as he moved from New York to London, he appeared in the title role in a 1963 production of Bertolt Brecht's The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui, which did not succeed, but he had a great success in Peter Shaffer's The Royal Hunt of the Sun, playing conquistador Francisco Pizarro to David Carradine's Tony Award-nominated Atahuallpa.
From May to June 1973, he appeared on Broadway as the title character in Cyrano, a musical adaptation of Edmond Rostand's 1897 play Cyrano de Bergerac by Anthony Burgess and Michael J. Lewis. For that performance, Plummer won the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical and a Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance; that year, he played Anton Chekhov in Neil Simon's adaptation of several Chekhov short stories, The Good Doctor. In the 1980s, he appeared on Broadway in two Shakespearean tragedies, playing Iago to James Earl Jones' Moor, the title role in Macbeth with Glenda Jackson playing his lady, his Iago brought him another Tony nomination. He appeared with Jason Robards in the 1994 revival of Harold Pinter's No Man's Land and had great success in 1997 in Barrymore, which he toured with after a successful Broadway run, his turn as John Barrymore brought him his second Tony Award and a Drama Desk Award as Outstanding Actor in a Play. He was nominated for a Tony Award and a Drama Desk Award for his 2004 King Lear and for a Tony playing Henry Drummond in the 2007 revival of Inherit the Wind.
Plummer made his debut at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in 1956, playing the title role in Henry V, which subsequently was performed that year at the Edinburgh Festival. He played the title role in Hamlet and Sir Andrew Aguecheek in Twelfth Night at Stratford in 1957; the following year, he played Leontes in The Winter's Tale, Bardolph, in Henry IV, Part 1, Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing. In 1960, he played Philip the Bastard in King John and Mercutio in Juliet. In 1962, he played the title roles in both Cyrano de Bergerac and Macbeth, returning in 1967 to play Mark Antony in Antony and Cleopatra. In 2002, he appeared in a lauded production of King Lear, directed by Jonathan Miller; the production transferred to New York City's Lincoln Center in 2004. He returned to the stage at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in August 2008 in a critically acclaimed performance as Julius Caesar in George Bernard Shaw's C
John Keith Vernon was a Canadian actor. He made a career in Hollywood after achieving initial television stardom in Canada, he was best known for playing Dean Wormer in Animal House, his role as the Mayor in Dirty Harry and as Fletcher in The Outlaw Josey Wales. Vernon was born Adolphus Raymondus Vernon Agopsowicz in Saskatchewan, he was one of two sons of Adolf Agopsowicz, a grocer, his wife Eleonore Krückel. Both parents' families immigrated to the Edenwold district in the late 19th century from the Austrian crownland and duchy of Bukovina; the Agopsowicz family were part of the community of Armenians in Poland. Vernon was of Armenian and Polish descent. From 1935 to 1953 he attended St. Joseph's School and Campion College in Regina, where his acting career began under the direction of Rev. Arthur Nelson, S. J. and Mary Ellen Burgess at Regina Little Theatre. Vernon was educated at the Banff School of Fine Arts and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London before becoming a live stage actor for CBC Television's dramatic programs.
In 1974, he completed a season at The Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-Upon-Avon, playing Malvolio. Vernon made his screen debut in 1956 as the voice of Big Brother in Michael Anderson's film version of George Orwell's 1984 starring Edmond O'Brien, he returned to Canada afterwards and gained film experience appearing on the TV series Tugboat Annie and The Last of the Mohicans. He made his Broadway debut in 1964 as DeSoto opposite Christopher Plummer and David Carradine in The Royal Hunt of the Sun. During the Golden Age of CBC Drama in the 1960s he co-starred in Edna O'Brien's A Cheap Bunch of Nice Flowers, opposite Colleen Dewhurst, in Uncle Vanya, opposite William Hutt and Rita Gam, he appeared in the CBC series Wojeck in the late 1960s, playing a crime-fighting medical examiner, but left to further his acting career in the United States. In 1967, he appeared opposite Lee Marvin in Point Blank. In 1969, he played Cuban revolutionary Rico Parra in Alfred Hitchcock's Cold War-era spy movie Topaz.
