2010: Odyssey Two
2010: Odyssey Two is a 1982 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, it is the sequel to the 1968 novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, but continues the story of Stanley Kubrick's film adaptation with the same title rather than Clarke's original novel, which differed from the film in some respects. Set in the year 2010, the plot centres on a joint Soviet-American mission aboard the Soviet spacecraft The Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov; the mission has several objectives, including salvaging the spaceship Discovery and investigating the mysterious "monolith" discovered by Dave Bowman in 2001: A Space Odyssey. It was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1983; the novel was adapted for the screen by Peter Hyams and released as a film in 1984. The story is set nine years after the failure of the Discovery One mission to Jupiter. A joint Soviet-American crew, including Heywood Floyd from 2001, on the Soviet spaceship Alexei Leonov arrives to discover what went wrong with the earlier mission, to investigate the monolith in orbit around the planet, to resolve the disappearance of David Bowman.
They hypothesize. The Soviets have an advanced new "Sakharov" drive which will propel them to Jupiter ahead of the American Discovery Two, so Floyd is assigned to the Leonov crew. However, a Chinese space station rockets out of Earth orbit, revealing itself to be the interplanetary spacecraft Tsien aimed at Jupiter; the Leonov crewmembers think the Chinese are on a one-way trip due to its speed, but Floyd surmises that due to the large water content of Europa they intend to land there and use the water content to refuel. The Tsien's daring mission ends in failure, when it is destroyed by an indigenous life-form on Europa; the only survivor, Professor Chang radios the story to the Leonov. The Leonov arrives at Discovery. Mission crewmember and HAL 9000's creator, Dr. Chandra, reactivates the computer to ascertain the cause of his earlier aberrant behaviour. After some time, Floyd is speaking to a Russian on board, for an instant, sees the Monolith open again, into a Stargate, as David Bowman escapes from the Monolith's dimension back into ours.
A sequence of scenes follows the explorations of David Bowman, transformed into a non-corporeal, energy-based life-form, much like the aliens controlling the monoliths. During his journey, the avatar of Bowman travels to Earth, making contact with significant individuals from his past: He visits his mother and brushes her hair, he appears to his ex-girlfriend on her television screen. In the novel, the aliens are using Bowman as a probe to learn about humankind, he returns to the Jupiter system to explore beneath the ice of Europa, where he finds aquatic life-forms, under the clouds of Jupiter, where he discovers gaseous life-forms. Both are primitive. An apparition of Bowman appears before Floyd, warning him that they must leave Jupiter within fifteen days. Floyd has difficulty convincing the rest of the crew at first, but the monolith vanishes from orbit; the Leonov crew devises a plan to use the Discovery as a "booster rocket", enabling them to return to Earth ahead of schedule. HAL and the Discovery will be trapped with insufficient fuel to escape.
The crew are worried that HAL will have the same neuroses on discovering that he will be abandoned yet again, so Chandra must convince HAL that the human crew is in danger. The Leonov crew flees Jupiter as a mysterious dark spot begins to grow. HAL's telescope observations reveal that the "Great Black Spot" is, in fact, a vast population of monoliths, increasing at an exponential rate, which appear to be eating the planet. By acting as self-replicating machines, these monoliths increase Jupiter's density until the planet achieves nuclear fusion, becoming a small star. In the novel, this obliterates the primitive life forms inhabiting the Jovian atmosphere, which the Monoliths' controllers had deemed unlikely to achieve intelligence, unlike the aquatic life of Europa; as Jupiter is about to transform, Bowman returns to Discovery to give HAL a last order to carry out. HAL begins broadcasting the message The creation of the new star, which Earth names Lucifer, destroys Discovery. However, in appreciation for HAL's help, Bowman has the aliens which control the monoliths remove HAL's artificial intelligence from Discovery's computer core and transform him into the same kind of life form as David Bowman, become his companion.
