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The Secret of Monkey Island

The Secret of Monkey Island is a 1990 point-and-click graphic adventure game developed and published by Lucasfilm Games. It takes place in a fictional version of the Caribbean during the age of piracy; the player assumes the role of Guybrush Threepwood, a young man who dreams of becoming a pirate and explores fictional islands while solving puzzles. The game was conceived in 1988 by Lucasfilm employee Ron Gilbert, who designed it with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman. Gilbert's frustrations with contemporary adventure titles led him to make the player character's death impossible, which meant that gameplay focused the game on exploration; the atmosphere was based on that of the Pirates of the Caribbean theme park ride. The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth game built with the SCUMM engine, modified to include a more user-friendly interface; the early releases of the game came with copy-protection. A cardboard wheel, named "Dial-a-Pirate", was provided, the player had to match the pirate shown on-screen with that of the wheel.

Critics praised The Secret of Monkey Island for its humor and gameplay. The game spawned a number of sequels, collectively known as the Monkey Island series. Gilbert and Grossman led the development of the sequel Monkey Island 2: LeChuck's Revenge. LucasArts released a remake of the original in 2009, well received by the gaming press; the Secret of Monkey Island is a 2D adventure game played from a third-person perspective. Via a point-and-click interface, the player guides protagonist Guybrush Threepwood through the game's world and interacts with the environment by selecting from twelve verb commands such as "talk to" for communicating with characters and "pick up" for collecting items between commands and the world's objects in order to solve puzzles and thus progress in the game. While conversing with other characters, the player may choose between topics for discussion that are listed in a dialog tree; the in-game action is interrupted by cutscenes. Like other LucasArts adventure games, The Secret of Monkey Island features a design philosophy that makes the player character's death nearly impossible.

A youth named Guybrush Threepwood arrives on the fictional Mêlée Island, with the desire to become a pirate. He seeks out the island's pirate leaders, who set him three trials that must be completed to become a pirate: winning a sword duel against Carla, the island's resident swordmaster, finding a buried treasure, stealing a valuable idol from the governor's mansion; these quests take Guybrush throughout the island, where he hears of stories of the Ghost Pirate LeChuck, who died in an expedition to the mysterious Monkey Island, an act, meant to win the love of the governor Elaine Marley. Guybrush meets several characters of interest, including a local voodoo priestess, Stan the Used Boat Salesman, Carla the Sword Master, a prisoner named Otis, Meathook, whose hands have been replaced by hooks. Guybrush encounters the governor and is smitten, she soon reciprocates. However, as he completes the tasks set for him, the island is raided by LeChuck and his undead crew, who abduct Elaine and retreat to their secret hideout on Monkey Island.

Guybrush takes it upon himself to rescue her, buying a ship and hiring Carla and Meathook as crew before setting sail for the fabled island. When Guybrush reaches Monkey Island, he discovers a village of cannibals in a dispute with Herman Toothrot, a ragged castaway marooned there, he settles their quarrel, recovers a magical "voodoo root" from LeChuck's ship for the cannibals, who provide him with a seltzer bottle of "voodoo root elixir" that can destroy ghosts. When Guybrush returns to LeChuck's ship with the elixir, he learns that LeChuck has returned to Mêlée Island to marry Elaine at the church, he promptly returns to Mêlée Island and gatecrashes the wedding, only to ruin Elaine's own plan for escape. Now confronted with a furious LeChuck, Guybrush is savagely beaten by the ghost pirate in a fight ranging across the island; the fight arrives at the island's ship emporium, where Guybrush finds a bottle of root beer. Substituting the beverage for the lost elixir, he sprays LeChuck. With LeChuck defeated and Elaine enjoy a romantic moment, watching fireworks caused by LeChuck exploding.

Ron Gilbert conceived the idea of a pirate adventure game in 1988, after completing Zak McKracken and the Alien Mindbenders. He first wrote story ideas about pirates while spending the weekend at a friend's house. Gilbert experimented with introductory paragraphs to find a satisfactory idea, his initial story featured unnamed villains that would become LeChuck and Elaine. He pitched it to Lucasfilm Games's staff as a series of short stories. Gilbert's idea was warmly received, but production was postponed because Lucasfilm Games assigned its designers, including Gilbert, to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure. Development of The Last Crusade was finished in 1989, which allowed Gilbert to begin production of The Secret of Monkey Island known internally under the working title Mutiny on Monkey Island. Gilbert soon realised; the game's insult sword fighting mechanics were influenced by swashbuckling movies starring Errol Flynn, which Gilbert and Grossman watched for inspiration.

