Little, Brown and Company
Little and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors. Early lists featured Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson's poetry, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations; as of 2016, Brown & Company is a division of the Hachette Book Group. Little and Company had its roots in the book selling trade, it was founded in 1837 in Boston by James Brown. They formed the partnership "for the purpose of Publishing and Selling Books." It can trace its roots before that to 1784 to a bookshop owned by Ebenezer Batelle on Marlborough Street. They published works of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington and they were specialized in legal publishing and importing titles. For many years, it was the most extensive law publisher in the United States, the largest importer of standard English law and miscellaneous works, introducing American buyers to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the dictionaries of William Smith, many other standard works.
In the early years Little and Brown published the Works of Daniel Webster, George Bancroft's History of the United States, William H. Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Jones Very's first book of poetry, Letters of John Adams and works by James Russell Lowell and Francis Parkman. Little and Company was the American publisher for Edward Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; the firm was the original publisher of United States Statutes at Large beginning in 1845, under authority granted by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office, responsible for producing the set since that time. 1 U. S. C. § 113 still recognizes their edition of the laws and treaties of the United States are competent evidence of the several public and private Acts of Congress and international agreements other than treaties of the United States. In 1853, Brown began publishing the works of British poets from Chaucer to Wordsworth.
Ninety-six volumes were published in the series in five years. In 1859, John Bartlett became a partner in the firm, he held the rights to his Familiar Quotations, Little, Brown published the 15th edition of the work in 1980, 125 years after its first publication. John Murray Brown, James Brown's son, took over when Augustus Flagg retired in 1884. In the 1890s, Brown expanded into general publishing, including fiction. In 1896, it published Quo Vadis. In 1898, Brown purchased a list of titles from the Roberts Brothers firm. 19th century employees included Charles Carroll Soule. John Murray Brown died in 1908 and James W. McIntyre became managing partner; when McIntyre died in 1913, Brown incorporated. In 1925, Brown entered into an agreement to publish all Atlantic Monthly books; this arrangement lasted until 1985. During this time the joint Atlantic Monthly Press/Little Brown imprint published All Quiet on the Western Front, Herge's The Adventures of Tintin, James Truslow Adams's The Adams Family, Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall's Mutiny on the Bounty and its sequels, James Hilton's Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Walter D. Edmonds's Drums Along the Mohawk, William Least Heat-Moon's Blue Highways, Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger terminated his contract with the publishing house sometime in the 1970s, though his novel was still published by Little, Brown. Other prominent figures published by Little, Brown in the 20th and early 21st centuries have included Nagaru Tanigawa, Donald Barthelme, Louisa M. Alcott, Catherine Drinker Bowen, Bernie Brillstein, Thornton Burgess, Hortense Calisher, Bruce Catton, A. J. Cronin, Peter De Vries, J. Frank Dobie, C. S. Forester, John Fowles, Malcolm Gladwell, Pete Hamill, Cynthia Harrod-Eagles, Lillian Hellman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Kissinger, Elizabeth Kostova, Norman Mailer, William Manchester, Nelson Mandela, John P. Marquand and Johnson, Stephenie Meyer, Rick Moody, Ogden Nash, Edwin O'Connor, Erich Maria Remarque, Alice Sebold, David Sedaris, George Stephanopoulos, Gwyn Thomas, Gore Vidal, David Foster Wallace, Evelyn Waugh, P. G. Wodehouse, James Patterson and Herman Wouk. Little, Brown published the photography of Ansel Adams; the imprint was purchased by Time Inc. in 1968, was made part of the Time Warner Book Group when Time merged with Warner Communications to form Time Warner in 1989.
All editing staff moved from Boston to Time Warner Book Group offices in New York City by 2001. In 1996, Brown's legal and medical publishing division was purchased by Wolters Kluwer. In 2001, Michael Pietsch became Publisher of Brown. Little, Brown expanded into the UK in 1992 when TWBG bought MacDonald & Co from Maxwell Communications, taking on its Abacus and Orbit lists, authors including Iain Banks. Feminist publisher Virago Press followed in 1996. In 1996, Wolters Kluwer acquired Little, Brown's professional division and incorporated it into its Aspen and Lippincott-Raven imprints. In 2006, the Time Warner Book Group was sold to French publisher Hachette Livre. Following this, the Little, Brown imprint is used by Hachette Livre's U. S. publishing company, Hachette Book Group USA. In 2011, Brown launched an imprint devoted to suspense publishing: Mulholland Books. In 2018, Brown launched an imprint devoted to health, lifestyle and science: Little, Brown Spark; the company received the Publisher of the Year Award three times.