The book ends with a brief epilogue, which takes place in AD 20,001. By this time, the Europans have evolved into a species that has developed a primitive civilisation, most with assistance from a monolith, they are not described in detail. They regard the star Lucifer as their primary sun, referring to Sol as "The Cold Sun". Though their settlements are concentrated in the hemisphere of Europa, bathed in Lucifer's rays, some Europans have begun in recent generations to explore the Farside, the hemisphere facing away from Lucifer, still covered in ice. There they may witness the spectacle of night, unknown on the other side of Europa, when the Cold Sun sets; the Europans who explore the Farside have been observing the night sky and have begun to develop a mythology based on their observations. They believe that Lucifer was not always there, they believe that the Cold Sun was its brother and was condemn
Monolith (Space Odyssey)
In Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey, Monoliths are machines built by an unseen extraterrestrial species. In the series of novels, three Monoliths are discovered in the Solar System by humans; the response of the characters to their discovery drives the plot of the series. It influences the fictional history of the series by encouraging humankind to progress with technological development and space travel; the first Monolith appears at the beginning of the story, set in prehistoric times. It is discovered by a group of hominids and somehow triggers a considerable shift in evolution, starting with the ability to use tools and weaponry, it is revealed that thousands of other monoliths exist elsewhere in the Solar System. The extraterrestrial species that built the Monoliths is never described in much detail, but some knowledge of its existence is given to Dave Bowman after he is transported by the stargate to the "cosmic zoo", as detailed in the novels 2001: A Space Odyssey and 2010: Odyssey Two.
The existence of this species is only hypothesized by the rest of humanity, but it is obvious because the Monolith was identified as an artifact of non-human origin. The extraterrestrial species that built the Monoliths developed intergalactic travel millions or billions of years before the present time. In the novels, Clarke refers to them as the "Firstborn" since they were quite the first sapient species to possess a significant capability of interstellar travel. Members of this species explored the universe in the search of knowledge, knowledge about other intelligent species. While these early explorers discovered that life was quite common, they observed that intelligent life was stunted in its development, or else died out prematurely. Hence, they set about fostering it; the Firstborn were in many ways physically different from human beings, though from another point-of-view they were fundamentally the same: they were creatures made of "flesh and blood", hence, like human beings, they were mortal.
However, the evolutionary development projects they began would by their nature require long timespans to complete, far longer than the lifetimes of their creators. Therefore, the aliens created complex automated machines to oversee and carry out their projects over the eons; when they encountered a living world that had features in favour of the evolution of intelligent life, they left behind the monoliths as remote observers that were capable of taking a variety of actions according to the wishes of their creators. One such planet, encountered when it was still quite young, was Earth, they observed Jupiter and its watery moon, Europa. The decaying ecology of Mars was visited, but passed over in favour of more fruitful locations like Earth; the aliens left behind three Monoliths to observe and enact their plan to encourage humans to pursue technology and space travel. As described in Clarke's novel, the Firstborn discovered how to transfer their consciousness onto computers, thus they became thinking machines.
In the end, they surpassed this achievement, were able to transfer from physical to non-corporeal forms—the "Lords of the Galaxy"—omniscient and capable of travelling at great speeds. The Firstborn had abandoned physical form, but their creations, the Monoliths and these continued to carry out their original assignments; the term "Tycho Magnetic Anomaly" is something of a misnomer when referring to "TMA-0" and "TMA-2", since neither of these are found on the Moon and neither one of them emits any significant magnetic field, as described in the novel 2010: Odyssey Two. In the novel, the Russian crewmen of the spaceship Alexei Leonov refer to the TMA-2 as "Zagadka"; the name Tycho Magnetic Anomaly-1 refers to the strong magnetic field found somewhere in the lunar Crater Tycho by an American scientific satellite. Astronauts find that this magnetic anomaly is caused by an alien Monolith buried about 15 meters below the surface. In the novel, when the Monolith is excavated and examined, it is found to be a black cuboid whose sides extend in the precise ratio of 1: 4: 9.
In the novel, Clarke suggests that this sequence or ratio extends past the three known spatial dimensions into much higher dimensions. The TMA-1 was dug up during the lunar night, but after sunrise and its exposure to direct sunlight, TMA-1 emits a single powerful burst of radio waves – aimed at Iapetus in the novel, aimed at Jupiter in the motion picture, its powerful magnetic field disappears immediately. In the novel, some scientists speculate that its magnetic field came from large electric currents, circulating in a system of superconductors for millions of years as an energy-storage mechanism. All of that electric power was expended in the one radio signal. An identical object was found orbiting Jupiter; this object was dubbed "TMA-2", a term that the book calls "doubly inappropriate": it had no magnetic field, was millions of miles from Tycho. In 3001: The Final Odyssey, HAL and Bowman destroy TMA-2 with a computer virus after it is learned that its superiors are sending an order to destroy humanity.
