A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes such as political repression, torture, ethnic cleansing, or revolutionary terror. These killings are conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities. Death squads may have the support of foreign governments, they may comprise a secret police force, paramilitary militia groups, government soldiers, policemen, or combinations thereof. They may be organized as vigilantes; when death squads are not controlled by the state, they may consist of insurgent forces or organized crime, such as the ones used by cartels. Although the term "death squad" did not rise to notoriety until the activities of such groups became known in Central and South America during the 1970s and 80s, death squads have been employed under different guises throughout history; the term was first used by the fascist Iron Guard in Romania. It installed Iron guard death squads in 1936 in order to kill political enemies.
It was used during the Battle of Algiers by Paul Aussaresses. In Latin America, death squads first appeared in Brazil where a group called Esquadrão da Morte emerged in the 1960s. Argentina used extrajudicial killings as a way of crushing the liberal and communist opposition to the military junta during the'Dirty War' of the 1970s. For example, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina was a far-right death squad active during the "Dirty War"; the Chilean military regime of 1973–1990 committed such killings. See Operation Condor for examples. During the Salvadoran civil war, death squads achieved notoriety on March 24, 1980, when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero as he said Mass inside a convent chapel. In December 1980, three American nuns, Ita Ford, Dorothy Kazel, Maura Clarke, a lay worker, Jean Donovan, were gang raped and murdered by a military unit found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of suspected Communists. Priests who were spreading liberation theology, such as Father Rutilio Grande, were targeted as well.
The murderers were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran military, receiving U. S. funding and military advisors during the Carter administration. These events prompted outrage in the U. S. and led to a temporary cutoff in military aid at the end of his presidency. Death Squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years as well. Honduras had death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of, the army unit Battalion 316. Hundreds of people, teachers and union leaders were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion 316 received substantial training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency. In Southeast Asia, extrajudicial killings were conducted by both sides during the Vietnam War. For example, Viet Cong member Nguyễn Văn Lém, famous for being extrajudicially executed on camera by General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan on 1 February 1968 in Saigon, was himself claimed to have commanded a death squad targeting South Vietnamese policemen and their families during the Tet Offensive in Saigon.
As of 2010, death squads have continued to be active in several locations, including Chechnya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Colombia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Somalia, Tanzania, Pakistan, Myanmar, Philippines among others. Death squads are active in this country; this appears to be difficult to stop. Moreover, there is no proof as to whom is behind the killingsIn an interview with the panafrican magazine "Jeune Afrique", Laurent Gbagbo accused one of the opposition leaders, Alassane Ouattara, to be the main organizer of the media frenzy around his wife's involvement in the killing squads, he successfully sued and won, in French courts, in cases against the French newspapers that made the accusations. In December 2014, Kenyan Anti-Terrorism Police Unit officers confessed to Al-Jazeera that they were responsible for 500 of the extrajudicial killings; the murders totaled several hundred homicides every year. They included the assassination of Abubaker Shariff Ahmed "Makaburi", an Al-Shabaab associate from Kenya, among 21 Muslim radicals murdered by the Kenyan police since 2012.
According to the agents, they resorted to killing after the Kenyan police could not prosecute terror suspects. In doing so, the officers indicated that they were acting on the direct orders of Kenya's National Security Council, which consisted of the Kenyan President, Deputy President, Chief of the Defence Forces, Inspector General of Police, National Security Intelligence Service Director, Cabinet Secretary of Interior, Principal Secretary of Interior. Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and the National Security Council of Kenya members denied operating an extrajudicial assassination program. Additionally, the officers suggested that Western security agencies provided intelligence for the program, including the whereabouts and activities of government targets, they asserted that Britain supplied further logistics in the form of training. One Kenyan officer within the Council's General Service Unit indicated that Israeli instructors taught them how to kill; the head of the International Bar Association, Mark Ellis, cautioned that any such involvement by foreign nations would constitute a breach of international law.
The United Kingdom and Israel denie
Retiro, Buenos Aires
Retiro is a barrio in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Located in the northeast end of the city, Retiro is bordered on the south by the Puerto Madero and San Nicolás barrios, on the west by the Recoleta barrio. Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th was installed in the area, a asiento of slaves belonging to the Compagnie de Guinée and South Sea Company, that operated until 1739. In 1800 began the construction of Plaza de Toros del Retiro, a stadium of bullfighting built by the architect Francisco Cañete, that worked until 1819. In the Plaza de Toros took place the battles between the troops of Santiago de Liniers and the British army, occurred during the English invasions of 1806 and 1807. In 1821 was installed the first dissident cemetery of Buenos Aires, located in the vicinity of Iglesia Nuestra Señora del Socorro; this cemetery was place were buried the people who professed the Protestant religion English. The dissident cemetery operated in the neighborhood of Retiro until 1833, was transferred that same year to the neighborhood of Balvanera.
In 1854, was established in the neighborhood the Compañía Primitiva de Gas de Buenos Aires Ltda. A British gas company, that worked until it was nationalized in 1944. In 1910 the British residents of Buenos Aires financed the construction of the Tower of the English, on the occasion of the centenary of the May Revolution; the work was entrusted to the English architect Ambrose Macdonald Poynter, being inaugurated by the president Victorino de la Plaza on May 24, 1916. Retiro is one of the largest hubs of transportation services in Argentina, is home to many high-end stores and residential areas popular among both local wealthy gentry and expatriate executives. About 26,000 of its people, including thousands of illegal immigrants, live in the "Villa 31" shantytown built along the Port of Buenos Aires from the 1930s onwards. Local and long distance rail service heading to the north originate from Estación Retiro a major long-distance bus terminal is located adjacent to the station, subte line C of the Buenos Aires Metro system and numerous local public bus services, this area is always teeming with commuters and traffic on weekdays.
A major thoroughfare is Avenida del Libertador, which becomes Avenida Leandro N. Alem past the Retiro train terminal. Avenida Leandro Alem runs north-to-south along the Buenos Aires Central Business District, which Retiro shares with the San Nicolás ward. Other principal streets and avenues in Retiro are Santa Fe, Córdoba, Libertador Avenues, pedestrian Florida Street, Avenida 9 de Julio; the Retiro section of Florida Street was the site of Harrods Buenos Aires the London department store's only overseas affiliate, from 1914 to 1998. Another Retiro landmark spared. Completed in 1912 as a private residence, it was acquired by the French Government for use as its Embassy in Argentina in 1939; when entire blocks of housing were razed to make way for an extension of the Avenida 9 de Julio in the late 1970s, the embassy was spared due to its landmark status, remains the lone building in the midst of intense traffic. The neighboring Pereda Palace, built in 1920, serves as the official residence of the Ambassador of Brazil.
Retiro is home to a number of five star hotels, including the Four Seasons, Marriott Plaza and Sofitel. The oldest of these, the Marriott Plaza, was opened in 1909 and faces Plaza San Martín, to the north of which lies the train terminal and the Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina, where the Torre Monumental is located. Nearby are the Basílica Santísimo Sacramento, the upscale Patio Bullrich shopping arcade, the Estrugamou Building, the Fernández Blanco Museum, the Peace Plaza - the site of the former Israeli Embassy, bombed on March 17, 1992, with a toll of 29 dead and 242 wounded, marking the first known South American incident of Middle East-related terrorism; the numerous government agencies headquartered in the district include the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the Air Force, the Navy, the National Mint, the Rail Transport Agency. Across the street opposite Retiro train terminal is the leafy Plaza San Martín, surrounded by great palaces and hotels; the Retiro lowlands were once the training grounds for General José de San Martín's Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, the modern-day Plaza San Martín features an equestrian monument to the hero of the Argentine War of Independence, as well as a memorial to the dead in the Falklands War.
The most significant landmark opposite the plaza is the Kavanagh building, a reinforced concrete structure finished in 1936 that, at the time, was the tallest building in Latin America at 120 metres. Funded by a feisty Irish Argentine woman, the Kavanagh stands on the northern end of pedestrian Calle Florida, its construction followed the plaza's extensive redesign, which resulted in the demolition of a number of derelict buildings from the colonial era, though of the original National Museum of Fine Arts, an ornate pavilion used for the 1889 Paris Exp
The Official Story
The Official Story is a 1985 Argentine drama historical film directed by Luis Puenzo and written by Puenzo and Aída Bortnik. It stars Héctor Alterio, Chunchuna Villafañe and Hugo Arana. In the United Kingdom, it was released as The Official Version; the film deals with the story of an upper middle class couple who lives in Buenos Aires with an illegally adopted child. The mother comes to realize that her daughter may be the child of a desaparecido, a victim of the forced disappearances that occurred during Argentina's last military dictatorship, which saw widespread human rights violations and a genocide. Among several other international awards, it won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film at the 58th Academy Awards; the film is set in Argentina in 1983, in the last year of the country's last military dictatorship, during which a campaign of state-sponsored terrorism produced thousands of killings and torture of accused political leftists and innocents alike, who were buried in unmarked graves or became desaparecidos.
Alicia Maquet, a high school history teacher, her husband, Roberto Ibañez, a government official, live in Buenos Aires with their adopted daughter, Gaby, 5. Alicia, like other members of the Argentine upper class, is not aware of how much killing and suffering has gone on in the country, naively believes only guilty people are arrested. Alicia's views are challenged by a fellow teacher, Benítez, some of her students. During a discussion about the death of Argentinean founding father Mariano Moreno, one student, argues that the government-issued history textbooks are "written by assassins." Ana, Alicia's longtime friend, returns from exile in Europe and explains why she never told Alicia she was leaving. At first Alicia laughs as she tells of her apartment being ransacked by officials, but soon begins to sob as she describes being held captive and raped for having lived with a man labeled as a subversive though she hadn't seen him in two years, she says that while she was held captive, she witnessed pregnant women leave to give birth but return without their babies, whom she believes were sold to rich couples.
Alicia wonders about Gaby's origins and Alicia asks questions about Gaby's birth, a topic her husband has told her to ignore. Alicia asks why they celebrate the day they brought her home rather than the day she was born, whether or not Roberto met Gaby's mother. Roberto insists. Costa continues to provoke his classmates, one day Alicia arrives to see newspaper accounts of the desaparecidos taped to the blackboard; when Alicia reports the student, Benítez intervenes to protect him. Alicia becomes friendly with Benítez as her research brings her closer to the truth. While seeking Gaby's hospital birth records, Alicia learns of an organization searching for missing children, she meets Sara, whose pregnant daughter was kidnapped by the armed forces, believes Gaby may be her granddaughter. Sara has a photo of her daughter at Gaby's age, looking identical to Gaby. Roberto faces stress at work due to the machinations of his colleagues, several of whom disappear over the course of the film. Ana accuses him of denouncing her and causing her arrest.
He comes into friction with his liberal father and brother, who frown on his ties to the ruling conservative military elite and argue in favor of social justice. Alicia brings Sara home to meet Roberto, he becomes furious; that evening, Alicia surprises Roberto when she tells him that Gaby is not home, saying, "How does it feel not knowing where your child is?" Although she tells him that Gaby is at his mother's house, he becomes enraged and assaults her. The violence is interrupted by a telephone call from Gaby. While Gaby sings a nursery rhyme to Roberto, Alicia gets her purse and walks out the door, leaving her keys behind; the film's final shot shows Gaby sitting in a wicker rocking chair at her adopted grandparents' house, continuing to sing. Norma Aleandro as Alicia Marnet de Ibáñez Héctor Alterio as Roberto Ibáñez Chunchuna Villafañe as Ana Hugo Arana as Enrique Guillermo Battaglia as José Chela Ruiz as Sara Patricio Contreras as Benítez María Luisa Robledo as Nata Aníbal Morixe as Miller Jorge Petraglia as Macci Analía Castro as Gaby Daniel Lago as Dante Augusto Larreta as General Pablo Rago The film is based on the real political events that took place in Argentina after Jorge Rafael Videla's reactionary military junta assumed power on March 24, 1976.
