Wells Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral in Wells, England, dedicated to St Andrew the Apostle and seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, whose throne or cathedra it holds as mother church of the diocese. Built between 1175 and 1490 to replace an earlier church on the site since 705, it is moderately sized for an English cathedral, its broad west front and large central tower are dominant features in the countryside. It has been called "unquestionably one of the most beautiful" and "most poetic" of English cathedrals, its Gothic architecture is in the Early English style of the late 12th–early 13th centuries, lacking the Romanesque work that survives in many other cathedrals. Building began about 1175 at the east end with the choir. Historian John Harvey sees it as Europe's first Gothic structure, breaking with the last constraints of Romanesque; the stonework of its pointed arcades and fluted piers bears pronounced mouldings and carved capitals in a foliate, "stiff leaf" style. Its Early English front with 300 sculpted figures, is described as a "supreme triumph of the combined plastic arts in England".
The east end retains a rare amount of ancient stained glass. Unlike many cathedrals of monastic foundation, Wells has many surviving secular buildings linked to its chapter of secular canons, including the Bishop's Palace and the 15th-century residential Vicars' Close; the cathedral is a Grade I listed building. The earliest remains of a building on the site are of a late-Roman mausoleum, identified during excavations in 1980. An abbey church was built in Wells in 705 by Aldhelm, first bishop of the newly established Diocese of Sherborne during the reign of King Ine of Wessex, it was dedicated to Saint Andrew and stood at the site of the cathedral's cloisters, where some excavated remains can be seen. The font in the cathedral's south transept is from this church and is the oldest part of the present building. In 766 Cynewulf, King of Wessex, signed a charter endowing the church with eleven hides of land. In 909 the seat of the diocese was moved from Sherborne to Wells; the first Bishop of Wells was Athelm.
Athelm and his nephew Dunstan both became Archbishops of Canterbury. During this period a choir of boys was established to sing the liturgy. Wells Cathedral School, established to educate these choirboys, dates its foundation to this point. There is, some controversy over this. Following the Norman Conquest, John de Villula moved the seat of the bishop from Wells to Bath in 1090; the church at Wells, no longer a cathedral, had a college of secular clergy. The cathedral is thought to have been conceived and commenced in about 1175 by Reginald Fitz Jocelin, who died in 1191. Although it is clear from its size that from the outset, the church was planned to be the cathedral of the diocese, the seat of the bishop moved between Wells and the abbeys of Glastonbury and Bath, before settling at Wells. In 1197 Reginald's successor, Savaric FitzGeldewin, with the approval of Pope Celestine III moved his seat to Glastonbury Abbey; the title of Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury was used until the Glastonbury claim was abandoned in 1219.
Savaric's successor, Jocelin of Wells, again moved the bishop's seat to Bath Abbey, with the title Bishop of Bath. Jocelin was present at the signing of the Magna Carta. Jocelin continued the building campaign begun by Reginald and was responsible for the Bishop's Palace, the choristers' school, a grammar school, a hospital for travellers and a chapel, he had a manor house built at Wookey, near Wells. Jocelin saw the church dedicated in 1239 but, despite much lobbying of the Pope by Jocelin's representatives in Rome, did not live to see cathedral status granted; the delay may have been a result of inaction by Pandulf Verraccio, a Roman ecclesiastical politician, papal legate to England and Bishop of Norwich, asked by the Pope to investigate the situation but did not respond. Jocelin was buried in the choir of the cathedral. Following his death the monks of Bath unsuccessfully attempted to regain authority over Wells. In 1245 the ongoing dispute over the title of the bishop was resolved by a ruling of Pope Innocent IV who established the title as the "Bishop of Bath and Wells", as it has remained until this day, with Wells as the principal seat of the bishop.