In the year 2513, the first Monolith to be encount
Expedition to Earth
Expedition to Earth is a collection of science fiction short stories by English writer Arthur C. Clarke. There are at least two variants of this book's table in different editions of the book. Both variants include the stories "History Lesson" and "Encounter in the Dawn", but only one story is included under its own title. Variants differ in the story, included under its own title; this collection published in 1953, includes: "Second Dawn" "If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth" "Breaking Strain" "History Lesson" "Superiority" "Exile of the Eons" "Hide-and-Seek" "Expedition to Earth" "Loophole" "Inheritance" "The Sentinel" Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas selected the collection as one of the best sf books of 1953, praising the stories' "humor, technical ideas, science-fictional thinking and all-around excellence." Groff Conklin said that "The stories are continuously fascinating" and "exhibiting their author's versatility". P. Schuyler Miller praised it. Writing in the Hartford Courant, reviewer R. W. Wallace declared that the stories "show as a more skilled literary artist" than his novel Childhood's End had.
Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 101. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. Expedition to Earth title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
3001: The Final Odyssey
3001: The Final Odyssey is a 1997 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, it is the final book in Clarke's Space Odyssey series. This novel begins with a brief prologue describing the bioforms — dubbed the First-Born — who created the black monoliths, they evolved from "primordial soup", over the course of millions of years, became a space-faring species. Perceiving that nothing was more precious than "mind," they catalysed the evolution of intelligent species wherever they went, by increasing the intelligent species' chance of survival. After visiting Earth, the First-Born found a way to impress themselves into the fabric of space and time, becoming immortal. Meanwhile, the monoliths—implied to have been forgotten by their creators when they ascended to a higher state of being—continued to watch over their subjects. 3001 follows the adventures of Frank Poole, the astronaut killed by the HAL 9000 computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey. One millennium Poole's freeze-dried body is discovered in the Kuiper belt by a comet-collecting space tug named the Goliath, revived.
Poole is taken home to learn about the Earth in the year 3001. Some of its notable features include a brain -- computer interface technology. Humans have colonised the Jovian moons Ganymede and Callisto. TMA-1, the black monolith found on the Moon in 1999, has been brought to Earth in 2006 and installed in front of the United Nations Building in New York City, it is determined that following the events of 2010: Odyssey Two and 2061: Odyssey Three, the Jovian monolith had sent a report to its superior monolith 450 light years away, is expected to receive its orders toward humanity after the nine-century round-trip. The monolith was empowered to obliterate the nascent biosphere of Jupiter, but needed a higher authority's approval to do the same with the technological civilisation on Earth. There is considerable worry that the judgment, based on the monolith's observations of humanity up to 2061, will be negative, the human race thus destroyed as the Jovian bioforms discovered by David Bowman were wiped out.
Frank conscripts Bowman and HAL, who have now become a single entity—Halman—residing in the monolith's computational matrix, to infect the monolith with a computer virus. The monolith does receive orders to exterminate humanity, starts a duplication cascade, whereupon millions of monoliths form two screens to prevent Solar light and heat from reaching Earth and its colonies. Due to Halman having infected the first monolith, all the monoliths disintegrate. Halman uploads itself into a petabyte-capacity holographic 3D storage medium and thus survives the disintegration of the monoliths, but is infected with the virus and is subsequently sealed by scientists in the Pico Vault. At the close of the story and other humans land on Europa to start peaceful relations with the primitive native Europans. A statement is made that the monolith's makers will not determine humanity's fate until "the Last Days". Frank Poole: 3001's protagonist, Frank Poole has been revived by advanced medicine, a thousand years after being killed by HAL during the Discovery's original mission.
