Harry Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist, short-story writer, playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters." His works are known for their insightful and critical views of American capitalism and materialism between the wars. He is respected for his strong characterizations of modern working women. H. L. Mencken wrote of him, " there was a novelist among us with an authentic call to the trade... it is this red-haired tornado from the Minnesota wilds." He has been honored by the U. S. Postal Service with a postage stamp in the Great Americans series. Born February 7, 1885, in the village of Sauk Centre, Sinclair Lewis began reading books at a young age and kept a diary, he had two siblings and Claude. His father, Edwin J. Lewis, was a physician and a stern disciplinarian who had difficulty relating to his sensitive, unathletic third son.
Lewis's mother, Emma Kermott Lewis, died in 1891. The following year, Edwin Lewis married Isabel Warner, whose company young Lewis enjoyed. Throughout his lonely boyhood, the ungainly Lewis—tall thin, stricken with acne and somewhat pop-eyed—had trouble gaining friends and pined after various local girls. At the age of 13 he unsuccessfully ran away from home, wanting to become a drummer boy in the Spanish–American War. In late 1902 Lewis left home for a year at Oberlin Academy to qualify for acceptance by Yale University. While at Oberlin, he developed a religious enthusiasm that waxed and waned for much of his remaining teenage years, he entered Yale in 1903 but did not receive his bachelor's degree until 1908, having taken time off to work at Helicon Home Colony, Upton Sinclair's cooperative-living colony in Englewood, New Jersey, to travel to Panama. Lewis's unprepossessing looks, "fresh" country manners and self-important loquacity made it difficult for him to win and keep friends at Oberlin and Yale.
He did initiate a few long-lived friendships among students and professors, some of whom recognized his promise as a writer. Lewis became an atheist. Lewis's earliest published creative work—romantic poetry and short sketches—appeared in the Yale Courant and the Yale Literary Magazine, of which he became an editor. After graduation Lewis moved from job to job and from place to place in an effort to make ends meet, write fiction for publication and to chase away boredom. While working for newspapers and publishing houses, he developed a facility for turning out shallow, popular stories that were purchased by a variety of magazines, he earned money by selling plots to Jack London, including one for the latter's unfinished novel The Assassination Bureau, Ltd. Lewis's first published book was Hike and the Aeroplane, a Tom Swift-style potboiler that appeared in 1912 under the pseudonym Tom Graham. Sinclair Lewis's first serious novel, Our Mr. Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man, appeared in 1914, followed by The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life and The Job.
That same year saw the publication of another potboiler, The Innocents: A Story for Lovers, an expanded version of a serial story that had appeared in Woman's Home Companion. Free Air, another refurbished serial story, was published in 1919. In 1914 Lewis married Grace Livingston Hegger, an editor at Vogue magazine, they had Wells Lewis, named after British author H. G. Wells. Serving as a U. S. Army lieutenant during World War II, Wells Lewis was killed in action on October 29 amid Allied efforts to rescue the "Lost Battalion" in France. Dean Acheson, the future Secretary of State, was a neighbor and family friend in Washington, observed that Sinclair's literary "success was not good for that marriage, or for either of the parties to it, or for Lewis's work" and the family moved out of town. Lewis divorced Grace in 1925. On May 14, 1928, he married a political newspaper columnist. In 1928, he and Dorothy purchased a second home in rural Vermont, they had a son, Michael Lewis, in 1930. Their marriage had ended by 1937, they divorced in 1942.
Michael Lewis became an actor, who suffered with alcoholism, died in 1975 of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Michael had two sons, John Paul and Gregory Claude, with wife Bernadette Nanse, a daughter, with wife Valerie Cardew. Upon moving to Washington, D. C. Lewis devoted himself to writing; as early as 1916, he began taking notes for a realistic novel about small-town life. Work on that novel continued through mid-1920, when he completed Main Street, published on October 23, 1920, his biographer Mark Schorer wrote that the phenomenal success of Main Street "was the most sensational event in twentieth-century American publishing history". Lewis's agent had the most optimistic projection of sales at 25,000 copies. In its first six months, Main Street sold 180,000 copies, within a few years, sales were estimated at two million. According to biographer Richard Lingeman, "Main Street made rich—earning him three million current dollars". Lewis followed up this first great success with Babbitt, a novel that satirized the American commercial culture and boosterism.
The story was set in the fictional Midwestern town of Zenith, Winnemac, a setting to which Lewis returned in future novels, including Gideon Planish and Dodsworth. Lewis continued his success in the 1920s with Arrowsmith, a novel about the chall
George Fort Gibbs
George Fort Gibbs was an American author, illustrator and screenwriter. As an author, he wrote more than 50 popular books adventure stories revolving around espionage in exotic locations. Several of his books were made into films, his illustrations appeared prominently in such magazines as The Saturday Evening Post, Ladies' Home Journal and The Delineator. He illustrated some of his own novels, the novels of others; as a painter he produced many portraits, painted murals for Pennsylvania Station and Girard College in Philadelphia. His screenwriting credits include a film about the life of Voltaire. George Gibbs was born in 1870 in New Orleans, his father, Benjamin F. Gibbs, was a naval surgeon with the ironclad fleet stationed there. Dr. Gibbs had seen much adventure in his naval career, he had taken part in the Paraguay Expedition aboard the USS Memphis. During the American Civil War, he had taken part in the battle of Mobile Bay aboard the steam-sloop USS Ossipee and had been aboard one of the ships that chased the CSS Webb on its dash down the Mississippi.
In mid-war, on February 25, 1864, Dr. Gibbs married Elizabeth Beatrice Kellogg; the bride's father, Major George Kellogg, was a homeopathic doctor brought to occupied New Orleans by General Nathaniel P. Banks, commander of the Army of the Gulf, assigned to various duties as army surgeon, as medical advisor to the family of General Banks. Nine months after their marriage, Mrs. Gibbs gave birth to Julie Aline Gibbs. In 1870 a son, George Fort Gibbs, was born. Dr. Gibbs continued to rise in the navy attaining the rank of Medical Inspector and being designated Fleet Surgeon of the European Squadron on August 20, 1881, he took Elizabeth and George with him, settling them in Geneva, where George was enrolled as a student at the Chateau de Lancy for two years. Chateau de Lancy educated such men as William Carlos Williams, Sir Harold Acton and Hamilton Fish. In September 1882, while aboard the USS Lancaster' sailing for Trieste, Dr. Gibbs became ill. According to one source he was suffering from "malarial fever".
When the ship reached port, he was moved to a hospital, where he died on September 9. His son George was twelve years old at the time. Elizabeth Gibbs was distraught over her husband's death; the family returned to the United States in November 1883, debarking in New York and taking a train bound for Washington, D. C. where Elizabeth's father awaited them. George was thirteen years old, Aline eighteen; the children were concerned about their mother. As the train approached Union Station in Baltimore, Elizabeth left her children and entered the ladies' restroom, she was gone for a long time, the children began to worry. When the train arrived at the station they tried the door of the restroom. George climbed up to a transom and looked in, only to find the room empty, its window open; the children notified railroad officials, who sent an engine back down the tracks to look for Elizabeth. Aline went ahead to D. C. to meet with her grandfather, George stayed behind with the searchers. That day Aline received a telegram from George, telling her that their mother had been found lying on the tracks a few miles from the station.
Her skull was fractured, she was taken to a hospital, where she died soon after. She had climbed six feet up to the window and leapt from the train, landing on her head. Following in his father's footsteps, George Gibbs entered the U. S. Naval Academy in 1886, but he resigned in 1888. According to critic Grant Overton, Gibbs "generally neglected trigonometry in favor of a sketch book and the writing of verses." While at Annapolis, he contributed drawings and songs to Junk, the Naval Academy yearbook of that era, he edited a collection of material from past editions of Junk after he left the Academy. Gibbs played football at the Academy, "in the gridiron days of skull caps and padless knickers". After leaving Annapolis, Gibbs returned to Washington and began taking night classes at the Corcoran School of Art and the Art Students' League, he was active in the Society of Washington Artists. By August 1897 he was Treasurer of the Society of Washington Artists, collecting contributions for a fund to open a gallery for the Society.
Works by Gibbs and other Washington artists were exhibited in the new gallery at its opening in November of the same year. By 1898, Gibbs was Vice President of the Society. To support himself during this time, he began writing articles "on science and naval themes" for the Sunday editions of the New York Sun and New York Times. By 1891 he was supporting himself through another enterprise. Together with Frank B. Jonas, Gibbs formed the "Co." real estate firm. Frank Jonas was the son of Louisiana Senator Benjamin F. Jonas and cousin of Charles H. Jonas Jr. who married George Gibbs' sister Aline in 1893. One of the Jonas-Gibbs newspaper ads promised "We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates for buildings of every description, to guarantee satisfaction." The firm seems to have had an arrangement with "Co. bankers" to finance new construction. A newspaper account of a Jonas-Gibbs project reports the remodeling of a house on F street, including erecting a "new front of press brick and Ohio stone" and "a large iron vault" in the rear.
N. C. Wyeth
Newell Convers Wyeth, known as N. C. Wyeth, was illustrator, he became one of America's greatest illustrators. During his lifetime, Wyeth created more than 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books, 25 of them for Scribner's, the Scribner Classics, the work for which he is best known; the first of these, Treasure Island, was one of his masterpieces and the proceeds paid for his studio. Wyeth was a realist painter at a time when the camera and photography began to compete with his craft. Sometimes seen as melodramatic, his illustrations were designed to be understood quickly. Wyeth, both a painter and an illustrator, understood the difference, said in 1908, "Painting and illustration cannot be mixed—one cannot merge from one into the other."He is the father of Andrew Wyeth and the grandfather of Jamie Wyeth, both well-known American painters. Wyeth was born in Massachusetts. An ancestor, Nicholas Wyeth, a stonemason, came to Massachusetts from England in 1645. Ancestors were prominent participants in the French and Indian Wars, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the American Civil War, passing down rich oral histories and tradition to Wyeth and his family and providing subject matter for his art, felt.
His maternal ancestors came from Switzerland, during his childhood, his mother was acquainted with literary giants Henry David Thoreau and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His literary appreciation and artistic talents appear to have come from her, he was the oldest of four brothers who spent much time hunting and enjoying other outdoor pursuits, doing chores on their farm. His varied youthful activities and his astute sense of observation aided the authenticity of his illustrations and obviated the need for models: "When I paint a figure on horseback, a man plowing, or a woman buffeted by the wind, I have an acute sense of the muscle strain."His mother encouraged his early inclination toward art. Wyeth was doing excellent watercolor paintings by the age of twelve, he went to Mechanics Arts School to learn drafting, Massachusetts Normal Art School, now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, where painting instructor Richard Andrew advised him to become an illustrator, the Eric Pape School of Art to learn illustration, under George Loftus Noyes and Charles W. Reed.
A bucking bronco for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post on February 21, 1903 was Wyeth's first commission as an illustrator. That year he described his work as "true, solid American subjects—nothing foreign about them."It was a spectacular accomplishment for the 20-year-old Wyeth, after just a few months under Pyle's tutelage. In 1904, the same magazine commissioned him to illustrate a Western story, Pyle urged Wyeth to go West to acquire direct knowledge, much as Zane Grey had done for his Western novels. In Colorado, he worked as a cowboy alongside the professional "punchers," moving cattle and doing ranch chores, he gained an understanding of Native American culture. When his money was stolen, he worked as a mail carrier, riding between the Two Grey Hills trading post and Fort Defiance, to earn enough to get back home, he wrote home, "The life is wonderful, strange—the fascination of it clutches me like some unseen animal—it seems to whisper,'Come back, you belong here, this is your real home.'"On a second trip two years he collected information on mining and brought home costumes and artifacts, including cowboy and Indian clothing.
His early trips to the western United States inspired a period of images of cowboys and Native Americans that dramatized the Old West. Upon returning to Chadds Ford, he painted a series of farm scenes for Scribner's, finding the landscape less dramatic than that of the West but nonetheless a rich environment for his art: "Everything lies in its subtleties, everything is so gentle and simple, so unaffected." His painting Mowing, not done for illustration, was among his most successful images of rural life. Wyeth created a stimulating household for his talented children Andrew Wyeth, Henriette Wyeth Hurd, Carolyn Wyeth, Ann Wyeth McCoy, Nathaniel C. Wyeth. Wyeth was sociable, frequent visitors included F. Scott Fitzgerald, Joseph Hergesheimer, Hugh Walpole, Lillian Gish, John Gilbert. According to Andrew, who spent the most time with his father due to his sickly childhood, Wyeth was a strict but patient father who did not talk down to his children, his hard work as an illustrator gave his family the financial freedom to follow their own artistic and scientific pursuits.
Andrew went on to become one of the foremost American artists of the second half of the 20th century, both Henriette and Carolyn became artists also. Nathaniel became an engineer for DuPont and worked on the team that invented the plastic soda bottle. Henriette and Ann married Peter Hurd and John W. McCoy. Wyeth is the grandfather of artists Jamie Wyeth and Michael Hurd, the musician Howard Wyeth. By 1911, Wyeth began to move away on to illustrating classic literature, he painted a series for an edition of Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, thought by many to be his finest group of illustrations. The proceeds from this great success paid for his studio, he illustrated editions of Kidnapped, Robin Hood, The Last of the Mohicans, Robinson Crusoe, Rip Van Winkle, The White Company, The Yearling. He did work for prominent periodicals, including Century, Harper's Monthly, Ladies' Home Journal, McClure's, The Popular Magazine, Scribner's. By 1914, Wyeth loathed the commercia
Ray Douglas Bradbury was an American author and screenwriter. He worked in a variety of genres, including fantasy, science fiction and mystery fiction. Known for his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, his science-fiction and horror-story collections, The Martian Chronicles, The Illustrated Man, I Sing the Body Electric, Bradbury was one of the most celebrated 20th- and 21st-century American writers. While most of his best known work is in speculative fiction, he wrote in other genres, such as the coming-of-age novel Dandelion Wine and the fictionalized memoir Green Shadows, White Whale. Recipient of numerous awards, including a 2007 Pulitzer Citation, Bradbury wrote and consulted on screenplays and television scripts, including Moby Dick and It Came from Outer Space. Many of his works were adapted to comic book and film formats. Upon his death in 2012, The New York Times called Bradbury "the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream". Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Esther Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant, Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, a power and telephone lineman of English ancestry.
He was given the middle name "Douglas" after the actor Douglas Fairbanks. Bradbury was related to the American Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding and descended from Mary Bradbury, tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692. Bradbury was surrounded by an extended family during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan. An aunt read him short stories; this period provided foundations for his stories. In Bradbury's works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes Illinois; the Bradbury family lived in Tucson, during 1926–1927 and 1932–1933 while their father pursued employment, each time returning to Waukegan. They settled in Los Angeles in 1934 when Bradbury was 14 years old; the family arrived with only US$40, which paid for rent and food until his father found a job making wire at a cable company for $14 a week. This meant that they could stay, Bradbury—who was in love with Hollywood—was ecstatic. Bradbury was active in the drama club, he roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meeting celebrities.
Among the creative and talented people Bradbury met were special-effects pioneer Ray Harryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradbury's first pay as a writer, at age 14, was for a joke he sold to George Burns to use on the Burns and Allen radio show. Throughout his youth, Bradbury was an avid reader and writer and knew at a young age that he was "going into one of the arts." Bradbury began writing his own stories at age 11, during the Great Depression — sometimes writing on the only available paper, butcher paper. In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie library in Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe. At 12, Bradbury began writing traditional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe until he was about 18. In addition to comics, he loved Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan of the Apes Burroughs' John Carter of Mars series; the Warlord of Mars impressed him so much. The young Bradbury was a cartoonist and loved to illustrate, he drew his own Sunday panels.
He listened to the radio show Chandu the Magician, every night when the show went off the air, he would sit and write the entire script from memory. As a teen in Beverly Hills, he visited his mentor and friend science-fiction writer Bob Olsen, sharing ideas and maintaining contact. In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, Bradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings of the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society. Excited to find there were others sharing his interest, Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-night conclave at age 16. Bradbury cited H. G. Jules Verne as his primary science-fiction influences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, "He believes the human being is in a strange situation in a strange world, he believes that we can triumph by behaving morally". Bradbury admitted that he stopped reading science-fiction books in his 20s and embraced a broad field of literature that included Alexander Pope and poet John Donne. Bradbury had just graduated from high school when he met Robert Heinlein 31 years old.
Bradbury recalled, "He was well known, he wrote humanistic science fiction, which influenced me to dare to be human instead of mechanical."In young adulthood Bradbury read stories published in Astounding Science Fiction, read everything by Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, the early writings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt. The family lived about four blocks from the Fox Uptown Theatre on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship theater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how to sneak in and watched previews every week, he rollerskated there, as well as all over town, as he put it, "hell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars. It was glorious." Among stars the young Bradbury was thrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer and Hardy, Ronald Colman. Sometimes, he spent all day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pictures and skated to the Brown Derby to watch the stars who came and went for meals, he recounted seeing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, whom he learned made a regular appearance every Friday night, bodyguard in tow.
Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bondarchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War and Peace, at a Hollywood award ceremony in Bondarchuk's honor: They forme
John Philip Falter
John Philip Falter, more known as John Falter, was an American artist best known for his many cover paintings for The Saturday Evening Post. Born in Plattsmouth, Falter moved at an early age with his family to Falls City in 1916, where his father, George H. Falter, established a clothing store; as a high school student, Falter created a comic strip, Down Thru the Ages, published in the Falls City Journal. J. N. "Ding" Darling, Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist of the Des Moines Register, saw some of Falter’s cartoons and said he should become an illustrator. After graduating from high school in 1928, Falter studied at the Kansas City Art Institute where he met and became friends with R. G. Harris, Emery Clarke, Richard E. Lyon, he won a scholarship to the Art Students League of New York City, but lasted only one month there due to his fear of his fellow students, many of whom were avowed Communists. This was all too new for the small-town Falter, who fled and looked for work as an illustrator.
In the evenings, he took courses at the Grand Central School of Art above Grand Central Terminal. At this time in the Great Depression, when most young artists had difficulty finding work, Falter began illustrating covers for pulp magazines, he opened a studio in New Rochelle, New York, which had long been a colony for illustrators, including such artists as Frederic Remington and Norman Rockwell. Within a few years, his three Kansas City Art Institute friends Harris and Lyon had moved to New Rochelle to share a studio with Falter and launch their careers as freelance illustrators. Falter recalled, "Rockwell was our inspiration then. I didn't meet him until years later. We would hear, and we'd all hunt for him. If they'd tell us that he had looked in a shop window, we'd look in the same window trying to absorb what he looked at by osmosis." Falter received a major break with his first commission from Liberty Magazine to do three illustrations a week in 1933. "They paid me $75 a week," Falter said, "just like a steelworker.
But my expenses for models and costumes were running $35 a week during one 16-week serial I was illustrating." Falter soon discovered that there was much more money to be made in advertising than in other fields of illustration. By 1938, he had acquired several advertising clients including Gulf Oil, Four Roses Whiskey, Arrow Shirts and Pall Mall. Falter's work appeared in major national magazines. "This was high pay for less work," Falter said, "and it gave me a chance to experiment in the field of easel painting." In 1943, he enlisted in the Navy and was promoted from chief boatswain's mate to lieutenant on special assignment as an artist. His final rank was Chief Petty Officer, his talents were applied to the American war effort to spur on recruiting drives. Falter designed over 300 recruiting posters. One popular Falter poster dealt with the loose-lips-sink-ships theme, it showed a broad-shouldered Navy man with the caption, "If you tell where he's going, he may never get there." During this period, he completed a series of recruiting posters for the women's Navy, a series of 12 Medal of Honor winners for Esquire.
Falter's first Saturday Evening Post cover, a portrait of the magazine's founder, Benjamin Franklin, is dated September 1, 1943. It began a 25-year relationship with the magazine, for whom Falter produced over 120 covers until the editors changed its cover format to photographs. Falter commented, "There were plenty of Rockwell imitators and J. C. Leyendecker imitators. My main concern in doing Post covers was trying to do something based on my own experiences. I found my niche as a painter of Americana with an accent of the Middle West. I brought out some of the humor of Middle Western town life and home life. I used humor whenever possible." Nearly all of Falter's 120-odd covers were his own ideas. "Four didn't make it 12 ideas were supplied by the Post," he said. Many of his friends acted as models for his covers. Falter said that he tried "to put down on canvas a piece of America, a stage set, a framework for the imagination to travel around in." His panoramic covers with long views of people were a major departure from the Post's customary close-up designs.
Norman Rockwell himself adjusted to the newer style for a time, which he referred to as his "Falter Period." Falter once thought. "I was sort of going along on a ship that would never sink," he said. “It seemed that nothing could happen to the Post. In my middle life, I had to retool and give up my horse for a car." Falter was forced to spend much of his savings in the months. Although best known for his Saturday Evening Post covers, of which he produced 129, Falter provided illustrations for numerous other publications, including Esquire, Good Housekeeping, Cosmopolitan, McCall's, Life Magazine and Look. Falter was a prolific artist; as television eliminated many national magazines in the 1950s and 1960s, he turned to portrait painting and book illustration. He illustrated over 40 books. One of his favorite projects was illustrating a special edition of Carl Sandburg's Abraham Lincoln—The Prairie Years. Other favorite book projects included Houghton-Mifflin's Mark Twain series and illustrations for The Scarlet Pimpernel.
His stepson, Jay Wiley, posed for a book Falter Me'n Steve. A final favorite was humorist. Falter produced a body of work impressive in variety. Reflecting
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Robert A. Heinlein
Robert Anson Heinlein was an American science-fiction author, aeronautical engineer, retired Naval officer. Called the "dean of science fiction writers", He was among the first to emphasize scientific accuracy in his fiction, was thus a pioneer of the subgenre of hard science fiction, his work continues to have an influence on the science-fiction genre, on modern culture more generally. Heinlein became one of the first American science-fiction writers to break into mainstream magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post in the late 1940s, he was one of the best-selling science-fiction novelists for many decades, he, Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke are considered the "Big Three" of English-language science fiction authors. Notable Heinlein works include Stranger in a Strange Land, Starship Troopers and The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, his work sometimes had controversial aspects, such as plural marriage in The Moon is a Harsh Mistress, militarism in Starship Troopers and technologically competent women characters that were strong and independent, yet stereotypically feminine – such as Friday.
A writer of numerous science-fiction short stories, Heinlein was one of a group of writers who came to prominence under the editorship of John W. Campbell at Astounding Science Fiction magazine, though Heinlein denied that Campbell influenced his writing to any great degree. Within the framework of his science-fiction stories, Heinlein addressed certain social themes: the importance of individual liberty and self-reliance, the obligation individuals owe to their societies, the influence of organized religion on culture and government, the tendency of society to repress nonconformist thought, he speculated on the influence of space travel on human cultural practices. Heinlein was named the first Science Fiction Writers Grand Master in 1974. Four of his novels won Hugo Awards. In addition, fifty years after publication, seven of his works were awarded "Retro Hugos"—awards given retrospectively for works that were published before the Hugo Awards came into existence. In his fiction, Heinlein coined terms that have become part of the English language, including "grok", "waldo", "speculative fiction", as well as popularizing existing terms like "TANSTAAFL", "pay it forward", "space marine".
He anticipated mechanical computer-aided design with "Drafting Dan" and described a modern version of a waterbed in his novel Beyond This Horizon, though he never patented nor built one. In the first chapter of the novel Space Cadet he anticipated the cell-phone, 35 years before Motorola invented the technology. Several of Heinlein's works have been adapted for television. Heinlein was born on July 7, 1907 in Butler, Missouri, he was a 6th-generation German-American: a family tradition had it that Heinleins fought in every American war starting with the War of Independence. His childhood was spent in Missouri; the outlook and values of this time and place had a definite influence on his fiction his works, as he drew upon his childhood in establishing the setting and cultural atmosphere in works like Time Enough for Love and To Sail Beyond the Sunset. Heinlein's experience in the U. S. Navy exerted a strong influence on his writing, he graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, with the class of 1929.
Shortly after graduation, he was commissioned as an ensign by the U. S. Navy, he advanced to lieutenant, junior grade while serving aboard the new aircraft carrier USS Lexington in 1931, where he worked in radio communications in its earlier phases, with the carrier's aircraft. The captain of this carrier was Ernest J. King, who served as the Chief of Naval Operations and Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Fleet during World War II. Heinlein was interviewed during his years by military historians who asked him about Captain King and his service as the commander of the U. S. Navy's first modern aircraft carrier. Heinlein served as gunnery officer aboard the destroyer USS Roper in 1933 and 1934, reaching the rank of lieutenant, his brother, Lawrence Heinlein, served in the U. S. Army, the U. S. Air Force, the Missouri National Guard, reaching the rank of major general in the National Guard. In 1929, Heinlein married Elinor Curry of Kansas City. However, their marriage only lasted about a year, his second marriage in 1932 to Leslyn MacDonald lasted for 15 years.
MacDonald was, according to the testimony of Heinlein's Navy friend, Rear Admiral Cal Laning, "astonishingly intelligent read, liberal, though a registered Republican," while Isaac Asimov recalled that Heinlein was, at the time, "a flaming liberal". At the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard Heinlein met and befriended a chemical engineer named Virginia "Ginny" Gerstenfeld. After the war, her engagement having fallen through, she moved to UCLA for doctoral studies in chemistry and made contact again; as his second wife's alcoholism spun out of control, Heinlein moved out and the couple filed for divorce. Heinlein's friendship with Virginia turned into a relationship and on October 21, 1948 — shortly after the decree nisi came through — they married in the town of Raton, New Mexico, shortly after setting up housekeeping in Colorado, they remained married until Heinlein's death. As Heinlein's increasing success as a writer resolved their initial financial woes, they had a house custom built with various innovative features described in an article in Popular Mechanics.
In 1965, after various chronic health problems of