On April 1, 2013, Reagan Arthur became publisher of Brown. Badminton Library Books in the United States List
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; the organization offers services and development programs. ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger. Fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence; the first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville, New York. Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington; the first chapters opened in upstate New York. John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Frederick Douglass, famed abolitionist and friend of Clara Barton offered advice and support as Barton sought to establish the American chapter or the global Red Cross network; as Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass signed the original Articles of Incorporation for the American Red Cross. Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the September 4–6, 1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless; the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31, 1889.
Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster, she was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, financiers. William Howard Taft was influential, they imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. ARC is a nationwide network of 36 blood service regions. 166,000 Red Cross volunteers, including FemaCorps and AmeriCorps members, 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to people affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train 4 million people in necessary medical skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.
S. military service personnel and their family members. ARC is the largest supplier of blood products in the US, supplying 2,600 hospitals; the charity assists victims of international disasters and conflicts worldwide, connecting separated family members. In 2006, the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues, though revenues have fallen since Katrina. At that time, revenue from blood and blood products alone was over $2 billion - biological services represents about 63% of total operating expenses, though the unit operates at a deficit; the American Red Cross is divided into five divisions: Disaster Services, Blood Services, Training Services, International Services, Service to the Armed Forces. William K. Van Reypen 1905–06 Robert Maitland O'Reilly 1906 George Whitefield Davis 1906–15 William Howard Taft 1915–19 Livingston Farrand 1919–21 John Barton Payne 1921–35 Cary T. Grayson 1935–38 Norman Davis 1938–44 Basil O'Connor 1944–47, title changed to President, 1947–49 George Marshall 1949–1950 E. Roland Harriman 1950–1953, title changed to Chairman, 1954–73 Frank Stanton 1973–79 Jerome H. Holland 1979–85 George F.
Moody 1985–92 Norman Ralph Augustine 1992–2001 David T. McLaughlin 2001–04 Bonnie McElveen-Hunter 2004–present Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. In 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars in Charity Navigator and B+ at CharityWatch. In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility; the study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 48% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "Love", "Like A lot" to describe the Red Cross. Cora L. Abbott, organizer of Turlock Red Cross Chapter Minnie C. Benson, American Red Cross Reserve alist Inez Mee Boren, organizing chairwoman of the Lindsay Strathmore Branch of the American Red Cross Emily M. Bruen, member of Committee for Red Cross Emilie Henry Burcham, treasurer Spokane Chapter American Red Cross Euna Pearl Burke, member of Board of Directors of Red Cross Emma P. Chadwick, member Executive Board of Red Cross Louise Keller Cherry, on
Melissa Anne Rosenberg is an American screenwriter. She has won a Peabody Award, she has been nominated for two Emmy Awards, two Writers Guild of America Awards. Since joining the Writers Guild of America, she has been involved in its board of directors and was a strike captain during the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike, she supports female screenwriters through the WGA Diversity Committee and co-founded the League of Hollywood Women Writers. She worked on several television series between 1993 and 2003 before joining The O. C.'s writing staff leaving the show to write the 2006 film Step Up. From 2006 to 2009, she served as the head writer of the Showtime series Dexter, rising to executive producer by the time that she departed at the end of the fourth season, she wrote her second produced screenplay, a film adaptation of Stephenie Meyer's novel Twilight in 2007 and has since adapted the novel's three sequels, New Moon and Breaking Dawn. Rosenberg is widely known as the creator of Netflix original series Jessica Jones.
Rosenberg was born in California. Her father is Jack Lee Rosenberg, a psychotherapist and the founder of integrative body psychotherapy, her mother was a lawyer. She was the second of four children by another by his second. Melissa's brother, owns a flower shop in Manhattan. Rosenberg's father was Jewish, her mother was of Irish Catholic background; as a child, Rosenberg enjoyed presenting plays and recruiting other neighborhood children to perform in them. She attended a "massive public high school with a crowd of people bunched in a classroom and expected to learn" in Southern California, she moved to New York City to join a small theatre company before moving again to Bennington, Vermont to attend Bennington College. She aspired to work in Dance and Choreography, she says she began too late, however, so she moved to Los Angeles, California to pursue a career in the film industry instead. She graduated from the University of Southern California's Peter Stark Producing Program with a Master of Fine Arts degree in film and television producing.