He appeared on The High Chaparral as the leader of a group of striking Irish Miners in "No Irish Need Apply". In 1970, he guest-starred in the Hawaii Five-O episode "Force Of Waves" as Cal Anderson, he appeared in the two-part episode "The Banker" of The Silent Force in 1971. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, he made four appearances over five years on the TV series Mission: Impossible as four different lead villains. In 1974, Vernon turned in a supporting performance in Mary Jane Harper Cried Last Night. In 1971, he played the by-the-book mayor of San Francisco, perpetually frustrated by Clint Eastwood, in the first Dirty Harry movie, he parodied this role in the premiere episode of Sledge Hammer! and One More Train to Rob. In 1972 he appeared. In 1973 he appeared in Charley Varrick. In 1974 he co starred in the film The Black Windmill with Donald Pleasence. In 1974, he appeared in The Questor Tapes. In 1975, he starred alongside John Wayne and Richard Attenborough. In 1976, he played Fletcher in Eastwood's The Outlaw Josey Wales.
Vernon played Dean Vernon Wormer of fictional Faber College in Animal House. He played Mr. Prindle in Herbie Goes Bananas, Dr. Stone, Ted Striker's psychiatrist, in Airplane II: The Sequel, Sherman Krader in Ernest Goes to Camp. In 1979, Vernon played villainous American bigot Jonathon Pritts in New Mexico, trying to steal the land from Mexican landowners in the Louis L'Amour story of The Sacketts, he appeared in several cult exploitation and action films in the 1980s, most notably Chained Heat and Savage Streets, both starring Linda Blair, Jungle Warriors, opposite Sybil Danning. He made light of his villain image in the 1988 Blaxploitation spoof I'm Gonna Git You Sucka: a character thinks Vernon should be "above exploitation films" and Vernon replies that lots of famous actors have done exploitation films, listing Jamie Lee Curtis, Angie Dickinson, Shelley Winters as examples. Vernon played "Ted Jarrett" in the season two The A-Team episode "Labor Pains". Vernon played "Cameron Zachary" in the season two Knight Rider episode "A Good Knight's Work".
Vernon played "John Bradford Horn" in the season three Airwolf episode "Discovery". In 1986, he played the Principal in Fuzz Bucket, he played Sergeant Curt Mooney in Killer Klowns from Outer Space and was a lead in the short-lived 1990s series Acapulco H. E. A. T. In Charley Varrick, he played a mafia boss. Vernon guest-starred as the grouchy principal Dinkler in "Brad to Worse", an episode of Duckman on USA Network. Vernon did extensive voice work, he voiced the Prosecutor on the animated film Heavy Metal. He worked on such animated TV series as The Marvel Super Heroes portraying Tony Stark/Iron Man and Sub-Mariner among others, Batman: The Animated Series, The Incredible Hulk, Spider-Man, The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy and Delgo. Vernon was the father of actresses Kate and Nan Vernon, son, actor Chris Vernon. Vernon died of complications following heart surgery on February 1, 2005, in Westwood, only 23 days shy of his 73rd birthday, he was cremated after a private funeral service. John Vernon on IMDb John Vernon at Find a Grave
The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other
Atahualpa Atahuallpa, Atabalipa or Atawallpa was the last Inca Emperor. After defeating his brother, Atahualpa became briefly the last Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire before the Spanish conquest. Before Huayna Capac died in Quito, he appointed Ninan Yao as his successor. Ninan died of the same disease, without his father's knowledge; the Cusquenian nobles named Huáscar as Sapa Inca, he appointed his brother Atahualpa as governor of Quito. Huáscar declared war on Atahualpa, for fear that he would try to carry out a coup d'état against him. Atahualpa became Inca emperor after he defeated and imprisoned Huáscar and massacred any pretenders to the throne at the close of the civil war. While imprisoned by the Spaniards, Atahualpa gave orders to kill Huáscar in Jauja, thinking Huáscar would use the Spaniards as allies to regain his throne. During the Spanish conquest, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca Empire; the Spanish executed Atahualpa ending the empire.