Given Frank's role in a important sequence of events for humanity, which among other things led to the artificial creation of the star Lucifer from Jupiter, Poole is warmly received by humanity as an important, if ancient and strange, personality. All this, Poole takes in stride. Dr. Indra Wallace: A specialist on the history of the early twenty-first century, Wallace acts as Poole's cultural guide; as time goes on, Poole and Wallace recognize their attraction to one another, so start a family, having children named Dawn Wallace and Martin Poole, before separating amicably some years later. Halman: a merging of the entities that were once HAL 9000 and Dave Bowman, Halman communicates with Poole at various points throughout the novel, warning Poole of the possibility that the monoliths may issue negative judgment against humanity. Dimitri Chandler: Captain of the Goliath, Chandler mines the outer solar system for ice material, pushed towards the inner solar system, to make the inner planets habitable through long-term terraforming.
While in this region of space, Chandler discovers Poole's body. After Poole's recovery and cultural acclimation, Chandler ferries Poole to the Jupiter system, to see the intervening developments which have taken place in the solar system over the past millennium. Professor Anderson: a medical doctor, Anderson leads the medical team which revived Poole, works with Indra Wallace both to aid Poole's convalescence, to manage his cultural shock at awakening into a strange future world. Dr. Stephen Del Marco: Alive at a future time, yet in the novel's distant past, Del Marco is the discoverer of TMA-0 in Africa: an earthbound monolith matching the lunar monolith, discovered hundreds of years earlier, in 2001; the implications of this discovery are that humanity becomes aware that it was artificially conditioned to evolve intelligently, thus permanently discrediting all major religions. Dr. Theodore "Ted" Khan: A resident of Ganymede, Dr. Khan is contemptuous of religion, identifying it as a mental disorder.
Poole's exchanges with Khan about the redeeming qualities of religious people in his own period are part of a larger theme in the novel, of religion versus irreligion, with the "primitive" Poole sometimes resenting the future world's blanket condemnation of religious people, despite himself being a man of
The Sentinel (anthology)
The Sentinel is a collection of science fiction short stories by English writer Arthur C. Clarke published in 1983; the stories, written between 1946 and 1981 appeared in a number of magazines including Astounding, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Thrilling Wonder Stories, 10 Story Fantasy, If, The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, Boys' Life and Omni. Contents of The Sentinel include: Introduction: Of Sand and Stars "The Sentinel" "Holiday on the Moon" "Earthlight" "Rescue Party" "Guardian Angel" "Breaking Strain" "Jupiter V" "Refugee" "The Wind from the Sun" "A Meeting with Medusa" "The Songs of Distant Earth" The Contributors "ISFDB". Retrieved 2007-12-05. Contento, William G. "Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections, Combined Edition". Retrieved 2007-12-05; the Sentinel title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Childhood's End is a 1953 science fiction novel by the British author Arthur C. Clarke; the story follows the peaceful alien invasion of Earth by the mysterious Overlords, whose arrival begins decades of apparent utopia under indirect alien rule, at the cost of human identity and culture. Clarke's idea for the book began with his short story "Guardian Angel", which he expanded into a novel in 1952, incorporating it as the first part of the book, "Earth and the Overlords". Completed and published in 1953, Childhood's End sold out its first printing, received good reviews and became Clarke's first successful novel; the book is regarded by both readers and critics as Clarke's best novel and is described as "a classic of alien literature". Along with The Songs of Distant Earth, Clarke considered Childhood's End to be one of his favourites of his own novels; the novel was nominated for the Retro Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2004. Several attempts to adapt the novel into a film or miniseries have been made with varying levels of success.
Director Stanley Kubrick expressed interest in the 1960s, but collaborated with Clarke on 2001: A Space Odyssey instead. The novel's theme of transcendent evolution appears in Clarke's Space Odyssey series. In 1997, the BBC produced a two-hour radio dramatization of Childhood's End, adapted by Tony Mulholland; the Syfy Channel produced a three-part, four-hour television mini-series of Childhood's End, broadcast on December 14–16, 2015. The novel is divided into three parts, following a third-person omniscient narrative with no main character. In some editions, the short first chapter is a separate prologue rather than the beginning of the first part. In the late 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union are competing to launch the first spacecraft into orbit, for military purposes; when vast alien spaceships position themselves above Earth's principal cities, the space race ceases. After one week, the aliens announce they are assuming supervision of international affairs, to prevent humanity's extinction.