They noticed that pirates in those fil

Barbara Robotham

Barbara Joyce Robotham was an English mezzo-soprano opera singer and concert soloist who became a distinguished voice teacher at the Royal Northern College of Music. The daughter of a Fylde Coast heating engineer, Robotham was born and raised in Blackpool where she was educated at the Collegiate School for Girls, she studied singing at the Royal Manchester College of Music under Elsie Thurston. She won the college's Curtis Gold Medal and the Imperial League of Opera Prize and in 1961 the Silver Medal at the Concours de Genève, her early performances included Handel's Alcina in Lisbon, Brahms' Rhapsodie conducted by Malcolm Sargent at the BBC Proms, Britten's Abraham and Isaac at Aldeburgh, the Verdi Requiem, the Angel in Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius. In the early 1970s, after her election as an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Manchester College of Music and having sung in over 100 performances and broadcasts in the UK and Europe, Robotham turned to teaching which she considered her true vocation.

In 1974 she became a voice professor at Lancaster University, in 1979 she joined the faculty of the Royal Northern College of Music. Amongst her students there were Amanda Roocroft and Sara Fulgoni, she retired from full-time teaching at the RNCM in 1999, but continued to give master-classes at the college up until her final illness. Robotham was a long-time resident of Lytham St. Annes where she was the President of the Lytham St Annes Choral Society from 1989 until her death, her last professional performance was as the mezzo-soprano soloist in the Verdi Requiem which she performed with the society in 1997 at Blackpool Grand Theatre. She died in Blackpool Victoria Hospital at the age of 77 survived by her husband Eric Waite whom she had married in 1958 and their son Jonathan Waite. William Walton: Orb & sceptre, Te Deum, Crown ImperialBarbara Robotham. Recorded in 1977. Label: EMI Igor Stravinsky: Les Noces, Cantata – The third item on this album, Stravinsky's Cantata set to medieval English texts is performed by Barbara Robotham.

Recorded in 1967. Label: Supraphon

James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde

James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde, was a Scottish politician and judge. Clyde was born on 14 November 1863, the son of Dr James Clyde LLD, his father was Rector of the Dollar Academy and of the Edinburgh Academy. He was educated at the Edinburgh Academy and at the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated with an MA 1884 and an LLB in 1888. Clyde was called to the Scots Bar in 1889, by the times he was appointed a King's Counsel in August 1901, he was the leading junior counsel in Scotland; as a KC, he was retained by several railway companies and appeared before the Law Lords. He was Dean of the Faculty of Advocates from 1915–1918, he held office as Solicitor General for Scotland from October 1905 to December 1905. He was the unsuccessful Tory candidate for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire in 1906, he was elected at a by-election in May 1909 as the Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for Edinburgh West, held the seat until 1918. He was Coalition Unionist member for Edinburgh North from 1918–1920.

He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in December 1916. He was appointed to the Dardanelles Commission, he served as Lord Advocate from December 1916 to 1920 in Lloyd George's coalition government. He was appointed to the bench and served as Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session from 1920 to 1935, with the judicial title Lord Clyde. During this time Lord Clyde gave this famous quote in the case of Ayrshire Pullman Motor Services v Inland Revenue 14 Tax Case 754, at 763,764: "No man in the country is under the smallest obligation, moral or other, so to arrange his legal relations to his business or property as to enable the Inland Revenue to put the largest possible shovel in his stores; the Inland Revenue is not slow, quite rightly, to take every advantage, open to it under the Taxing Statutes for the purposes of depleting the taxpayer's pocket. And the taxpayer is in like manner entitled to be astute to prevent, so far as he can, the depletion of his means by the Inland Revenue" He was a Deputy Lieutenant of Kinross-shire, became Lord Lieutenant of Kinross-shire from 1937 until his death.

He was Chairman of the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland from 1936 to 1944. In 1895 Clyde married Anna Margaret MacDiarmid, they had two sons. Clyde died in Edinburgh on 16 June 1944. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Clyde