Neil Richard MacKinnon Gaiman is an English author of short fiction, comic books, graphic novels, audio theatre, films. His works include the comic book series The Sandman and novels Stardust, American Gods and The Graveyard Book, he has won numerous awards, including the Hugo and Bram Stoker awards, as well as the Newbery and Carnegie medals. He is the first author to win both the Newbery and the Carnegie medals for the same work, The Graveyard Book. In 2013, The Ocean at the End of the Lane was voted Book of the Year in the British National Book Awards. Gaiman's family is of other Eastern European Jewish origins, his father, David Bernard Gaiman, worked in the same chain of stores. He has two younger sisters and Lizzy. After living for a period in the nearby town of Portchester, where Neil was born in 1960, the Gaimans moved in 1965 to the West Sussex town of East Grinstead, where his parents studied Dianetics at the Scientology centre in the town, his other sister, Lizzy Calcioli, has said, "Most of our social activities were involved with Scientology or our Jewish family.
It would get confusing when people would ask my religion as a kid. I'd say,'I'm a Jewish Scientologist.'" Gaiman says that he is not a Scientologist, that like Judaism, Scientology is his family's religion. About his personal views, Gaiman has stated, "I think. I would not beat the drum for the existence of God in this universe. I don't know, I think there's a 50/50 chance, it doesn't matter to me."Gaiman was able to read at the age of four. He said, "I was a reader. I loved reading. Reading things gave me pleasure. I was good at most subjects in school, not because I had any particular aptitude in them, but because on the first day of school they'd hand out schoolbooks, I'd read them—which would mean that I'd know what was coming up, because I'd read it." When he was about ten years old, he read his way through the works of Dennis Wheatley, where The Ka of Gifford Hillary and The Haunting of Toby Jugg made an impact on him. One work that made a particular impression on him was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings from his school library, although it only had the first two volumes of the novel.
He took them out and read them. He would win the school English prize and the school reading prize, enabling him to acquire the third volume. For his seventh birthday, Gaiman received, he recalled that "I admired his use of parenthetical statements to the reader, where he would just talk to you... I'd think,'Oh, my gosh, so cool! I want to do that! When I become an author, I want to be able to do things in parentheses.' I liked the power of putting things in brackets." Narnia introduced him to literary awards the 1956 Carnegie Medal won by the concluding volume. When Gaiman won the 2010 Medal himself, the press reported him recalling, "it had to be the most important literary award there was" and observing, "if you can make yourself aged seven happy, you're doing well – it's like writing a letter to yourself aged seven." Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was another childhood favourite, "a favourite forever. Alice was default reading to the point where I knew it by heart." He enjoyed Batman comics as a child.
Gaiman was educated at several Church of England schools, including Fonthill School in East Grinstead, Ardingly College, Whitgift School in Croydon. His father's position as a public relations official of the Church of Scientology was the cause of the seven-year-old Gaiman being blocked from entering a boys' school, forcing him to remain at the school that he had been attending, he lived in East Grinstead for many years, from 1965 to 1980 and again from 1984 to 1987. He met his first wife, Mary McGrath, while she was studying Scientology and living in a house in East Grinstead, owned by his father; the couple were married in 1985 after having Michael. As a child and a teenager, Gaiman read the works of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis Carroll, Mary Shelley, Rudyard Kipling, Edgar Allan Poe, Michael Moorcock, Alan Moore, Steve Ditko, Will Eisner, Ursula K. Le Guin, Harlan Ellison, Lord Dunsany and G. K. Chesterton; when he was 19–20 years old, he contacted his favourite science fiction writer, R. A. Lafferty, whom he discovered when he was nine, asked for advice on becoming an author along with a Lafferty pastiche he had written.