During the junta's rule, the parliament was suspended. Like many progressive actors and others in the country, the lead actress in the film, Norma Aleandro, was forced into exile during this time, she traveled to Uruguay Spain later. She returned after the fall of the military government in 1983. Aleandro once said, "Alicia's personal search is my nation's search for the truth about our history; the film is positive in the way it demonstrates that she can change her life despite all she is losing."The Official Story can be considered alongside a group of other films that were the first to be made in Argentina after the downfall in 1983 of the last Argentine dictator, Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri, his autocratic regime; these films deal frankly with the repression, the torture, the disappearances during Argentina's Dirty War in the 1970s and early 1980s. A second group of films, which includes Verónico Cruz uses metaphor and hints at wider socio-political issues. At first, di
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli
Ricardo Alberto Darín is an Argentine actor and film director considered as one of the best and most prolific actors of Argentine cinema. Considered one of the greatest and most acclaimed movie stars of his country, he played a number of parts in TV series for several years where he became popular as a young leading actor, his most prominent roles as a film actor include Nine Queens, El hijo de la novia, Luna de Avellaneda, The Aura and La señal, his directorial debut. He starred in the Academy Award winning film for Best Foreign Picture The Secret in Their Eyes. In 2011, the Konex Foundation bestowed upon him their Diamond Award, one of the most prestigious awards in Argentina, for being the most important personality in entertainment in the last decade in his country. In 2015, he received the Goya Award for Best Actor for the film Truman. Darín was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on January 26, 1957, to actor Ricardo Darín Sr. and actress Renée Roxana. His family is of Italian and Syrian-Lebanese origin, has held strong ties to the Argentine showbusiness community.
His parents divorced in 1969 when he was 12 years old, his father died of cancer on January 5, 1989. Darín was ten years old. By the age of sixteen he had achieved a stable position in Television in Argentina, in TV shows such as Alta Comedia and Estación Retiro, under the patronage of Alberto Migré, Argentina's major TV producer at the time. During the 1980s, while still collaborating with Migré, Darín was acclaimed as one of the galancitos, a group of young actors that adapted popular TV programs into theater productions; the galancitos were popular all over Argentina. In 1987, Darín starred in the television show Estrellita mía, with Andrea Del Boca, two years in the show Rebelde, with Grecia Colmenares, he switched to comedy in the early 1990s, which led to his greatest television success co-starring in the remake of the 1970s TV show Mi cuñado, alongside Luis Brandoni. Despite his success on television, Darín never left theater and continued to perform in productions such as La extraña pareja, Sugar, Algo en común and Art.
He debuted as theater director in 1990, with the production Pájaros in the nait, starring Adrián Suar, Diego Torres and Leonardo Sbaraglia. He started his film career by appearing in movies aimed for young audiences, such as He nacido en la ribera, Así es la vida, La rabona and Los éxitos del amor, La carpa del amor, La discoteca del amor and La canción de Buenos Aires, he shifted to more mature roles, which permitted him to appear in movies such as El desquite, Revancha de un amigo and La Rosales. The critics first noted and praised Darín for his role in the movie Perdido por perdido, directed by the newcomer Alberto Lecchi, he appeared in Eduardo Mignogna's The Lighthouse, starred in Juan José Campanella's Same Love, Same Rain, which brought him further critical acclaim. But his success on film was established by his role as Marcos, a con artist in the midst of Argentina's financial crisis, in the 2000 movie Nine Queens, in which he starred alongside Gastón Pauls. After the success of Nine Queens, Darín played a minor role in Mignona's La fuga, in 2001.
In that same year, he co-starred alongside Norma Aleandro and Héctor Alterio. The movie was a commercial and critical success, resulting in its nomination for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and its winning the Silver Condor Award for Best Film. Darín starred in the comedy film Samy y yo, with Angie Cepeda, in 2002, he starred with Cecilia Roth in Kamchatka, a drama, Argentina's official submission for the 2002 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but it was not nominated by the Academy. In 2004 he co-starred with actress Mercedes Morán in the movie Moon of Avellaneda, in which he played a man trying to save his childhood club from bankruptcy. In 2005 he portrayed a taxidermist with photographic memory who unknowingly gets himself involved in a crime scheme in the movie The Aura; this last performance earned him an Argentine Film Critics Association Silver Condor Award for Best Actor and a Clarín Award for Best Actor. In 2006 he and Juan José Campanella were awarded Spanish citizenship by certificate of naturalization, a special concession given by the Kingdom of Spain to people of particular merit.