They become known as the Overlords. In general, they let, they overtly interfere only twice: in South Africa, where some time before their arrival Apartheid has collapsed and been replaced with savage persecution of the white minority. Some humans are suspicious of the Overlords' benign intent; the Overlord Karellen, the "Supervisor for Earth," who speaks directly only to Rikki Stormgren, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, tells Stormgren that the Overlords will reveal themselves in 50 years, when humanity will have become used to their presence. Stormgren smuggles a device onto Karellen's ship in an attempt to see Karellen's true form, he succeeds, is shocked by what he sees, chooses to keep silent. Humankind enters a golden age of prosperity at the expense of creativity. Five decades after their arrival, the Overlords reveal their appearance, resembling the traditional Christian folk images of demons: large bipeds with cloven hooves, leathery wings and tails; the Overlords are interested in psychic research, which humans suppose is part of their anthropological study.
Rupert Boyce, a prolific book collector on the subject, allows one Overlord, Rashaverak, to study these books at his home. To impress his friends with Rashaverak's presence, Boyce holds a party, during which he makes use of a Ouija board. Jan Rodricks, an astrophysicist and Rupert's brother-in-law, asks the identity of the Overlords' home star. George Greggson's future wife Jean faints as the Ouija board reveals a number which has no meaning to most of the guests. Jan recognizes it as a star-catalog number and learns that it is consistent with the direction in which Overlord supply ships appear and disappear. With the help of an oceanographer friend, Jan stows away on an Overlord supply ship and travels 40 light years to their home planet. Due to the time dilation of special relativity at near-light-speeds, the elapsed time on the ship is only a few weeks, he has arranged to endure it in drug-induced hibernation. Although humanity and the Overlords have peaceful relations, some believe human innovation is being suppressed and that culture is becoming stagnant.
One of these groups establishes New Athens, an island colony in the middle of the Pacific Ocean devoted to the creative arts, which George and Jean Greggson join. The Overlords conceal a special interest in the Greggsons' children and Jennifer Anne, intervene to save Jeffrey's life when a tsunami strikes the island; the Overlords have been watching them since the incident with the Ouija board, which revealed the seed of the coming transformation hidden within Jean. Well over a century after the Overlords' arrival, human children, beginning with the Greggsons', begin to display clairvoyance and telekinetic powers. Karellen reveals the Overlords' purpose; the Overlords themselves are unable to join the Overmind, but serve it as a bridge species, fostering other races' eventual union with it. As Karellen explains, the time of humanity as a race composed of single individuals with a concrete identity is coming to an end; the children's minds merge into a single vast group consciousness. If the Pacific were to be dried up, the islands dotting it would lose their identity as islands and become part of a new continent.
Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from Writing to Writing. See the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations. Noted novelists and playwrights who have received nominations in this category include: John Steinbeck, Noël Coward, Raymond Chandler, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Edward Bond, Arthur C. Clarke, Lillian Hellman, Neil Simon, Paddy Chayefsky, Kenneth Lonergan, Tom Stoppard, Terence Rattigan and Martin McDonagh. Woody Allen has the most nominations in this category with 16, the most awards with 3, though Paddy Chayefsky won the Best Adapted Screenplay in 1955 for his adaptation of his own teleplay and won for Original Screenplay for The Hospital and Network.
Woody Allen holds the record as the oldest winner. Ben Affleck is the youngest winner, at the age of 25 for Good Will Hunting. Richard Schweizer was the first to win for Marie-Louise. Other winners for a non-English screenplay include Albert Lamorisse, Pietro Germi, Claude Lelouch, Pedro Almodóvar. Lamorisse is additionally the only person to win or be nominated for Best Original Screenplay for a short film. Muriel Box was the first woman to win in this category; the Boxes are the first married couple to win in this category. Only three other married couples won an Oscar in another category—Earl W. Wallace and Pamela Wallace, Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez. In 1996, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen became the only siblings to win in this category. Francis Ford Coppola and Sofia Coppola are the only father-daughter pair to win. Preston Sturges was nominated for two different films in the same year: Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. Oliver Stone achieved the same distinction for Platoon and Salvador.
Maurice Richlin and Stanley Shapiro were nominated in 1959 for both Operation Petticoat and Pillow Talk and won for the latter. At the 2018 ceremony, Get Out writer-director Jordan Peele became the first African-American to win in this category. Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. Academy Award for Best Story Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay