The cat is a small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family; the cat is either a house cat, kept as a pet, or a feral cat ranging and avoiding human contact. A house cat is valued for its ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey, they are predators who are most active at dusk. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. Compared to humans, they see better in the dark and have a better sense of smell, but poorer color vision. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species. Cat communication includes the use of vocalizations including mewing, trilling, hissing and grunting as well as cat-specific body language.
Cats communicate by secreting and perceiving pheromones. Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. Domestic cats can be shown as registered pedigreed cats, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, evoking population control, it was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC. However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat was found in Cyprus, where a cat skeleton was excavated close by a human Neolithic grave dating to around 7500 BC. African wildcats were first domesticated in the Near East; the leopard cat was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U. S. by number of pets owned, with 95 million cats owned. As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned; the number of cats in the UK has nearly doubled since 1965. The origin of the English word cat and its counterparts in other Germanic languages, descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial, it has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus,'domestic cat', from catta, compare Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, Old Church Slavonic kotъ, among others. The Late Latin word is thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska,'wildcat', Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa. Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau,'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t, but John Huehnergard says "the source was not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."
Huehnergard opines it is "equally that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen considers the word to be native to Germanic and Northern Europe, suggests that it might be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi,'female stoat', Hungarian hölgy,'stoat'. In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort. An alternative word is English puss. Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Irish puisín or puiscín; the etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. A group of cats can be referred to a glaring. A male cat is called a tom or tomcat An unspayed female is called a queen in a cat-breeding context. A juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten.
In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling. The male progenitor of a cat a pedigreed cat, is its sire and its mother is its dam. A pedigreed cat is one. A purebred cat is one. Many pedigreed and purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats, or as random-bred, moggies, or mongrels or mutt-cats; the semi-feral cat, a outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are wary of human interaction. Domesti
James Branch Cabell
James Branch Cabell was an American author of fantasy fiction and belles lettres. Cabell was well regarded by his contemporaries, including H. L. Mencken, Edmund Wilson, Sinclair Lewis, his works were considered escapist and fit well in the culture of the 1920s, when they were most popular. For Cabell, veracity was "the one unpardonable sin, not against art, but against human welfare."Although escapist, Cabell's works are ironic and satirical. H. L. Mencken disputed Cabell's claim to romanticism and characterized him as "really the most acidulous of all the anti-romantics, his gaudy heroes... chase dragons as stockbrockers play golf." Cabell saw art as an escape from life, but once the artist creates his ideal world, he finds that it is made up of the same elements that make the real one. Interest in Cabell declined in the 1930s, a decline, attributed in part to his failure to move out of his fantasy niche despite the onset of World War II. Alfred Kazin said that "Cabell and Hitler did not inhabit the same universe".
Cabell was born into an affluent and well-connected Virginian family, lived most of his life in Richmond. The first Cabell settled in Virginia in 1664. Cabell County in West Virginia is named after the Governor. James Branch Cabell's grandfather, Robert Gamble Cabell, was a physician. James was the oldest of three boys—his brothers were Robert Gamble Cabell III and John Lottier Cabell, his parents separated and were divorced in 1907. His aunt was educationist Mary-Cooke Branch Munford. Although Cabell's surname is mispronounced "Ka-BELL", he himself pronounced it "CAB-ble." To remind an editor of the correct pronunciation, Cabell composed this rhyme: "Tell the rabble my name is Cabell." Cabell matriculated at the College of William and Mary in 1894 at the age of fifteen and graduated in June 1898. While an undergraduate, Cabell taught Greek at the College. According to his close friend and fellow author Ellen Glasgow, Cabell developed a friendship with a professor at the college, considered by some to be "too intimate" and, as a result Cabell was dismissed, although he was subsequently readmitted and finished his degree.
Following his graduation, he worked from 1898 to 1900 as a newspaper reporter in New York City, but returned to Richmond in 1901, where he worked several months on the staff of the Richmond News.1901 was an eventful year for Cabell: his first stories were accepted for publication, he was suspected of the murder of John Scott, a wealthy Richmonder. It was rumored. Cabell's supposed involvement in the Scott murder and his college "scandal" were both mentioned in Ellen Glasgow's posthumously published autobiography The Woman Within. In 1902, seven of Cabell's first stories appeared in national magazines and over the next decade he wrote many short stories and articles, contributing to nationally published magazines including Harper's Monthly Magazine and The Saturday Evening Post, as well as carrying out extensive research on his family's genealogy. Between 1911 and 1913, he was employed by his uncle in the office of the Branch coal mines in West Virginia. On November 8, 1913, he married Priscilla Bradley Shepherd, a widow with five children from her previous marriage.
In 1915, son Ballard Hartwell Cabell was born. Priscilla died in March 1949. During his life, Cabell published fifty-two books, including novels, collections of short stories and miscellanea, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1937. Cabell died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1958 in Richmond, was buried in the graveyard of the Emmanuel Church at Brook Hill; the following year the remains of his first wife were reinterred in Hollywood Cemetery. Significant Cabell collections are housed at various repositories, including Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Virginia. In 1970, Virginia Commonwealth University located in Richmond, named its main campus library "James Branch Cabell Library" in his honor. In the 1970s, Cabell's personal library and personal papers were moved from his home on Monument Avenue to the James Branch Cabell Library. Consisting of some 3,000 volumes, the collection includes manuscripts; the collection resides in the Special Archives department of the library.
The VCU undergraduate literary journal at the university is named Poictesme after the fictional province in his cycle Biography of the Life of Manuel. More VCU spent over $50 million to expand and modernize the James Branch Cabell Library to further entrench it as the premier library in the Greater Richmond Area and one of the top landmark libraries in the United States. In 2016 Cabell Library won the New Landmark Library Award; the Library Journal's website provides a virtual walking tour of the new James Branch Cabell Library. Cabell's best-known book, Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice, was the subject of a cel
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Charles Vess is an American fantasy artist and comics artist who has specialized in the illustration of myths and fairy tales. His influences include British "Golden Age" book illustrator Arthur Rackham, Czech Art Nouveau painter Alphonse Mucha, comic-strip artist Hal Foster, among others. Vess has won several awards for his illustrations. Charlies Vess began drawing comic art as a child, he graduated with a BFA from Virginia Commonwealth University in 1974. While at VCU, Vess' comics appeared in the Fan Free Funnies, a comic tabloid published by the student newspaper, his first professional position was as a commercial animator for Candy Apple Productions in Richmond, which he held for two years. In 1976 he became a freelance illustrator, he contributed illustrations to publications including Heavy Metal, Klutz Press, National Lampoon. One notable publication from this early period was The Horns of Elfland published by Archival Press in 1979, which Vess wrote and illustrated. From 1980-82 Vess worked as an art instructor at the Parsons School of Design in New York City.
During that period, his work appeared in one of the first major museum exhibitions of science fiction and fantasy art, held at the New Britain Museum of American Art in 1980. By the late 1980s Vess had found a niche in the world of fantasy comic art with publications such as The Raven Banner: A Tale of Asgard written by Alan Zelenetz and published by Marvel Comics in 1985, The Book of Night, published by Dark Horse Comics in 1987, "The Warriors Three Saga" in Marvel Fanfare #34-37, he painted the cover of the debut issue of Web of Spider-Man and drew a backup story in The Amazing Spider-Man #277, crafted the Spider-Man: Spirits of the Earth graphic novel. In 1991 he illustrated the official comic-book adaptation of Steven Spielberg’s Hook and had an eleven issue run as cover artist of Swamp Thing by DC Comics in 1993. In 1990, Vess began one of his best-known collaborations with writer Neil Gaiman, he illustrated "The Land of Summer's Twilight", one of the four episodes in the original The Books of Magic mini-series, worked on three issues of Gaiman’s critically acclaimed The Sandman series.
Sandman #19 is a meta-fictional adaptation of William Shakespeare's play and in 1991, that issue won the World Fantasy Award for Best Short Story, the only comic book to hold the honor, as award organizers subsequently amended the rules to exclude comics. Vess contributed eight drawings for a prose-based inset that appeared in Sandman #62 and illustrated the final issue of the series, Sandman #75, a second Shakespeare adaptation, he drew the covers for the Books of Faerie spin-off series Molly's Story. Between 1997 and 1998 the collaboration between Vess and Gaiman continued in the four-part series Stardust, a prose novella to which Vess contributed 175 paintings; the series was published in trade paperback form by DC Comics' Vertigo imprint. Stardust won an Alex Award from the American Library Association, it received a Mythopoeic Award, Vess was given the 1999 World Fantasy Award for Best Artist for his work on the series. In 1999, Vess's own Green Man Press produced a portfolio as a benefit for his wife Karen, injured in a car accident, titled A Fall of Stardust, which contained two chapbooks and a series of art plates.
Between 2004 and 2007 Vess adapted a poem by Neil Gaiman into Blueberry Girl. The book was published by HarperCollins in 2009. Beginning in 1995 Vess self-published a biannual series of comics entitled The Book of Ballads and Sagas through his Green Man Press. In this series Vess illustrated adaptations of traditional Scottish and English ballads written by a variety of contributors, including Emma Bull, Charles de Lint, Neil Gaiman, Sharyn McCrumb, Jeff Smith, Jane Yolen. Issues 1-4 were collected and published as Ballads in 1997; the work was reprinted as a hardback by Tor Books in 2004 with additional material, including an introduction by Terri Windling. Vess has illustrated a series of anthologies edited by Terri Windling and Ellen Datlow, published by Viking Press, they are: The Green Man: Tales from the Mythic Forest, The Faery Reel: Tales from the Twilight Realm, The Coyote Road: Trickster Tales. Vess worked with longtime friend and writer Charles de Lint on at least half a dozen publications, including Seven Wild Sisters and related projects A Circle of Cats, Medicine Road, along with others mentioned above.
In 2004 Vess did both a color cover and front page illustration and additional black and white interior illustrations for a 20th anniversary edition of Moonheart, by de Lint. In a 2004 interview, Vess cited among many artistic influences, beginning with the 19th-century British book illustrator Arthur Rackham, saying, I discovered his work while I was still in college and fell in love with it, his art, unlike a lot of other artists I've never grown tired of. I always find myself learning new things every time I study it, but there are many others that have influenced me, among them: the Swedish illustrator John Bauer, Howard Pyle, the 19th-century German illustrator Hermann Vogel, Alphonse Mucha, Willy Pogany, Kay Nielsen, W. H. Robinson, Hal Foster and Alfred Bestall (the British illustrator of the lo
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
The Sandman (Vertigo)
The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman and published by DC Comics. Its artists include Sam Kieth, Mike Dringenberg, Jill Thompson, Shawn McManus, Marc Hempel, Michael Zulli, with lettering by Todd Klein and covers by Dave McKean. Beginning with issue No. 47, it was placed under the Vertigo imprint. It tells the story of Dream of the Endless; the original series ran for 75 issues from January 1989 to March 1996. The main character of The Sandman is Dream known as Morpheus and other names, one of the seven Endless; the other Endless are Destiny, Desire, Despair and Destruction. The series is famous for Gaiman's trademark use of anthropomorphic personification of various metaphysical entities, while blending mythology and history in its horror setting within the DC Universe; the Sandman is a story about stories and how Morpheus, the Lord of Dreams, is captured and subsequently learns that sometimes change is inevitable. The Sandman was Vertigo's flagship title, is available as a series of ten trade paperbacks, a recolored five-volume Absolute hardcover edition with slipcase, in a black-and-white Annotated edition, is available for digital download.
Critically acclaimed, The Sandman was one of the first few graphic novels to be on the New York Times Best Seller list, along with Maus and The Dark Knight Returns. It was one of five graphic novels to make Entertainment Weekly's "100 best reads from 1983 to 2008," ranking at No. 46. Norman Mailer described the series as "a comic strip for intellectuals." The series is noted for having a large influence over the fantasy genre and graphic novel medium since then. Various film and television versions of Sandman have been developed unsuccessfully since the 1990s. In a panel at the San Diego Comic-Con International in 2007, Gaiman remarked that " rather see no Sandman movie made than a bad Sandman movie." In 2013, Warner Bros. announced that David S. Goyer will be producing a film adaptation of the comic book series with Joseph Gordon-Levitt within its upcoming Vertigo film slate. Gordon-Levitt dropped out on March 2016, after Eric Heisserer was brought on as screenwriter; the Sandman grew out of a proposal by Neil Gaiman to revive DC's 1974–1976 series The Sandman, written by Joe Simon and Michael Fleisher and illustrated by Jack Kirby and Ernie Chua.
Gaiman had considered including characters from the "Dream Stream" in a scene for the first issue of his 1988 miniseries Black Orchid. While the scene did not make it into drafts because Roy Thomas was using the characters in Infinity, Inc. Gaiman soon began constructing a treatment for a new series. Gaiman mentioned his treatment in passing to DC editor Karen Berger. While months Berger offered Gaiman a comic title to work on, he was unsure his Sandman pitch would be accepted. Weeks Berger asked Gaiman if he was interested in doing a Sandman series. Gaiman recalled, "I said,'Um... yes. Yes, definitely. What's the catch?"There's only one. We'd like a new Sandman. Keep the name, but the rest is up to you.'"Gaiman crafted the new character from an initial image of "a man, young and naked, imprisoned in a tiny cell, waiting until his captors passed away... deathly thin, with long dark hair, strange eyes." Gaiman patterned the character's black attire on a print of a Japanese kimono as well as his own wardrobe.
Gaiman wrote an eight-issue outline and gave it to Dave McKean and Leigh Baulch, who drew character sketches. Berger suggested Sam Kieth as the series' artist. Mike Dringenberg, Todd Klein, Robbie Busch, Dave McKean were hired as inker, letterer and cover artist, respectively. McKean's approach towards comics covers was unconventional, for he convinced Berger that the series's protagonist did not need to appear on every cover; the debut issue of The Sandman went on sale November 29, 1988 and was cover-dated January 1989. Gaiman described the early issues as "awkward", since he, as well as Kieth and Busch, had never worked on a regular series before. Kieth quit after the fifth issue. Dave McKean was the cover artist for the series through its entire run; the character appeared in two of DC's "Suggested for Mature Readers" titles. In Swamp Thing vol. 2 No. 84, Dream and Eve allow Matthew Cable to live in the Dreaming, because he died there, resurrecting him as a raven. He meets John Constantine in Hellblazer No. 19 leading into the latter's guest appearance in Sandman No. 3.
Gaiman revisited Hell as depicted by Alan Moore in Swamp Thing, beginning with a guest appearance by Jack Kirby's Etrigan the Demon in issue No. 4. The story introduces Hell's Hierarchy, headed by Lucifer and Azazel, whom Dream defeated in the series. Dream visited the Justice League International in the following issue, No. 5. Although multiple mainstream DC characters appeared in the series throughout its run, such as Martian Manhunter and Scarecrow, this would not be the norm. Gaiman and artist Mike Dringenberg introduced the older sister of Dream, in issue No. 8. Gaiman began incorporating elements of the Kirby Sandman series in issue No. 11, including the changes implemented by Roy Thomas. Joe Simon and Michael Fleisher had treated the character, who resembled a superhero, as the "true" Sandman; the Thomas and Gaiman stories