That same year, he starred in the Spanish film The Education of Fairies, alongside Bebe and Irène Jacob. In 2007 he appeared in the movie XXY, where he plays the troubled father of an intersex teenage daughter; that same year, he starred and debuted as a film director in the movie La señal, a project Eduardo Magnogna left unfinished after his death. In 2009 he starred with Soledad Villamil and Guillermo Francella in The Secret in Their Eyes, a movie by Juan José Campanella; the movie won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and was the second biggest box-office hit in the history of Argentine cinema. His performance as Benjamín Espósito earned Darín a second Silver Condor Award for Best Actor and his first nomination for the Goya Award in that same category. In 2009 he appeared in the Spanish movie El baile de la Victoria, which earned him a nomination for the Goya Award, this time as Best Actor in a Supporting Role. In 2010 he starred in Pablo Trapero's Carancho, with Martina Gusmán, where he played the role of an
Scoring in association football
In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet — this frame is referred to as a goal; each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net. Rules concerning goal scoring are described in Law 10 of the Laws of the Game: A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goalposts and under the crossbar, provided that no offence has been committed by the team scoring the goal; as with other cases of the ball travelling out of the field of play, all of the ball must cross all of the line, otherwise play continues. A goal is credited to the team attacking the goal scored upon, regardless of which team caused the ball to enter the goal.
A ball entering a goal from the action of a player defending that goal is called an own goal. If serious foul play unambiguously prevents scoring a goal, a referee cannot award a goal if it does not enter the goal as described above. A goal can not be scored directly from a dropped indirect free kick or a throw-in. Should the ball go into the goal from these without first being touched by another player, play is restarted with a goal kick. A player cannot score an own goal directly from any restart of play. Both of these situations the latter, are exceedingly rare. If there is time remaining in the session of play, after a goal has been scored play is restarted with a kick-off by the side which conceded the goal. Most goals are unambiguous, as the ball will strike the net attached to the goal structure indicating that it passed the goal line as described above. However, situations occur where it is difficult for officials to tell if the ball crossed the goal line before a rebound, save, or clearance from the goal area.
Additionally if the ball crosses the goal line as required, a goal may be disallowed if the attacking team commits an infringement of the Laws of the Game, such as the offside offence or a foul. As with all other decisions on the Laws of the Game, the referee is the final authority as to whether a goal is scored or disallowed; the match referee is advised by assistant referees, whose view across the pitch from the sidelines may in some cases be more useful in determining whether the ball crossed the goal line or whether the attacking team committed an infringement. The goal net was one of the earliest tools employed to aid match officials in determining whether a goal was scored. Introduced in the 1890s, the goal net provides a simple way to determine whether the ball passed on the correct side of the goal posts and crossbar. Although not mandated by the Laws of the Game, goal nets are now ubiquitous across most levels of organised football. Since 2012, goal-line technology has been used at the highest levels of professional football.
The video assistant referee was added in 2018 after years of trials. The Laws make no mention of attributing goals to individual players. Goals are always attributed to individual players, that player being the one who provided the final action causing the goal to be scored; this is the last player to touch the ball, notwithstanding inconsequential deflections such as failed attempts at a save. Should a player cause a goal to be scored against their own team, the goal is recorded as an own goal; the authority on attributing goals varies between competitions. The Premier League in England has a dedicated Dubious Goals Committee for resolving attribution disputes. For an individual player, scoring multiple goals in a game is considered a notable achievement. In association football, a hat-trick refers to the uncommon feat of scoring three goals in a single game. Awards exist for individual players who score the most goals in some competitions, such awards are called the "Golden Boot". Players will celebrate scoring a goal with team mates putting on elaborate displays for the crowd.
The Laws allow this, but mandate that celebration must not be "excessive". On average, only a few scores occur per game in association football. An analysis of several years' results from several English leagues found that 1–0 was the most common result, occurring in 20% of games. In English traditional football, the object of the game was to convey a ball by any means possible into a specified area, or to touch a specific object defended by the opposing team; this feat might itself be called a "goal". The game might be played for a fixed period of time. In the more formalized football games of English public schools and universities, the object was to kick the ball between goal-posts guarded by