A succession of emperors, who led the Inca resistance against the invading Spaniards, claimed the title of Sapa Inca as rulers of the Neo-Inca State, but the empire began to disintegrate after Atahualpa's death. Throughout the Inca Empire's history, each Sapa Inca worked to expand the territory of the empire; when Pachacuti, the 9th Sapa Inca ruled, he expanded the Empire to northern Peru. At this point, Pachacuti sent his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui to invade and conquer the territory of present-day Ecuador. News of the expansion of the Inca reached the different nations of Ecuador; as a defense against the Inca, the Andean chiefdoms formed alliances with each other. Around 1460, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, with an army of 200,000 warriors that were sent by his father gained control of the Palta nation in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in a matter of months. However, the Inca army met fierce resistance from the defending Cañari, which left the Incas so impressed that after they were defeated the Cañari were recruited into the Inca army.
In northern Ecuador the Inca army met fiercer resistance from an alliance between the Quitus and the Cañari. After defeating them in the battle of Atuntaqui, Tupac Yupanqui sent settlers to what is now the city of Quito and left as governor Chalco Mayta, belonging to the Inca nobility. Around 1520, the tribes of Quitos and Puruhá rebelled against the Inca Huayna Cápac, he led his army, defeated the rebels in the battle of Laguna de Yahuarcocha where there was such a massacre that the lake turned to blood. The alliance of the northern tribes collapsed and ended when Huayna Cápac married Paccha Duchicela, queen of the Quitos, making them recognize him as monarch, this marriage was the basis of the alliance that guaranteed the Inca power in the area. After Huayna Capac died in 1525, Atahualpa was appointed governor of Quito by his brother Huáscar. Atahualpa defeated Huáscar's armies, sent because the Inca thought his brother could overthrow him, in the process conquered and ruled the Inca Empire as Sapa Inca.
His rule lasted only a few months before he was captured by the army of Francisco Pizarro, who sided with the Cuzco supporters of the executed Inca Huáscar. The Spanish conquerors executed Atahualpa in July 1533. Huáscar saw Atahualpa as the greatest threat to his power, but did not dethrone him to respect the wishes of his late father. A tense five-year peace ensued, Huáscar took advantage of that time to get the support of the Cañari, a powerful ethnic group that dominated extensive territories of the north of the empire and maintained grudges against Atahualpa, who had fought them during his father's campaigns. By 1529, the relationship between both brothers was quite deteriorated. According to the chronicler Pedro Pizarro, Huáscar sent an army to the North that ambushed Atahualpa in Tumebamba and defeated him. Atahualpa was succeeded in escaping. During his time in captivity, he was lost an ear. From on, he wore a headpiece that fastened under his chin to hide the injury. But, the chronicler Miguel Cabello de Balboa said that this story of capture was improbable because if Atahualpa had been captured by Huáscar's forces, they would have executed him immediately.
Atahualpa amassed a great army. He attacked the Cañari of Tumebamba, defeating its defenses and leveling the city and the surrounding lands, he arrived in Tumbes, from which he planned an assault by rafts on the island Puná. During the naval operation, Atahualpa returned to land. Taking advantage of his retreat, the "punaneños" attacked Tumbes, they destroyed the city, leaving it in the ruined state recorded by the Spaniards in early 1532. From Cuzco the Huascarites attacked the armies of general Atoc and defeated Atahualpa in the battle of Chillopampa; the Atahualapite generals responded quickly. They captured Atoc, tortured and killed him; the Atahualapite forces continued to be victorious, as a result of the strategic abilities of Quisquis and Calcuchimac. Atahualpa began a slow advance on Cuzco. While based in Marcahuamachuco, he sent an emissary to consult the oracle of the Huaca Catequil, who prophesied that Atahualpa's advance would end poorly. Furious at the prophecy, Atahualpa went to the sanctuary, killed the priest, ordered the temple to be destroyed.
During this period, he first learned that Pizarro and his expedition had arrived in the empi
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
English National Opera
English National Opera is an opera company based in London, resident at the London Coliseum in St Martin's Lane. It is one of the two principal opera companies in London, along with Covent Garden. ENO's productions are sung in English; the company's origins were in the late 19th century, when the philanthropist Emma Cons assisted by her niece Lilian Baylis, presented theatrical and operatic performances at the Old Vic, for the benefit of local people. Baylis subsequently built up both the opera and the theatre companies, added a ballet company. Baylis acquired and rebuilt the Sadler's Wells theatre in north London, a larger house, better suited to opera than the Old Vic; the opera company grew there into a permanent ensemble in the 1930s. During the Second World War, the theatre was closed and the company toured British towns and cities. After the war, the company returned to its home. By the 1960s, a larger theatre was needed. In 1968, the company moved to the London Coliseum and adopted its present name in 1974.
Among the conductors associated with the company have been Colin Davis, Reginald Goodall, Charles Mackerras, Mark Elder and Edward Gardner. The current music director of ENO is Martyn Brabbins. Noted directors who have staged productions at ENO have included David Pountney, Jonathan Miller, Nicholas Hytner, Phyllida Lloyd and Calixto Bieito. ENO's current artistic director is Daniel Kramer. In addition to the core operatic repertoire, the company has presented a wide range of works, from early operas by Monteverdi to new commissions and Broadway shows. In 1889, Emma Cons, a Victorian philanthropist who ran the Old Vic theatre in a working-class area of London, began presenting regular fortnightly performances of opera excerpts. Although the theatre licensing laws of the day prevented full costumed performances, Cons presented condensed versions of well-known operas, always sung in English. Among the performers were noted singers such as Charles Santley; these operatic evenings became more popular than the dramas that Cons had been staging separately.
In 1898, she recruited her niece Lilian Baylis to help run the theatre. At the same time she appointed Charles Corri as the Old Vic's musical director. Baylis and Corri, despite many disagreements, shared a passionate belief in popularising opera, hitherto the preserve of the rich and fashionable, they worked on a tiny budget, with an amateur chorus and a professional orchestra of only 18 players, for whom Corri rescored the instrumental parts of the operas. By the early years of the 20th century, the Old Vic was able to present semi-staged versions of Wagner operas. Emma Cons died in 1912, leaving her estate, including the Old Vic, to Baylis, who dreamed of transforming the theatre into a "people's opera house". In the same year, Baylis obtained a licence to allow the Old Vic to stage full performances of operas. In the 1914 -- 1915 season, Baylis staged 16 plays. In the years after the First World War, Baylis's Shakespeare productions, which featured some of the leading actors from London's West End, attracted national attention, as her shoe-string opera productions did not.
The opera, remained her first priority. The actor-manager Robert Atkins, who worked with Baylis on her Shakespearean productions, recalled, "Opera, on Thursday and Saturday nights, played to bulging houses." By the 1920s, Baylis concluded that the Old Vic no longer sufficed to house both her theatre and her opera companies. She noticed the empty and derelict Sadler's Wells theatre in Rosebery Avenue, Islington, on the other side of London from the Old Vic, she sought to run it in tandem with her existing theatre. Baylis made a public appeal for funds in 1925. With the help of the Carnegie Trust and many others, she acquired the freehold of Sadler's Wells. Work started on the site in 1926. By Christmas 1930, a new 1,640-seat theatre was ready for occupation; the first production there, a fortnight's run from 6 January 1931, was Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The first opera, given on 20 January, was Carmen. Eighteen operas were staged during the first season; the new theatre was more expensive to run than the Old Vic, as a larger orchestra and more singers were needed, box office receipts were at first inadequate.
In 1932, the Birmingham Post commented that the Vic-Wells opera performances did not reach the standards of the Vic-Wells Shakespeare productions. Baylis strove to improve operatic standards, while at the same time fending off attempts by Sir Thomas Beecham to absorb the opera company into a joint enterprise with Covent Garden, where he was in command. At first, the apparent financial security of the offer appeared attractive, but friends and advisers such as Edward J. Dent and Clive Carey convinced Bayliss that it was not in the interests of her regular audience; this view received strong support from the press. Any kind of amalgamation which made it the poor relation of the'Grand' season would be disastrous. At first, Baylis presented both opera at each of her theatres; the companies were known as the "Vic-Wells". However, for both aesthetic and financial reasons, by 1934, the Old Vic had become the home of the spoken drama, while Sadler's Wells housed both the opera and a ballet company, the latter co-founded by Baylis and Ninette de Valois in 1930.
Lawrance Collingwood joined the company as resident conductor alongside Corri. With the increased number of productions, guest conductors