Since the 11th century the church has had a chapter of secular clergy, like the cathedrals of Chichester, Hereford and York. The chapter was endowed with a provost to manage them. On acquiring cathedral status, in common with other such cathedrals, it had four chief clergy, the dean, precentor and sacristan, who were responsible for the spiritual and material care of the cathedral; the building programme, begun by Reginald Fitz Jocelin, Bishop in the 12th century, continued under Jocelin of Wells, a canon from 1200 bishop from 1206. Adam Locke was master mason from about 1192 until 1230, it was designed in the new style with pointed arches known as Gothic, introduced at about the same time at Canterbury Cathedral. Work was halted between 1209 and 1213 when King John was excommunicated and Jocelin was in exile, but the main parts of the church were complete by the time of the dedication by Jocelin in 1239. By the time the cathedral, including the chapter house, was finished in 1306, it was too small for the developing liturgy, unable to accommodate grand processions of clergy.
John Droxford initiated another phase of building under master mason Thomas of Whitney, during which the central tower was heightened and an eight-sided Lady
In aesthetics, the sublime is the quality of greatness, whether physical, intellectual, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic. The term refers to a greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement, or imitation; the first known study of the sublime is ascribed to Longinus: Peri Hupsous/Hypsous or On the Sublime. This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. For Longinus, the sublime is an adjective that describes great, elevated, or lofty thought or language in the context of rhetoric; as such, the sublime inspires veneration, with greater persuasive powers. Longinus' treatise is notable for referring not only to Greek authors such as Homer, but to biblical sources such as Genesis; this treatise was rediscovered in the 16th century, its subsequent impact on aesthetics is attributed to its translation into French by linguist Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux in 1674. The treatise was translated into English by John Pultney in 1680, Leonard Welsted in 1712, William Smith in 1739 whose translation had its fifth edition in 1800.
The development of the concept of the sublime as an aesthetic quality in nature distinct from beauty was first brought into prominence in the 18th century in the writings of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, third earl of Shaftesbury, John Dennis, in expressing an appreciation of the fearful and irregular forms of external nature, Joseph Addison's synthesis of concepts of the sublime in his The Spectator, the Pleasures of the Imagination. All three Englishmen had, within the span of several years, made the journey across the Alps and commented in their writings of the horrors and harmony of the experience, expressing a contrast of aesthetic qualities. John Dennis was the first to publish his comments in a journal letter published as Miscellanies in 1693, giving an account of crossing the Alps where, contrary to his prior feelings for the beauty of nature as a "delight, consistent with reason", the experience of the journey was at once a pleasure to the eye as music is to the ear, but "mingled with Horrours, sometimes with despair".
Shaftesbury had made the journey two years prior to Dennis but did not publish his comments until 1709 in the Moralists. His comments on the experience reflected pleasure and repulsion, citing a "wasted mountain" that showed itself to the world as a "noble ruin", but his concept of the sublime in relation to beauty was one of degree rather than the sharp contradistinction that Dennis developed into a new form of literary criticism. Shaftesbury's writings reflect more of a regard for the awe of the infinity of space, where the sublime was not an aesthetic quality in opposition to beauty, but a quality of a grander and higher importance than beauty. In referring to the Earth as a "Mansion-Globe" and "Man-Container" Shaftsbury writes "How narrow must it appear compar'd with the capacious System of its own Sun...tho animated with a sublime Celestial Spirit....". Joseph Addison embarked on the Grand Tour in 1699 and commented in Remarks on Several Parts of Italy etc. that "The Alps fill the mind with an agreeable kind of horror".
The significance of Addison's concept of the sublime is that the three pleasures of the imagination that he identified. It is notable that in writing on the "Sublime in external Nature", he does not use the term "sublime" but uses semi-synonymous terms: "unbounded", "unlimited", "spacious", "greatness", on occasion terms denoting excess. Addison's notion of greatness was integral to the concept of sublimity. An object of art could be beautiful yet, his Pleasures of the Imagination, as well as Mark Akenside's Pleasures of the Imagination of 1744 and Edward Young's poem Night Thoughts of 1745 are considered the starting points for Edmund Burke's analysis of sublimity. Edmund Burke developed his conception of sublimity in A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful of 1756. Burke was the first philosopher to argue that beauty are mutually exclusive; the dichotomy that Burke articulated is not as simple as Dennis' opposition, is antithetical in the same degree as light and darkness.