Rosenberg's first project was a dance film commissioned by Paramount Pictures, never made. She shifted to television writing, she first wrote for Class of'96 in 1993, went on to work on shows including Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Dark Skies, The Magnificent Seven, Ally McBeal and Birds of Prey before she came to join the writing staff of The O. C. in 2003. Leaving The O. C. at the conclusion of its first season, she was hired to write her second screenplay, the 2006 dance film Step Up. Rosenberg went on to write for the television series Love Monkey and Dexter, her job on the Showtime series was her first on a show written for cable—she stated in 2007, "Cable is the place to be... it's just wonderful." Rosenberg worked as a consulting producer and writer on the first season. She and the other members of the Dexter writing staff were nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award for best Dramatic Series at the February 2008 ceremony for their work on the first season, she gained a staff position as co-executive producer and writer for the second season in 2007 and continued in this role for the third season in 2008.
The writing staff was again nominated for the WGA award at the February 2009 ceremony for their work on the third season. As part of the senior production team she was co-nominated for the Outstanding Drama Series award at the 60th Primetime Emmy Awards, she was promoted to executive producer for the fourth season in 2009 and continued to write episodes. She was nominated for the WGA award a third consecutive time at the February 2010 ceremony for her work on the fourth season of Dexter. Summit Entertainment, the production company which had produced Step Up, offered Rosenberg the chance to adapt Stephenie Meyer's bestselling novel Twilight into a film of the same name, which she accepted, her primary inspiration for the adaptation was Brokeback Mountain, which she described as a "great model" of forbidden love alongside Romeo and Juliet, thought its adaptation from short story to film was "beautiful". She was given a "manifesto" written by Meyer outlining everything that had to be included or could not be changed in the adaptation.
She wrote a detailed 25-page outline in August 2007, expecting to have another two months to write the actual screenplay, but had only five weeks to finish the script before the commencement of the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike. After the release of Twilight, she was hired by Summit to adapt the sequels New Moon and Eclipse, the second and third books in the series and she had begun drafting the New Moon screenplay by November 2008. In July 2010, Rosenberg left her role of writer and executive producer on Dexter, explaining that "For the past four years I've been writing Dexter and one Twilight or another." She had been hired to adapt the final novel in the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, which would be split into two films, but she said, "I can do one Twilight and Dexter, but I couldn't do two." She called it her favorite television experience to date. She has signed on to write the script for a relaunch of the Highlander film franchise, with Justin Lin directing. Rosenberg was on the Writers Guild of America's board of directors for five years before stepping back because "you can get really wrapped up in it".
She was act
Stephenie Meyer is an American novelist and film producer, best known for her vampire romance series Twilight. The Twilight novels have gained worldwide recognition and sold over 100 million copies, with translations into 37 different languages. Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008 and 2009 in America, having sold over 29 million books in 2008, 26.5 million books in 2009. Twilight was the best-selling book of 2008 in US bookstores. Meyer was ranked No. 49 on Time magazine's list of the "100 Most Influential People in 2008", was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world's most powerful celebrities in 2009, entering at No. 26. Her annual earnings exceeded $50 million. In 2010, Forbes ranked her as the No. 59 most powerful celebrity with annual earnings of $40 million. Stephenie Meyer was born in Hartford, Connecticut as the second of six children to Stephen and Candy Morgan, she was raised in Phoenix, with five siblings: Seth, Jacob and Heidi. Meyer attended Chaparral High School in Scottsdale, where her former English teacher remembered her as "bright but not overly so."
She attended Brigham Young University in Provo, where she received a BA in English in 1997. Meyer met her husband, when she was four years old in Arizona, married him in 1994 when they were both 20. Together they have three sons. Christian Meyer an auditor, has now retired to take care of the children. Meyer is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Meyer had no experience as a writer of any kind and had never written a short story before Twilight, she had considered going to law school. Before becoming an author, Meyer's only professional work was as a receptionist in a property company. Meyer says that the idea for Twilight came to her in a dream on June 2, 2003; the dream was about a human girl and a vampire, in love with her but thirsted for her blood. Based on this dream, Meyer wrote the draft of. In a matter of three months she had transformed her dream into a complete novel, though she never intended to publish Twilight and was writing for her own enjoyment, her sister's response to the book was enthusiastic and she persuaded Meyer to send the manuscript to literary agencies.
