National Board of Review
The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures is an organization in the United States dedicated to discussing and selecting what its members regard as the best film works of each year. The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures was founded in 1909 in New York City, 14 years after the birth of cinema, to protest New York City Mayor George B. McClellan Jr.'s revocation of moving-picture exhibition licenses on Christmas Eve 1908. The mayor believed. To assert their freedom of expression, theatre owners led by Marcus Loew and film distributors joined John Collier of the People's Institute at Cooper Union and established the New York Board of Motion Picture Censorship, which soon changed its name to the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures to avoid the word "censorship"; the Board's stated purpose was to endorse films of merit and champion the new "art of the people", transforming America's cultural life. In an effort to avoid government censorship of films, the National Board became the unofficial clearinghouse for new movies.
From 1916 into the 1950s thousands of motion pictures carried the legend "Passed by the National Board of Review" in their main titles. The board was a de facto censorship organization. Producers submitted their films to the board before making release prints. In 1930, the NBR was the first group to choose the 10 best English-language movies of the year and the best foreign films, is still the first critical body to announce its annual awards; the NBR has gained international acclaim for its publications: Film Program. Influencing generations of filmmakers and film lovers, these journals have fostered commentary on all aspects of cinema production and history, contributors have included James Agee, Pearl S. Buck, Alistair Cooke, William K. Everson, Manny Farber, Alfred Hitchcock, Fritz Lang, Harold Robbins, William Saroyan, Dore Schary, Tennessee Williams. To determine the NBR's annual awards, ballots are sent in by over 100 members – a select group of knowledgeable film enthusiasts and filmmakers in the New York metropolitan area – and subsequently tabulated by a certified public accountancy firm in order to decide the winners.
In addition, the awards jury helps to determine the special achievement awards presented at the annual gala in January. The organization works to foster commentary on all aspects of film production by underwriting educational film programs and seminars for film students. In 2017, the NBR provided grants to Reel Works Teen Filmmaking, Ghetto Film School, Educational Video Center; the organization awarded grants to 13 student filmmakers as part of its annual student grant program. The boards's official magazine had existed in different names since its inception. In 1950, the magazine changed its name from Screen Magazine and launched the first issue as Films in Review on February 1, 1950. Note: Until 1945, there were only awards for Best Picture and intermittent awards for Best Documentary and Best Foreign Film. Motion Picture Production Code Official website
Celso Bugallo Aguiar is a Spanish actor. He appeared in more than forty films since 1999. Celso Bugallo on IMDb
María Isabel Rivera Torres better known as Mabel Rivera is a Spanish actress from Galicia. She was born in the Naval Station of Ferrol, North-western Spain. Though she started her career as an actress in the 1980s, it was not until her lead actress role in the Oscar-winning Best Foreign Language Film 2004 The Sea Inside that she received broad recognition, she is fluent in Galician and Catalan, regional languages of Spain. She speaks English and French with varying degrees of fluency. Marian Rivera Unlimited Mabel Rivera on IMDb
Hindi cinema metonymously referred to as Bollywood, known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in Mumbai, India. The term originates as a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the Hindi-language film industry is related to Tamil film industry, Telugu film industry and others industries, which combined are components of Indian Cinema, the largest film industry in the world. Although American film industry has produced more than 150 musicals films by 1930 with first introduction of The Jazz Singer in the west, the world's first musical-talkie film, it took India more than 3 years to import the sound sequence technology but went on to produce its first song-sequence talkie film Alam Ara in the year 1931. Since Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre exceeding Hollywood's total musicals from the 1960s when musical era declined in the west. Today, Bollywood is popular for its musicals though non-musicals have continued to be produced in India.
Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales in 2001, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.
The name Bollywood is criticized by some film journalists and critics by arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. According to Madhava Prasad- had described "Bollywood" is inspired by "Tollywood"—once refer to the cinema of West Bengal, dating back in 1932. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. According to P. Anandam Kavoori and Aswin Punathambekar book "Global Bollywood"—the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names leading to the coining of "Bollywood"; as of now "Tollywood" is referred to the Telugu film industry, a part of Indian cinema. According to OxfordDictionaries.com— the word "Bollywood" got originated in 1970's. and print media claims that it got originated in 1970's and was popularized in the time when Cinema of India overtook Hollywood in terms of film production.
Many journalists have been credited by newspapers for the invention of the word "Bollywood". According to "The Telegraph" article published in 2005, it was Amit Khanna who had coined the word "Bollywood". and according to The Hindu article published in 2004 it was journalist Bevinda Collaco. Raja Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was a major commercial success. There was a huge market for talkies and musicals; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first color film in Kisan Kanya.
The next year, he made a version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry, as both industries produced films in Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, the lingua franca across northern and central India. Another major center of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindi-Urdu films along with local Bengali language films. In the 1940s, many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand, singers such as Mohammed Rafi and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to the Bombay film industry.
As a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the new Republic of India after partitio
The Indian Express
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper. It is published in Mumbai by Indian Express Group. In 1999, eight years after the group's founder Ramnath Goenka's death in 1991, the group was split between the family members; the southern editions took the name The New Indian Express, while the northern editions, based in Mumbai, retained the original Indian Express name, with "The" prefixed to the title. The Indian Express is published at ten locations—Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Vadodara, Chandigarh and Ahmedabad, Tirupati In 1932, the Indian Express was started by an Ayurvedic doctor, P. Varadarajulu Naidu, at Chennai, being published by his "Tamil Nadu" press. Soon under financial difficulties, he sold the newspaper to Swaminathan Sadanand, the founder of The Free Press Journal, a national news agency. In 1933 The Indian Express opened its second office in Madurai, launching the Tamil edition, Dinamani. Sadanand reduced the price of the newspaper. Faced with financial difficulties, he sold a part of his stake to Ramanath Goenka as convertible debentures.
In 1935, when The Free Press Journal collapsed, after a protracted court battle with Goenka, Sadanand lost ownership of Indian Express. Goenka bought the remaining 26% of the company held by Sadanand; the newspaper came under Goenka's sole control, taking the anti-establishment tone of the paper to greater heights. At that time, it faced stiff competition from the well established The Hindu and the Mail, as well as several other prominent newspapers. In the late 1930s the newspaper's circulation was no more than 2000. In 1939 Goenka bought another prominent Telugu daily newspaper; the name Three Musketeers was used for the three dailies. In 1940 the whole premises was gutted by fire; the Hindu, a rival newspaper, helped in re-launching the paper, by getting it printed temporarily at one of its Swadesimithran's press and offering its vacated premises at 2, Mount Road, which became the landmark Express Estates. This relocation helped the Express obtain better high speed printing machines; some claimed.
In years Goenka started the Mumbai edition with the landmark Express Towers as his office when he bought the Morning Standard in 1944. Two years it became the Mumbai edition of The Indian Express. Editions were started in several cities; the Financial Express was launched in 1961 at Mumbai, Kannada Prabha at Bangalore in 1965 and a Bangalore edition of the Telugu Daily Andhra Prabha, Gujarati dailies Lok Satta and Jansatta, from Ahmedabad and Vadodara in 1952. The Delhi edition started was when the Tej group's Indian News Chronicle was acquired in 1951, which in 1953 became the Delhi edition of Indian Express. In 1990 the group bought the Sterling group of magazines, along with it the Gentleman magazine. After Ramanath Goenka's death in 1991, two of the family members split the group into Indian Express Mumbai with all the North Indian editions, while the Southern editions were grouped as Express Madurai Ltd. with Chennai as headquarters. The Indian Express began publishing daily on the World Wide Web on 8 July 1996.
Five months the website expressindia.com attracted "700,000 hits every day, excepting weekends when it to 60% of its normal levels". The Indian Express Group has a Mumbai-headquartered division, which should not be confused with Express Publications Madurai, which has a South Indian chain of newspapers, including The New Indian Express a separate corporate entity from The Express Group; the Indian Express's main newsroom is in Noida. Mumbai is a bureau. A national desk brings out all editions in Delhi; the management, still sits in Mumbai. The Indian Express website
Whose Life Is It Anyway? (film)
Whose Life Is It Anyway? is a 1981 American drama film adapted by Brian Clark and Reginald Rose from Clark's 1972 television movie and 1978 stage play, all under the same title. The film is directed by stars Richard Dreyfuss. Whose Life Is It Anyway? received an 83% fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on six reviews and an average rating of 5.9/10. Sculptor Ken Harrison is paralyzed from the neck down after a car accident, is no longer able to create art, make love or have any semblance of a normal existence. Confined to a hospital, Harrison hires lawyer Carter Hill who, reluctantly at first, represents him to petition for the right to end his life. Dr. Emerson, the hospital administrator, is staunchly opposed to euthanasia, is determined to keep his patient alive against his wishes. Dr. Scott, Harrison's sympathetic physician, develops personal feelings for him, she wants to keep him alive though Harrison's girlfriend, has accepted his decision. A young orderly and a young nurse and Mary Jo, do what they can to keep Harrison's spirits up wheeling him to a hospital basement where they treat him to reggae music and marijuana.