Light may accentuate beauty, but either great light or darkness, i. e. the absence of light, is sublime to the extent that it can annihilate vision of the object in question. What is "dark and confused" moves the imagination to awe and a degree of horror. While the relationship of sublimity and beauty is one of mutual exclusivity, either can provide pleasure. Sublimity may evoke horror. Burke's concept of sublimity was an antithetical contrast to the classical conception of the aesthetic quality of beauty being the pleasurable experience that Plato described in several of his dialogues, e. g. Philebus, Hippias Major, Symposium, suggested that ugliness is an aesthetic quality in its capacity to instill intense emotions providing pleasure. For Aristotle, the function of artistic forms was to instill pleasure, he first pondered the problem that an object of art representing ugliness produces "pain." Aristotle's detailed analysis of this problem involved his study of tragic literature and its paradoxical nature as both shocking and having poetic value.
The classical notion of ugliness prior to Edmund Burke, most notably described in the works of Saint Augustine of Hippo, denoted it as the absence of form and therefore as a degree of n
Combray is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in north-western France. Combray is an imagined village in Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu, a book, inspired by the village of his childhood, which has now been renamed Illiers-Combray in his honor. Combray is the title of the second part of the first volume of À la recherche du temps perdu, titled Du côté de chez Swann. There is a medieval motte-and-bailey castle. Marcel Proust Illiers-Combray INSEE
Our Lady of Reims is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Reims, built in the High Gothic style. The cathedral replaced an older church, destroyed by fire in 1211, built on the site of the basilica where Clovis I was baptized by Saint Remi, bishop of Reims in 496; that original structure had itself been erected on the site of some Roman baths. The seat of the Archdiocese of Reims, the cathedral was; the cathedral, a major tourist destination, receives about one million visitors annually. According to Flodoard, Saint Nicasius founded the first church on the site of the current cathedral at the beginning of the 5th century in 401, on the site of a Gallo-Roman bath; the site is not far from the basilica built by Bishop Betause, where Saint Nicasius would be martyred by beheading either by the Vandals in 407 or by the Huns in 451. The dedication of the church to the Virgin Mary suggests that the latter of the two dates is the correct one, given that the first church to be named after the Virgin Mary was the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in the 430s.
This building, measuring 20 m by 55 m, would be where Clovis, King of the Franks, would be baptized by Saint Remigius on Christmas Day some time between 496 and 499. A baptistery was built in the 6th century to the north of the current site to a plan of a square exterior and a circular interior. In 816, the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious was crowned in Reims by Pope Stephen IV; the coronation and ensuing celebrations highlighted the poor condition of the church the seat of an archbishop. Over the next decade, Archbishop Ebbo of Reims rebuilt much of the church under the direction of the royal architect Rumaud, only ceasing in 846, under the episcopate of Archbishop Hincmar, who would adorn the church's interior with gilding, paintings and tapestries. On 18 October 862, in the presence of King Charles the Bald, Hincmar dedicated the new church, which measured 86 m and had two transepts. At the beginning of the 10th century, an ancient crypt underneath the original church was rediscovered. Under Archbishop Hervé, the crypt was cleared and rededicated to Saint Remi.
The altar has been located above the crypt for 15 centuries. Beginning in 976, Archbishop Adalbero began to illuminate the Carolingian cathedral; the historian Richerus, a pupil of Adalbero, gives a precise description of the work carried out by the Archbishop: "He destroyed the arcades which, extending from the entrance to nearly a quarter of the basilica, up to the top, so that the whole church, acquired more extent and a more suitable form. He enveloped it with a resplendent trellis, he lit up the same church with windows in which various stories were represented and endowed it with bells roaring like thunder." On 19 May 1051, King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev married in the cathedral. Whilst conducting the Council of Reims in 1131, Pope Innocent II anointed and crowned the future Louis VII in the cathedral. In the middle of the 12th century, Archbishop Samson demolished the facade and adjoining tower in order to build a new cathedral with two flanking towers in imitation of the Abbey of Saint Denis in Paris, whose choir dedication Samson himself had attended a few years earlier.
In addition to these works to the west of the building, a new choir and chapels began to be built east of the cathedral, which measured 110 m. At the end of the century, the nave and the transept were of the Carolingian style while the chevet and facade were early Gothic. On 6 May 1210, the Carolingian-early Gothic cathedral was destroyed by fire on the Feast day of Saint John Before the Latin Gate due to "carelessness." One year construction began when Archbishop Aubrey laid the first stone of the new cathedral's chevet. In July 1221, the chapel of this axially radiating chevet entered use. Four architects would succeed each other until the completion of the cathedral's structural work in 1275: Jean d'Orbais, Jean-le-Loup, Gaucher of Reims and Bernard de Soissons. Documentary records show the acquisition of land to the west of the site in 1218, suggesting the new cathedral was larger than its predecessors, the lengthening of the nave being an adaptation to afford room for the crowds that attended the coronations.
In 1233 a long-running dispute between the cathedral chapter and the townsfolk boiled over into open revolt. Several clerics were killed or injured during the resulting violence and the entire cathedral chapter fled the city, leaving it under an interdict. Work on the new cathedral was suspended for three years, only resuming in 1236 after the clergy returned to the city and the interdict was lifted following mediation by the King and the Pope. Construction continued more slowly; the area from the crossing eastwards was in use by 1241 but the nave was not roofed until 1299. Work on the west facade took place in several phases, reflected in the different styles of some of the sculptures; the upper parts of the facade were completed in the 14th century, but following 13th century designs, giving Reims an unusual unity of style. Unusually the names of the cathedral's original architects are known. A labyrinth built into floor of the nave at the time of construction or shortly after included the nam
Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln. Construction continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. Like many of the medieval cathedrals of England it was built in the Gothic style, it was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the first building to hold that title after the Great Pyramid of Giza. The central spire was not rebuilt. For hundreds of years the cathedral held one of the four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, now securely displayed in Lincoln Castle; the cathedral is the fourth largest in the UK at around 5,000 square metres, after Liverpool, St Paul's and York Minster. It is regarded by architectural scholars. Remigius de Fécamp, the first Bishop of Lincoln, moved the episcopal seat there "some time between 1072 and 1092" About this, James Essex writes that "Remigius... laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1072" and "it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building... though he could not complete the whole before his death."
Before that, writes B. Winkles, "It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it." Up until St. Mary's Church in Stow was considered to be the "mother church" of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese. Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1124, the timber roofing was destroyed in a fire. Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years in 1185; the earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK: it has an estimated magnitude of over 5. The damage to the cathedral is thought to have been extensive: the Cathedral is described as having "split from top to bottom"; some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was exaggerated by poor construction or design. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed.
He was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a massive expansion programme. With his appointment of William de Montibus as master of the cathedral school and chancellor, Lincoln became one of the leading educational centres in England, producing writers such as Samuel Presbiter and Richard of Wetheringsett, though it declined with importance after William's death in 1213. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210; the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time — pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral; this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, five in the central tower. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock; the clock was installed in the early 19th century.
The two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh being completed in 1235; the latter, the Bishop's Eye, in the south transept was reconstructed a hundred years in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows: "For north represents the devil, south the Holy Spirit and it is in these directions that the two eyes look; the bishop the dean the north in order to shun. With these Eyes the cathedral's face is on watch for the candelabra of Heaven and the darkness of Lethe." After the additions of the Dean's eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in 1237 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire.
They replaced the small rounded chapels with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln. In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died and King Edward I of England decided to honour her, his Queen Consort, with an elegant funeral procession. After her body had been embalmed, which in the 13th century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were bur
The Stones of Venice (book)
For the 2001 Doctor Who audio story, see The Stones of Venice The Stones of Venice is a three-volume treatise on Venetian art and architecture by English art historian John Ruskin, first published from 1851 to 1853. The Stones of Venice examines Venetian architecture in detail, describing for example over eighty churches, he discusses architecture of Venice's Byzantine and Renaissance periods, provides a general history of the city. As well as being an art historian, Ruskin was a social reformer, he set out to prove how Venetian architecture exemplified the principles he discussed in his earlier work, The Seven Lamps of Architecture. In the chapter "The Nature of Gothic", Ruskin gives his views on. We want one man to be always thinking, another to be always working, we call one a gentleman, the other an operative; as it is, we make the one envying, the other despising, his brother. Now it is only by labour that thought can be made healthy, only by thought that labour can be made happy, the two cannot be separated with impunity.
Ruskin had visited Venice before, but he made two visits to Venice with his wife Effie specially to research the book. The first visit was in the winter of 1849-50; the first volume of The Stones of Venice appeared in 1851 and Ruskin spent another winter in Venice researching the next two volumes. His research methods included photography; the Stones of Venice. Volume the First; the Foundations, 1851, Elder & Co. London The Stones of Venice. Volume the Second; the Sea-stories, 1853, Elder & Co. London The Stones of Venice. Volume the Third; the Fall, 1853, Elder & Co. London Various shortened editions of the book have been published, including one edited by J. G. Links published in the USA in 1960, it aroused considerable interest beyond. The chapter "The Nature of Gothic" was admired by William Morris, who published it separately in an edition, in itself an example of Gothic revival. Morris stated that it was "one of the few necessary and inevitable utterances of the century"; the book inspired Marcel Proust and in 2010 Roger Scruton wrote that the book was, "the greatest description in English of a place made sacred by buildings".
John Henry Devereux The Stones of Venice at Project Gutenberg Volume 1 at Archive.org Volume 2 at Archive.org Volume 3 at Archive.org John Ruskin The Stones of Venice St Mark's Literary discussion animation on YouTube
William Henry Lynn
William Henry Lynn was an Irish-born architect with a practice in Belfast and the north of England. He is noted for his Ruskinian Venetian Gothic public buildings, which include Chester Town Hall and Barrow-in-Furness Town Hall. In 1846 Lynn was articled to Sir Charles Lanyon in Belfast, he and Lanyon formed a partnership in 1854. The partnership dissolved in 1872. For their first joint projects and the elder Lanyon produced bank buildings at Newtownards, County Down, at Dungannon, County Tyrone, which are two of the earliest Irish examples of the Venetian Gothic style, being championed by John Ruskin. In Belfast the firm produced urbane Italianate commercial structures, in Dublin, the Church of St Andrew and the Unitarian Church, St Stephen's Green was "justly described as the best example extant of a modern Gothic church on a narrow street frontage, the treatment being quite original and altogether admirable". In Jordanstown, Co. Antrim, they designed the Romanesque Revival Church of St Patrick and, in England, the Chester Town Hall, following a public competition, should be mentioned.
In the 1860s a second Shane's Castle was designed with Charles Lanyon for 1st Lord O'Neill, in 1870 Castle Leslie was designed for Sir John Leslie, 1st Baronet. A project, never realised was the remodelling and expansion of Clandeboye House for the young Lord Dufferin and Claneboye, though correspondence continued over three decades, concerning the plans but ranging over a projected new house at Grey Point. A letter from Lynn to Lord Dufferin in March 1869 referring to alterations under way at Clandeboye, some interior alterations of the time were designed by Lynn in the dining-room, drawing-room and gallery. Among Lynn's most prominent designs working on his own were his work at Queen's University, the Carlisle Memorial Methodist Church, Carlisle Circus and the Ruskinian "Venetian" Gothic Belfast Bank on College Green, now housing a grand pub. Among his other public commissions in Belfast were the Central Library, the Bank Buildings, Campbell College. In part on the success of the Chester Town Hall he was commissioned to produce designs for town halls in Paisley and Barrow-in-Furness, North Lancashire, as well as the extension to the Italianate Harbour Office, Belfast.
One of his last designs was for the baptistry of St Anne's Cathedral, Belfast in 1915