Of the 15 letters she wrote, five went unanswered, nine brought rejections, the last was a positive response from Jodi Reamer of Writers House. Eight publishers competed for the rights to publish Twilight in a 2003 auction. By November, Meyer had signed a $750,000 three-book deal with Little and Company. Twilight was published in 2005 with a print run of 75,000 copies, it reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books within a month of its release, rose to #1. Foreign rights to the novel were sold to over 26 countries; the novel was named the Publishers Weekly Best Book of a Times Editor's Choice. Following the success of Twilight, Meyer expanded the story into a series with three more books: New Moon and Breaking Dawn. In its first week after publication, New Moon reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books, in its second week rose to the No. 1 position, where it remained for the next 11 weeks. In total, it spent over 50 weeks on the list.
After the release of Eclipse, the first three "Twilight" books spent a combined 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. The fourth installment of the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, was released with an initial print run of 3.7 million copies. Over 1.3 million copies were sold on the first day. The novel won Meyer her first British Book Award, despite competition from J. K. Rowling's The Tales of Beedle the Bard; the series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide in 37 languages. In 2008, the four books of the series claimed the top four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list, making Meyer the first author to achieve this feat, as well as being the bestselling author of the year; the Twilight novels held the top four spots on USA Today's year-end list again in 2009. In August 2009, USA Today revealed; the books have spent more than 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series, Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan's perspective.
Midnight Sun was to be a companion novel to the series. It would be a retelling of the events of the novel Twilight, but from the perspective of Edward Cullen. Meyer had hoped to have Midnight Sun published some time shortly after the release of Breaking Dawn, but after an online leak of a rough draft of its first 12 chapters, Meyer chose to delay the project indefinitely. Meyer has decided to pursue non-Twilight related books as a result of the leak, she made the rough chapters of Midnight Sun available on her website. In 2015, she published a new book in honor of the 10th anniversary of the best-selling franchise, titled Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined, with the genders of the original protagonists switched. Meyer cites many novels as inspiration for the Twilight series, including Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë and L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables and its sequels; each book in the series was inspired by a different literary classic: Twilight by Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice.
The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 1 (soundtrack)
The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 1 is the soundtrack album to the film, The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 1. It is the fourth soundtrack in the saga's chronology, was released on November 8, 2011; the soundtrack was once again produced by Alexandra Patsavas, the music director for the previous three films. The track list for the album was revealed on September 26, 2011, followed by the release of the album's lead single the following day. In July 2011, Bill Condon, the director of the film, said that they were still under negotiations for the soundtrack and had 15 songs to choose from, but no deals had been signed with any artists, he hinted that there was a good chance that the cast's musically-inclined members would feature on the soundtrack, which left chance for Robert Pattinson, Jackson Rathbone, Booboo Stewart and Jamie Campbell Bower to appear on it. American rock band Evanescence expressed interest in landing a song on the Breaking Dawn soundtrack. Will Hunt, the drummer of the band, said, "I've been screaming for'My Heart Is Broken' to land in that, because I think it would fit the story so well."
Lead singer Amy Lee agreed, adding, "I think that would be awesome, actually." It is notable that the band had attempted to land songs on the soundtrack of Twilight, but Summit did not approve of the songs they presented. Evanescence were unsuccessful in lodging for a song to appear on the Breaking Dawn soundtrack. On September 22, it was confirmed that the lead single of the soundtrack would be a song called "It Will Rain" by American pop singer Bruno Mars, released on iTunes on September 27; the track listing of the soundtrack was revealed on September 26, is the first to not feature a contribution by British rock band Muse, who contributed songs to the past three soundtracks of the saga. The only cast member to appear on the soundtrack after the announcement of the possibility for musical cast members to be included is Mía Maestro, who plays Carmen; the score, like the original film, was composed by Carter Burwell, following Howard Shore, who scored Eclipse, Alexandre Desplat, who scored New Moon.
The album was released in North America on December 2011 by Atlantic Records. Based on five reviews, Metacritic assigned the Breaking Dawn – Part 1 soundtrack an average score of 63, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Heather Phares, reviewing for Allmusic, said "Regardless of the strengths and failings of the Twilight Saga movies, their soundtracks captured the mood of each book perfectly", said Breaking Dawn's soundtrack "follows suit, delivering more than a few love songs that are angst-free compared to the previous soundtracks." Phares concluded, "Still, the most notable thing about is its unabashed romanticism, the album more than serves its purpose as a Twilight-branded wedding playlist."Entertainment Weekly critic Kyle Anderson stated of the soundtrack's second single, "'Jar of Hearts' songstress Christina Perri's fantastically opulent'A Thousand Years' sets the tone for The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn—Part 1: stark acoustic strums, cascading strings, a piercing croon expressing undying adoration."
Despite awarding the album a B grade, Anderson noted, "If anything, this is the narrowest Twilight soundtrack yet: Even when the volume shifts from quiet to less quiet, these weepy tunes about eternity and erotic mythical beasts grow wearisome."In a mixed review, Randall Roberts of the Los Angeles Times said of the featured songs, "As with all of the installments, half are good, half aren't — all depending on your mood and tolerance for soft rock." However, Roberts admitted, "Those uninterested in slow, weepy ballads should avoid like the plague the Imperial Mammoth, Sleeping at Last and Christina Perri songs, each of which will cause the vulnerable to melt."For music site Consequence of Sound, Caitlin Meyer said that the Twilight soundtracks had "become a holiday in themselves", but said "Sadly, Breaking Dawn, Pt. 1 fails to follow suit, as it underwhelms, indulging too much in the melodramatic." Meyer noted, "At the end of the day, a whole collection of lethargic, cliched songs is hardly a compelling listen meaning that Breaking Dawn decisively should be Breaking Yawn and Part 2 is a little more inspiring."
Breaking Dawn – Part 1: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack sold 105,000 copies in its first week in the United States, enough to debut at No. 4 on the Billboard 200. This is the first time that a soundtrack in the saga's chronology failed to debut in the top two positions, but it is the fourth in a row to debut in the top five; as of March 2012, the soundtrack has sold 467,000 copies in the United States. Official Soundtrack for The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – official Breaking Dawn soundtrack site
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy and read e-books, newspapers and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store; the hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States. In 2004, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos instructed the company's employees to build the world's best e-reader before Amazon's competitors could. Amazon used the codename Fiona for this e-reader; the Kindle name was devised by branding consultants Michael Karin Hibma. Lab126 asked them to name the product, so Cronan and Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire, they felt. Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and the Kindle DX introduced in 2009.
The range includes devices with a keyboard, devices with touch-sensitive, lighted high-resolution screens, a tablet computer with the Kindle app, low-priced devices with a touch-sensitive screen. However, the Kindle e-reader has always been a single-purpose device for reading – rather than being multipurpose hardware that might create distractions while reading. Amazon has introduced Kindle apps for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10 and Windows Phone. Amazon has a cloud reader to allow users to read e-books using modern web browsers; this article focuses on Amazon's E Ink e-readers. Amazon released the Kindle, its first e-reader, on November 19, 2007, for US$399, it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008; the device features a 6-inch 4-level grayscale E Ink display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold 200 non-illustrated titles. It has a speaker and a headphone jack that allows the user to listen to audio files on Kindle.
It is the only Kindle via an SD card slot. The device's Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, Kindle was the first device to include free U. S.-wide 3G data access to browse and download e-books from Amazon's Kindle Store. Amazon did not sell the first generation Kindle outside the U. S. On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the second generation Kindle, it became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the first generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards, it was slimmer than the original Kindle. The Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery. To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King released Ur, his then-new novella, available through the Kindle Store.
On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from $359 to $299 in October 2009, Amazon further reduced the price to $259. The Kindle 2 had a manufacturing materials cost estimated at $185.49, in 2009 by iSuppli. On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 and sold the Kindle 2 international version worldwide. On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that increased battery life by 85% and introduced native PDF file support for the device. On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download e-books wirelessly in over 100 countries, it became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically the same as the U. S.-only Kindle 2. The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000 for use on the Sprint network; the international version used standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U. S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries. The international version of the Kindle 2 is believed to have a higher display contrast, although Amazon did not advertise this.
A review by Gadget lab disputes that the contrast was higher and states that the font appears to be fuzzier than that of the first Kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to read the smaller font sizes that most books use; some writers discuss. Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009; this device supports PDF files. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying textbook content, it has an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side and it includes built-in speakers. The device can only connect to Whispernet in the U. S. On January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX international version was released in over 100 countries; the Kindle DX international version is the same as the Kindle DX except for having support for international 3G data. On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite globally; the DXG has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio due to