In the end, though, it will be up to Judge Wyler whether Harrison has a moral and legal right to choose to die. Richard Dreyfuss as Ken Harrison John Cassavetes as Dr. Emerson Christine Lahti as Dr. Scott Bob Balaban as Carter Hill Thomas Carter as John Kaki Hunter as Mary Jo Kenneth McMillan as Judge Wyler Janet Eilber as Pat The Sea Inside Whose Life Is It Anyway? on IMDb Whose Life Is It Anyway? at AllMovie Whose Life Is It Anyway? at Box Office Mojo Whose Life Is It Anyway? at Rotten Tomatoes
Alejandro Fernando Amenábar Cantos known as Alejandro Amenábar, is a Spanish and Chilean film director and composer. Among other honors, he has won two European Film Awards, he has written or co-written the screenplays to all six of his movies and composed all of the soundtracks. Amenábar is the son of Hugo Ricardo Amenabar and a Spanish woman, Josefina Cantos, he has a dual Chilean-Spanish citizenship. His father worked as a technician at General Electric, while his mother decided to stay at home and take care of the children. Alejandro is the younger of two brothers. Josefina's older sister had moved to the capital of Chile and she invited Josefina to join her there. In Santiago, Josefina met Hugo. Alejandro was born on March 31, 1972. In August 1973, his family moved to Spain; the family settled in Madrid. When Alejandro was six years old, they moved to a complex on the outskirts of the town of Paracuellos de Jarama. Alejandro and his brother did not watch much television. From the age of 15, Alejandro would dedicate his time to going to the cinema to watch movies.
Other than theater, his passions were writing stories and reading books. According to Alejandro's mother, Alejandro had the capacity to absorb everything; as a child, he composed melodies with the keyboard and guitar with the same ease as when he wrote his stories. Alejandro started his studies at the Padres Escolapios de Getafe school. In his second year of high school, he transferred to the Alameda de Osuna institute, in the north-east of Madrid; the school was not close to. Before he became a director, Alejandro worked as a stock boy in a warehouse and as a gardener, until he had enough money to buy his own home camera, he did not want to start his university studies in cinema before having touched a camera. Amenábar entered the Information Sciences Faculty at Madrid's Complutense University, where after numerous scholastic failures he decided to give up studying cinema and he began directing; the advantage from having attended university was that he met people who in life would become important throughout his career.
At university, he met Mateo Gil, a friend and companion, the pair made a pact to always support each other's projects. Between 1991 and 1994, Amenábar made three short films which in a significant way influenced his first full-length films: La Cabeza, Himenóptero, Luna. Knowing José Luis Cuerda helped Alejandro in his career. A friend of José Luis Cuerda gave him the script of Himenóptero. Thereafter, Cuerda was interested in Amenábar's work; this led to him becoming the producer of Thesis, one of Amenábar's most recognized films, putting his name on the map. Thesis was a thriller set in the School of Information Sciences at the Complutense University of Madrid. Through this film, he gained the attention of critics in the Berlin Film Festival and won seven Goyas, including Best Picture and Best New Director. In 1997 he made Abre Los Ojos, a science fiction movie that had notable success at international festivals such as Berlin and Tokyo. Impressed by the movie, Tom Cruise bought the rights to adapt and produce the film, starring in a remake, Vanilla Sky.
His third large film was a ghost story starring Nicole Kidman. It was successful at an international level in Spain, where it was the most viewed film that year; the Others was very popular in the United States, where it was at the top of the box office for several weeks. The film premiered at the Venice Film Festival in 2001, won eight Goyas, including the Best Picture and Best Director, was nominated for best European Film Movie. In 2004 Amenábar released The Sea Inside, a real life-story about a quadriplegic Ramón Sampedro, which addressed issues such as euthanasia, abortion, or “the right to a dignified life.” The movie won 14 Goyas, including best movie and best director, an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2004. In 2008 Amenábar released his next film, called Mists of Time; the film starred big-name actors including Max Minghella. Agora premiered on October 9, 2009, with a budget of 50 million euros, it is the most expensive Spanish film in history. After a hiatus of seven years, Amenábar came back in 2015 with a new movie titled Regression, a thriller starring Ethan Hawke and Emma Watson.
The film had its world premiere at the San Sebastián International Film Festival in September 2015. Initial reviews were lukewarm. Amenábar is the composer of the soundtrack of his films, as well as others, such as Butterfly's Tongue directed by José Luis Cuerda and Nobody Knows Anybody directed by Mateo Gil. In 2004, Amenábar came out as gay. On 18 July 2015, he married David Blanco. Amenábar was raised Catholic, but became Agnostic and is now Atheist. Himenóptero Luna Thesis Open Your Eyes The Others The Sea Inside Agora Regression Al Lado del Atlas Allanamiento de Morada La lengua de las mariposas Nobody Knows Anybody El Soñador Un viaje mar adentro Alejandro Amenába