The writer sent Gaiman an informative letter back, along with literary advice. Gaiman has said Roger Zelazny was the author who influenced him the most, with this influence seen in Gaiman's literary style and the topics he writes about. Other authors Gaiman says "furnished the inside of my mind and set me to writing" include Moorcock, Samuel R. Delany, Angela Carter, Lafferty and Le Guin. Neil Gaiman has taken inspiration from the folk tales tradition, citing Otta F Swire's book on the legends of the Isle of Skye as his inspiration for The Truth Is a Cave in the Black Mountains. In the early 1980s, Gaiman pursued journalism, conducting interviews and writing book reviews, as a means to learn about the world and to make connections that he hoped would assist h
The Sandman: Preludes & Nocturnes
Preludes & Nocturnes is the first trade paperback collection of the comic book series The Sandman, published by the DC Comics imprint Vertigo. It collects issues #1–8, it is written by Neil Gaiman, illustrated by Sam Kieth, Mike Dringenberg and Malcolm Jones III, colored by Robbie Busch and lettered by Todd Klein. The first seven issues of this collection comprise the "More Than Rubies" storyline, which introduces Dream; the eighth issue, "The Sound of Her Wings", is a self-contained story that serves as an epilogue to the More Than Rubies plot and introduces the character Death. It was first issued in paperback in 1991, in hardback in 1995 and features an introduction by Paul Wilson; the next volume in the series is The Doll's House. In 1988, Gaiman wrote an eight-issue outline for a new Sandman series, it was given it to artists Dave Leigh Baulch, who drew character sketches. Editor Karen Berger suggested Sam Kieth as the series' artist. Mike Dringenberg, Todd Klein, Robbie Busch, Dave McKean were hired as inker, letterer and cover artist, respectively.
The debut issue of The Sandman, a 40 page story, went on sale November 29, 1988 and was cover-dated January 1989. Issues were 24 pages. Gaiman described the issues as "awkward", since he, as well as Kieth and Busch, had never worked on a regular series before. Kieth quit after the fifth issue. In a 2014 interview, Gaiman noted that with the change in penciler, Sandman quit being a horror comic and became something bigger, he described Kieth as a "genius", but felt Kieth's interests and art style could not provide the atmosphere needed for the story Sandman became. As the series increased in popularity, DC Comics began to reprint the issues in hardcover and trade paperback editions, each representing either a complete novel or a collection of related short stories. Although chronologically first, the collected edition of Preludes & Nocturnes was published after the collected edition of the better-selling second storyline, The Doll's House; the collected edition has been through multiple printings, included a recolored version first released in 2010.
In 1916, the magician Roderick Burgess attempts to attain immortality by capturing the embodiment of Death. Mistakenly, he binds Death's brother Dream instead. Fearing retribution, Burgess keeps Dream imprisoned, which causes a worldwide epidemic of sleeping sickness. In 1988, after Burgess has died and his son Alex has been charged with watching Dream, Dream is able to escape. Dream punishes Alex by cursing him to experience an unending series of nightmares. Dream is weakened after his captivity, attempts to return to his realm, he is found by a gargoyle belonging to Cain and Abel. Once they have nursed Dream back to health, Dream returns to his home and is shocked to see it has fallen into ruin. Lucien, the librarian, fills Dream in on the goings-on since his incarceration. Dream begins a quest to recover his totems of power. After retrieving the pouch from a former girlfriend of exorcist John Constantine, Dream travels to hell seeking his helm. While in Hell he stumbles upon his lover Nada, but states he has not forgiven her and shall not free her.
He is guided by the demon Etrigan to Lucifer. Dream explains one of the demons in Hell has his Helm, it is returned to him following a battle of wits which Dream wins. Lucifer swears vengeance on Dream; the ruby is in the possession of John Dee, a.k.a. Doctor Destiny, committed to Arkham Asylum by the Justice League of America. Dee escapes before going to a diner, where he distorts reality for those inside, using them as toys until they all murder each other or commit suicide. Dream arrives and attempts to take the ruby, only to be overpowered by Dee. Thinking it will kill Dream, Dee shatters the ruby, inadvertently returning its power to Dream. Considering Dee at least responsible for his victory, Dream shows mercy and returns Dee to Arkham. Reflecting on his recent incarceration, Dream is visited by his sister Death, she talks Dream out of his brief depression and persuades him to explore the world and see what he missed during his seven decades in prison. Bender, Hy, The Sandman Companion, New York: Vertigo DC Comics, ISBN 1-56389-644-3 The Annotated Sandman
David McKean is an English illustrator, comic book artist, graphic designer and musician. His work incorporates drawing, photography, found objects, digital art and sculpture. McKean's projects include illustrating books by amongst others Neil Gaiman, Heston Blumenthal, Ray Bradbury and Stephen King, directing three feature films. After a trip to New York City in 1986 during which he first showed his work to editors at Marvel Comics, DC Comics, Continuity Comics, McKean met writer Neil Gaiman, the pair collaborated on a short graphic novel of disturbing childhood memories, Violent Cases, published in 1987; this was followed in 1988 by a Black Orchid miniseries and Hellblazer covers for DC Comics. In 1989, he illustrated the Batman graphic novel, Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth, with writer Grant Morrison. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "Arkham Asylum was an unprecedented success, selling 182,166 copies in hardcover and another 85,047 in paperback... McKean produced 120 pages of paintings for Arkham Asylum, offering powerful visual reinterpretations of the classic characters."
From 1989–1997 McKean produced the covers for Gaiman's celebrated series The Sandman, all its collected editions, many of its spin-offs. In 1998, the cover images from The Sandman were released as one compiled volume titled Dustcovers: The Collected Sandman Covers. Further collaborations with Gaiman produced the graphic novels Signal to Noise in 1992 serialised in The Face magazine, about a dying filmmaker and his hypothetical last film. In 1995 McKean wrote and illustrated a book for The Rolling Stones called Voodoo Lounge to tie-in with the release of their album of the same name. Between 1990 and 1996, McKean wrote and drew the ten issues of Cages, an ambitious graphic novel about artists and creativity, illustrated in a stripped-down pen-and-ink style influenced by Alberto Breccia, José Antonio Muñoz and Lorenzo Mattotti. Cages was published as single volume by Kitchen Sink Press in 1998, in a new edition by NBM Publishing in 2002. In 2010, Cages was released by Dark Horse Comics in paperback.
An anniversary edition was released in 2016 by the same publisher, featuring a new introduction by Terry Gilliam. McKean's collections of short comics Pictures That Tick, Pictures That Tick 2: Exhibition were published by Dark Horse Comics in 2009 and 2015. Pictures That Tick won the Albert Museum Illustrated Book of the Year award. McKean created a wordless erotic graphic novel called Celluloid for Delcourt, published in the United States by Fantagraphics Books. Black Dog: The Dreams of Paul Nash, a commission by the 14-18 Now Foundation, The Imperial War Museum and The Lakes International Comic art Festival, was released as an artist's edition in June 2016, was published in October 2016 by Dark Horse Comics as an oversized hardback and regular paperback; the project was a live performance featuring cellist/singer Matthew Sharp and violinist Clare Haythornthwaite, was performed in Amiens, London and Ashford. McKean designed the posters for the Raindance Film Festival for five consecutive years between 1996–2000.
In 1997 he wrote and edited a ninety-second trailer for the festival. In 2005, McKean designed the poster for the 32nd Telluride Film Festival. In 2006, he designed projections and directed film clips for the Broadway musical Lestat, adapted from Anne Rice's novels, with music and lyrics by Elton John and Bernie Taupin. McKean has created a few books documenting his travels using only illustrations. Examples include Postcards from Vienna, Postcards from Barcelona, Postcards from Paris, Postcards from Brussels, Postcards from Perugia, Postcards from Bilbao, he created another book of 200 pages called Squink that gathered a number of drawings in 15 chapters. McKean created C. D. covers for many artists, amongst others for Counting Crows, Alice Cooper, Tori Amos, Frontline Assembly, Paradise Lost, Dream Theater, Skinny Puppy, Toad the Wet Sprocket and Steve Walsh. He made book covers for Iain Sinclair and Alan Moore, he has published four books of photography: A Small Book of Black and White Lies Option: Click The Particle Tarot: The Major Arcana The Particle Tarot: The Minor Arcana McKean designed and illustrated John Cale's autobiography What's Welsh for Zen, a further biography called Sedition and Alchemy, a box set of C.
D.s called Circus Live, used John's Welsh-by-way-of-New York voice as the narrator for his short film N. McKean has collaborated with Neil Gaiman on four children's picture books, The Day I Swapped My Dad for Two Goldfish, The Wolves in the Walls, Crazy Hair, Mirrormask, illustrated Gaiman's children's novels Coraline and The Graveyard Book, as well as S. F. Said's Outlaw Varjak Paw and Phoenix; the Wolves in the Walls: a Musical Pandemonium premiered as a play in Glasgow in 2006 with Improbable and the National Theatre of Scotland. The National Theatre of Scotland adapted The Day I Swapped My Dad for Two Goldfish into a promenade performance for young people in 2013, he illustrated David Almond's The Savage published in April 2008, Slog's Dad published in September 2010, Mouse Bird Snake Wolf. In 2011, McKean collaborated with Richard Dawkins on The Magic of Reality, an introduction to critical thinking and science for children. McKean illustrated Ray Bradbury's The Homecoming. In 2008, McKean collaborated with Heston Blumenthal on The Fa
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
A Doll's House
A Doll's House is a three-act play written by Norway's Henrik Ibsen. It premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 December 1879, having been published earlier that month; the play is set in a Norwegian town circa 1879. The play is significant for the way it deals with the fate of a married woman, who at the time in Norway lacked reasonable opportunities for self-fulfillment in a male-dominated world, it aroused a great sensation at the time, caused a “storm of outraged controversy” that went beyond the theatre to the world newspapers and society. In 2006, the centennial of Ibsen's death, A Doll's House held the distinction of being the world's most performed play that year. UNESCO has inscribed Ibsen's autographed manuscripts of A Doll's House on the Memory of the World Register in 2001, in recognition of their historical value; the title of the play is most translated as A Doll's House, though some scholars use A Doll House. John Simon says that A Doll’s House is "the British term for what call a'dollhouse'".
Egil Törnqvist says of the alternative title: "Rather than being superior to the traditional rendering, it sounds more idiomatic to Americans." Nora Helmer – wife of Torvald, mother of three, is living out the ideal of the 19th-century wife, but leaves her family at the end of the play. Torvald Helmer – Nora's husband, a newly promoted bank manager, professes to be enamoured of his wife but their marriage stifles her. Dr Rank – a rich family friend, he is terminally ill, it is implied that his "tuberculosis of the spine" originates from a venereal disease contracted by his father. Christine Linde – Nora's old school friend, widowed, is seeking employment, she was in a relationship with Krogstad prior to the play's setting. Nils Krogstad – an employee at Torvald's bank, single father, he is pushed to desperation. A supposed scoundrel, he is revealed to be a long-lost lover of Christine; the Children – Nora and Torvald's children: Ivar and Emmy. Anne Marie – Nora's former nanny, who gave up her own daughter to "strangers" when she became, as she says, the only mother Nora knew.
She now cares for Nora's children. Helen – the Helmers' maid The Porter – delivers a Christmas tree to the Helmer household at the beginning of the play; the play opens at Christmas time. Nora's husband Torvald is working in his study, he playfully rebukes her for spending so much money on Christmas gifts, calling her his "little squirrel." He teases her about how the previous year she had spent weeks making gifts and ornaments by hand because money was scarce. This year Torvald is due a promotion at the bank where he works, so Nora feels that they can let themselves go a little; the maid announces two visitors: Mrs. Kristine Linde, an old friend of Nora's, who has come seeking employment. Kristine has had a difficult few years since her husband died leaving her with no money or children. Nora says that things have not been easy for them either: Torvald became sick, they had to travel to Italy so he could recover. Kristine explains that when her mother was ill she had to take care of her brothers, but now that they are grown she feels her life is "unspeakably empty."
Nora promises to talk to Torvald about finding her a job. Kristine tells Nora that she is like a child. Nora is offended, so she teases the idea that she got money from "some admirer," so they could travel to Italy to improve Torvald's health, she told Torvald that her father gave her the money, but in fact she managed to illegally borrow it without his knowledge because women couldn't do anything economical like signing checks without their husband. Over the years, she has been saving up to pay it off. Krogstad, a lower-level employee at Torvald's bank and goes into the study. Nora is uneasy when she sees him. Dr. Rank leaves the study and mentions that he feels wretched, though like everyone he wants to go on living. In contrast to his physical illness, he says that the man in the study, Krogstad, is "morally diseased." After the meeting with Krogstad, Torvald comes out of the study. Nora asks him if he can give Kristine a position at the bank and Torvald is positive, saying that this is a fortunate moment, as a position has just become available.
Torvald, Dr. Rank leave the house, leaving Nora alone; the nanny returns with the children and Nora plays with them for a while until Krogstad creeps through the ajar door, into the living room, surprises her. Krogstad tells Nora that Torvald intends to fire him at the bank and asks her to intercede with Torvald to allow him to keep his job, she refuses, Krogstad threatens to blackmail her about the loan she took out for the trip to Italy. Krogstad leaves and when Torvald returns, Nora tries to convince him not to fire Krogstad. Torvald refuses to hear her pleas, explaining that Krogstad is a liar and a hypocrite and that he committed a terrible crime: he forged someone's name. Torvald feels physically ill in the presence of a man "poisoning his own children with lies and dissimulation." Kristine arrives to help Nora repair a dress for a costume function that she and Torvald plan to attend the next day. Torvald returns from the bank, Nora pleads with him to reinstate Krogstad, claiming she is worried Krogstad will publish libelous articles about Torvald and ruin his career.
Torvald dismisses her fears and explains that, although Krogstad is a good worker and seems to have turned his life around, he must b
The Sandman (Vertigo)
The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman and published by DC Comics. Its artists include Sam Kieth, Mike Dringenberg, Jill Thompson, Shawn McManus, Marc Hempel, Michael Zulli, with lettering by Todd Klein and covers by Dave McKean. Beginning with issue No. 47, it was placed under the Vertigo imprint. It tells the story of Dream of the Endless; the original series ran for 75 issues from January 1989 to March 1996. The main character of The Sandman is Dream known as Morpheus and other names, one of the seven Endless; the other Endless are Destiny, Desire, Despair and Destruction. The series is famous for Gaiman's trademark use of anthropomorphic personification of various metaphysical entities, while blending mythology and history in its horror setting within the DC Universe; the Sandman is a story about stories and how Morpheus, the Lord of Dreams, is captured and subsequently learns that sometimes change is inevitable. The Sandman was Vertigo's flagship title, is available as a series of ten trade paperbacks, a recolored five-volume Absolute hardcover edition with slipcase, in a black-and-white Annotated edition, is available for digital download.
Critically acclaimed, The Sandman was one of the first few graphic novels to be on the New York Times Best Seller list, along with Maus and The Dark Knight Returns. It was one of five graphic novels to make Entertainment Weekly's "100 best reads from 1983 to 2008," ranking at No. 46. Norman Mailer described the series as "a comic strip for intellectuals." The series is noted for having a large influence over the fantasy genre and graphic novel medium since then. Various film and television versions of Sandman have been developed unsuccessfully since the 1990s. In a panel at the San Diego Comic-Con International in 2007, Gaiman remarked that " rather see no Sandman movie made than a bad Sandman movie." In 2013, Warner Bros. announced that David S. Goyer will be producing a film adaptation of the comic book series with Joseph Gordon-Levitt within its upcoming Vertigo film slate. Gordon-Levitt dropped out on March 2016, after Eric Heisserer was brought on as screenwriter; the Sandman grew out of a proposal by Neil Gaiman to revive DC's 1974–1976 series The Sandman, written by Joe Simon and Michael Fleisher and illustrated by Jack Kirby and Ernie Chua.
Gaiman had considered including characters from the "Dream Stream" in a scene for the first issue of his 1988 miniseries Black Orchid. While the scene did not make it into drafts because Roy Thomas was using the characters in Infinity, Inc. Gaiman soon began constructing a treatment for a new series. Gaiman mentioned his treatment in passing to DC editor Karen Berger. While months Berger offered Gaiman a comic title to work on, he was unsure his Sandman pitch would be accepted. Weeks Berger asked Gaiman if he was interested in doing a Sandman series. Gaiman recalled, "I said,'Um... yes. Yes, definitely. What's the catch?"There's only one. We'd like a new Sandman. Keep the name, but the rest is up to you.'"Gaiman crafted the new character from an initial image of "a man, young and naked, imprisoned in a tiny cell, waiting until his captors passed away... deathly thin, with long dark hair, strange eyes." Gaiman patterned the character's black attire on a print of a Japanese kimono as well as his own wardrobe.
Gaiman wrote an eight-issue outline and gave it to Dave McKean and Leigh Baulch, who drew character sketches. Berger suggested Sam Kieth as the series' artist. Mike Dringenberg, Todd Klein, Robbie Busch, Dave McKean were hired as inker, letterer and cover artist, respectively. McKean's approach towards comics covers was unconventional, for he convinced Berger that the series's protagonist did not need to appear on every cover; the debut issue of The Sandman went on sale November 29, 1988 and was cover-dated January 1989. Gaiman described the early issues as "awkward", since he, as well as Kieth and Busch, had never worked on a regular series before. Kieth quit after the fifth issue. Dave McKean was the cover artist for the series through its entire run; the character appeared in two of DC's "Suggested for Mature Readers" titles. In Swamp Thing vol. 2 No. 84, Dream and Eve allow Matthew Cable to live in the Dreaming, because he died there, resurrecting him as a raven. He meets John Constantine in Hellblazer No. 19 leading into the latter's guest appearance in Sandman No. 3.
Gaiman revisited Hell as depicted by Alan Moore in Swamp Thing, beginning with a guest appearance by Jack Kirby's Etrigan the Demon in issue No. 4. The story introduces Hell's Hierarchy, headed by Lucifer and Azazel, whom Dream defeated in the series. Dream visited the Justice League International in the following issue, No. 5. Although multiple mainstream DC characters appeared in the series throughout its run, such as Martian Manhunter and Scarecrow, this would not be the norm. Gaiman and artist Mike Dringenberg introduced the older sister of Dream, in issue No. 8. Gaiman began incorporating elements of the Kirby Sandman series in issue No. 11, including the changes implemented by Roy Thomas. Joe Simon and Michael Fleisher had treated the character, who resembled a superhero, as the "true" Sandman; the Thomas and Gaiman stories
Mike Dringenberg is a German/American comics artist best known for his work on DC Comics/Vertigo's Sandman series with writer Neil Gaiman. Dringenberg was born in France, his first work in the comics industry was the story "A Tale Of... Lenny's Grill" in Kelvin Mace # 1 published by Vortex Comics, his other early work in the 1980s for publishers such as Eclipse Comics included Alien Worlds and Total Eclipse. He worked on Adolescent Radioactive Blackbelt Hamsters, a parody of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, which itself was a parody of many then-current comic books, Shock the Monkey, his mainstream work includes DC's Doom Patrol with writer Grant Morrison, where he co-created Flex Mentallo. Dringenberg came to prominence for his work on The Sandman, where he started as the series' inker over pencil art by Sam Kieth but switched to pencilling when Kieth left after the fifth issue, he drew eleven issues, all but one inked by Malcolm Jones III, his understated, realistic style did much to establish the tone of the series.
He co-created the popular character Death, whom he based on Cinamon, a woman he knew from the dance clubs in Salt Lake City, Utah. Gaiman had imagined her looking like Louise Brooks or Nico, but preferred Dringenberg's version. Dringenberg stated in a 2014 interview that "None of the characters are direct renderings of individual people. Most of the time, my girlfriend Givette and my friends McAnn and Nyssa posed and they each brought their own personalities to the task." He co-created Desire, basing his/her appearance on the work of Patrick Nagel, had a hand in much of the character design apparent in the early series. Dringenberg's work appears in the Sandman collections "Preludes and Nocturnes", "The Doll's House" and "Season of Mists", he is credited in every printing as being one of the series' creators, as he is responsible for the iconic representation of many of the principal characters. In 2008, he was one of the artists for Tori Amos' Comic Book Tattoo anthology graphic novel. Dringenberg is an illustrator of book jackets and CD covers, most notably for various books by J. R. R. Tolkien, Kij Johnson, Charles de Lint, Kage Baker, San Francisco's Big City Orchestra.
He did interior decorations for Sharyn November's Firebirds Soaring. Mike Dringenberg at the Comic Book DB Mike Dringenberg at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Mike Dringenberg at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators