Douglas Fairbanks Jr.
Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was an American actor and producer, a decorated naval officer of World War II. He is best known for starring in such films as The Prisoner of Zenda, Gunga Din and The Corsican Brothers, he was once married to Joan Crawford. Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was born in New York City. His paternal grandfather was Jewish. Fairbanks's father was one of cinema's first icons, noted for such swashbuckling adventure films as The Mark of Zorro, Robin Hood and The Thief of Bagdad. Fairbanks had small roles in his father's films The Three Musketeers, his parents divorced when he was nine years old, both remarried. He lived with his mother in New York, California and London. On the basis of his father's name, in May 1923 Fairbanks Jr. was given a contract with Paramount Pictures at age 13, at $1,000 a week for three years. He was signed by Jesse L. Lasky who said the junior Fairbanks "is the typical American boy at his best" and said it was he be starred on a film about Tom Sawyer."I do not think it is the right thing for the boy to do," said his father.
"I want to see him continue his education. He is only 13 years old." The young actor was mobbed. Tom Sawyer was not made. Instead Fairbanks Jnr appeared; the film was not a hit. Paramount and he parted ways by mutual consent and Doug went to Paris to resume his studies. A year he returned to the studio, hired at what Fairbanks called "starvation wages" having him work as a camera assistant."I was anxious to build my career as an actor and painstakingly," he said. "I don't want to be a young blonde leading man with an aquiline nose and shiny white teeth."Paramount gave him supporting roles in The Air Mail and Wild Horse Mesa. Sam Goldwyn borrowed him to play the juvenile in Stella Dallas, which wound up being his first box office success, he had supporting roles in Paramount's The American Venus, Padlocked. At Warner Bros. Fairbanks was in Broken Hearts of Hollywood at Metropolitan Pictures, he was in Man Bait. At MGM he was in Edmund Goulding's Women Love Diamonds and for Alfred E. Green at Fox he was in Is Zat So?.
He supported Will Rogers in A Texas Steer. In 1927 Fairbanks made his stage debut in Young Woodley based on a book by John Van Druten. Fairbanks Jr received excellent reviews and the production was a success - the play did much to improve his reputation in Hollywood. A regular audience member was Joan Crawford with, he appeared in a stage production of Saturday's Children. Fairbanks' second lead role was in Dead Man's Curve for FBO, he was Helene Chadwick's leading man in Modern Mothers at Columbia and he starred in The Toilers for Tiffany. Fairbanks starred in another for The Power of the Press, directed by Frank Capra, he went back to supporting roles for The Barker at First National, his first "talkie" and A Woman of Affairs at MGM with Greta Garbo and John Gilbert. Fairbanks had another starring role at FBO with The Jazz Age and received top billing over Loretta Young in Fast Life at Warner Bros, he appeared in MGM's Our Modern Maidens opposite Crawford. First National gave Fairbanks a starring role in The Careless Age and he was reunited with Young in The Forward Pass.
He was one of many names in The Show of Shows. In September 1929 he returned to the stage in a production of The Youngest. Victor Halperin cast Fairbanks in the lead of Party Girl back at First National he did a third with Young, Loose Ankles. In 1930, Fairbanks Jr. went to Warner Bros. to test for the second lead in Moby Dick. Although he did not win the part, head of production Darryl F. Zanuck was impressed with Douglas's screen test, cast him in an important role in The Dawn Patrol directed by Howard Hawks. Universal borrowed him to have the lead role in Little Accident and at Warners he was in the lead in The Sin Flood, he supported Leslie Howard in the prestigious Outward Bound and was Billie Dove's leading man in One Night at Susie's. Fairbanks had an excellent role supporting Edward G. Robinson in Little Caesar, filmed in August 1930. "We knew it was going to be good when we were making it but not that it would become a classic", he said. The movie was a big hit, Warner Bros. offered Fairbanks Jr. a contract with cast and script approval — a condition which, Fairbanks Jr. says, was only offered to one other actor at the studio, Richard Barthelmess.""By sheer accident, I had four successes in a row in the early'30s, although I was still in my 20s, I demanded and received approval of cast and director.
I don't know how I got away with it, but I did!"Because he spoke French he was put in L'aviateur. Back in Hollywood he was in Changes and I Like Your Nerve with Young. In June 1931 he starred in another play The Man in Possession which he produced along with Sid Graumann. Fairbanks Jnr said he wanted to stay away from costume adventures which were associated with his father, he starred in two for Alfred E Green, Gentleman for a Day with Joan Blondell and It's Tough to Be Famous. He starred in a film shot in L'athlète incomplet, he starred in Love Is Scarlet Dawn for William Dieterle. Fairbanks did another with Green, Parachute Jumper, which gave an early co starring role to Bette Davis. Fairbanks sta
Chester Cooper Conklin was an early American film comedian who started at Keystone Studios as one of Mack Sennett’s Keystone Cops paired with Mack Swain. He appeared in a series of films with Mabel Normand and worked with Charlie Chaplin, both in silent and sound films. Conklin, one of three children, grew up in a violent household; when he was eight, his mother was found burned to death in the family garden. Although first judged a suicide, his father, a devoutly religious man who hoped his son would be a minister, was charged with murder, but found not guilty at trial. Conklin won first prize. A few years he ran away from home after vowing to a friend he would never return, a promise he kept. Heading to Des Moines he found employment as a hotel bellhop, but moved to Omaha, Nebraska where his interest in theatre led to a career in comedic acting. In St. Louis, Missouri, he saw a performance by the vaudeville team of Joe Weber and Lew Fields, which prompted Conklin to develop a character based on his boss at the time, a man with a thick accent and a bushy walrus moustache.
With this character, Conklin broke into vaudeville, spent several years touring with various stock companies, doing vaudeville shows, minstrel shows, as well as clown work with a travelling circus. After seeing several Mack Sennett comedies while in Venice, California during the 1913 winter break, the 27-year-old Conklin went to Keystone Studios, applied for a job and was hired as a Keystone Kop with a salary of $3 a day. Sennett directed him in his first film, a comedy short titled Hubby's Job. In 1914, Conklin co-starred with Mabel Normand in a series of films: Mabel's Strange Predicament, Mabel's New Job, Mabel's Busy Day and Mabel at the Wheel. In that same year he appeared in Making a Living, he would go on to make more than a dozen films with Chaplin while at Keystone and the two became lifelong friends. Years Conklin would perform with Chaplin in two more feature-length films, first in 1936 in Modern Times and in 1940's The Great Dictator. During this time, Chaplin kept Conklin on year-round salary.
While at Keystone, Conklin became most famous when he was teamed up with the robust comic Mack Swain to make a series of comedies. With Swain as "Ambrose" and Conklin as the grand mustachioed "Walrus", they performed these roles in several films including The Battle of Ambrose and Walrus and Love and Thrills, both made in 1915. Beyond these "Ambrose & Walrus" comedies, the two appeared together in twenty-six different films. In 1920, when Sennett refused to discuss a contract renewal with Conklin and insisted on referring him to an underling, Conklin quit and went to Fox Film Corporation, which had earlier approached him about doing a series of comedy shorts, he worked at the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation studio. In between, he had a significant role as ZaSu Pitts' father in director Erich von Stroheim's acclaimed 1924 MGM production, although the part was cut from the film and the footage is now lost, in 1928 in the Christie Film Company version of Tillie's Punctured Romance with W. C. Fields, which had nothing to do with the 1914 Chaplin version aside from the title.
Paramount Pictures teamed up Conklin and Fields for a series of comic films between 1927 and 1931. Conklin made the transition to talkies and, although he would continue to act for another thirty years and the shift in moviegoing tastes to more sophisticated comedy saw his roles limited to secondary or smaller parts in shorts, including the Three Stooges shorts Flat Foot Stooges, Dutiful But Dumb, Three Little Twirps, Phony Express, Micro-Phonies. Conklin appeared in films that appealed to nostalgia for the silent era, such as Hollywood Cavalcade and The Perils of Pauline. In Soundies musicals, he appeared with other silent-comedy alumni as The Keystone Kops, as well as on the televised This Is Your Life tribute to Mack Sennett. Conklin was part of Preston Sturges' unofficial "stock company" of character actors in the 1940s, appearing in cameo parts in six films written by Sturges. In 1957, he was a guest challenger on the TV panel show To Tell The Truth, dressed in his Keystone Kops uniform.
Conklin's career hit bottom in the 1950s, he took work as a department-store Santa Claus to make ends meet. In the 1960s, Conklin was living at the Motion Picture Country Home and Hospital when he fell in love with another patient there, June Gunther; the two got married in Las Vegas in 1965, his fourth marriage and her fourth, set up housekeeping in Van Nuys, California. Conklin made one last film after that, a Western comedy, A Big Hand for the Little Lady, released in 1966. Chester Conklin died in Autumn 1971 in California at the age of 85, he was cremated and his ashes were given to his family. Following his death, his great nephew, Robert Stoltz, along with his sisters rested his ashes at sea in the Pacific Ocean. For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Conklin has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street. Contrary to some sources Conklin was not born Jules Cowles, another silent actor. Chester Conklin on IMDb Chester Conklin at AllMovie Chester Conklin at the TCM Movie Database Chester Conklin at Find a Grave Chester Conklin at Virtual History
For the actress who married NYC Mayor Jimmy Walker, see Betty Compton. Betty Compson was an American actress and film producer. Most famous in silent films and early talkies, she is best known in her performances in The Docks of New York and The Barker, the latter earning a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Eleanor Luicime Compson was born on March 19, 1897, the daughter of Virgil K. Compson and Mary Elizabeth Rauscher, in Beaver, Utah, at a mining camp, her father was a mining engineer, a gold prospector, a grocery store proprietor, while her mother was a maid in homes and in a hotel. Compson graduated from Salt Lake High School, her father died when she was young and she obtained employment as a violinist at 16 years old at a theater in Salt Lake City, Utah. Playing in vaudeville sketches with touring circuits, Compson got noticed by Hollywood producers. While touring, she was discovered by comedic producer Al Christie and signed a contract with him, her first silent film, Wanted, a Leading Lady, was in November 1915.
She made 25 films in 1916 alone, although all of them were shorts for Christie with the exception of one feature, Almost a Widow. She continued this pace of making numerous short films well into the middle of 1918, when after a long apprenticeship with Christie she started making features exclusively. Compson's star began to rise with the release of the 1919 feature The Miracle Man for George Loane Tucker. Paramount signed Compson to a five-year contract with the help of director Tucker, her popularity allowed her to establish her own production company that providing her creative control over screenplays and financing. Her first movie as producer was Prisoners of Love, she played the role of Blanche Davis, a girl born to wealth and cursed by her inheritance of physical beauty. Compson selected Art Rosson to direct the feature; the story was chosen from a work by actress and writer Catherine Henry. After completing The Woman With Four Faces, Paramount refused to offer her a raise and she refused to sign without one.
Instead, she signed with a motion picture company in London, England. There she starred in a series of four films directed by Graham Cutts, a well-known English filmmaker; the first of these was a movie version of an English play called Woman to Woman, the screenplay for, co-written by Cutts and Alfred Hitchcock. Part of The White Shadow, another Cutts/Hitchcock collaboration. Has been found and preserved from a collection in New Zealand. Woman to Woman was released in the United States and proved to be popular enough for Jesse Lasky to offer top dollar to return to Paramount. Back in Hollywood, she starred in The Enemy Sex, directed by James Cruze; the two were married on October 25, 1925. Her contract with Paramount was not renewed in 1925 and she decided to freelance, working with lower budget studios such as Columbia Pictures in The Belle of Broadway and Chadwick in The Ladybird. During this time, she was suggested as a replacement for difficult Greta Garbo in the MGM feature Flesh and the Devil opposite John Gilbert.
She was able to work for the studio with former The Miracle Man co-star Lon Chaney in The Big City In 1928, she appeared in a First National Pictures part-talkie, The Barker. Her performance as manipulative carnival girl Carrie garnered her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress, although she lost to Mary Pickford in Coquette. In "Court-Martial", a 1928 silent film that has not survived, she became the first actress to portray Old West outlaw Belle Starr on film. In the same year, she appeared in the acclaimed Josef von Sternberg film The Docks of New York in a sympathetic portrayal of a suicidal prostitute rescued by stoker George Bancroft; these films caused Compson's popularity to re-emerge and she became one of the busiest actresses in the new talking cinema. In fact, Chaney offered her the female lead in his first talkie The Unholy Three, but she was too busy and instead suggested friend Lila Lee. Unlike a number of other female stars of silent film, it was felt that her voice recorded exceptionally well.
Although she was not a singer, she appeared in a number of early musicals, in which her singing voice was dubbed. Now divorced from Cruze, Compson's career continued to flourish, starring in nine films in 1930 alone. However, her last hit proved to be in The Spoilers, alongside Gary Cooper, she was unable to score a success and was only able to secure roles in "poverty row" studios. One major film in which she did not appear was Gone With the Wind. In 1941, Compson appeared in a small role in an Alfred Hitchcock film. Mr. & Mrs. Smith. Most of her films were low-budget exploitation, efforts. Compson's last film was Here Comes Trouble. During the filming of Ladies Must Live, Compson began a relationship with married director George Loane Tucker. However, he was dying and as a favor to her, negotiated a contract with Paramount for her. In 1924, Compson married film director James Cruze, who directed her in films such as The Enemy Sex and The Great Gabbo, they divorced in 1930. The reason for the divorce was that Cruze had an addiction to alcohol and work, which put a strain on their marriage and his health.
Soon after their divorce, Cruze filed for bankruptcy, Compson was forced to sell her possessions to pay past years' income taxes. Compson married and divorced agent-producer Irving Weinberg, she married Silvius Jack Gall, who died in 1962. All unions were childless. After retiring from the screen in 1948, she began a cosmetic line and help
Myrna Loy was an American film and stage actress. Trained as a dancer, Loy devoted herself to an acting career following a few minor roles in silent films, she was typecast in exotic roles as a vamp or a woman of Asian descent, but her career prospects improved following her portrayal of Nora Charles in The Thin Man. Born in Helena, Loy was raised in rural Radersburg throughout her early childhood, before relocating to Los Angeles with her mother in her early adolescence. There, she began studying dance, trained extensively throughout her high school education, she was discovered by production designer Natacha Rambova, who helped facilitate film auditions for her, she began obtaining small roles in the late 1920s portraying vamps. Her role in The Thin Man helped elevate her reputation as a versatile actress, she reprised the role of Nora Charles five more times. Loy's career began to slow in the 1940s, she appeared in only a few films in the 1950s, including a lead role in the comedy Cheaper by the Dozen, as well as supporting parts in The Ambassador's Daughter and the drama Lonelyhearts.
She would go on to appear in only eight films between 1960 and 1981, after which she formally retired from acting. Although Loy was never nominated for a competitive Academy Award, in March 1991 she was presented with an Honorary Academy Award in recognition of her life's work both onscreen and off, including serving as assistant to the director of military and naval welfare for the Red Cross during World War II, a member-at-large of the U. S. Commission to UNESCO. Loy died in December 1993 in New York City, aged 88. Loy was born Myrna Adele Williams on August 2, 1905, in Helena, the daughter of Adelle Mae and rancher David Franklin Williams, her parents had married in Helena in 1904, one year before Loy was born. She had David Frederick Williams. Loy's paternal grandfather, David Thomas Williams, was Welsh, immigrated from Liverpool, England to the United States in 1856, arriving in Philadelphia. Unable to read or write in English, he settled in the Montana Territory where he began a career as a rancher.
Loy's maternal grandparents were Swedish immigrants. During her childhood, her father worked as a banker, real estate developer, farmland appraiser in Helena, was the youngest man elected to the Montana state legislature, her mother had studied music at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago, at one time considered a career as a concert performer, but instead devoted her time to raising Loy and her brother. Loy's mother was a lifelong Democrat, she was raised in the Methodist faith. Loy spent her early life in Radersburg, Montana, a rural mining community 50 miles southeast of Helena. During the winter of 1912, Loy's mother nearly died from pneumonia, her father sent his wife and daughter to La Jolla, California. Loy's mother saw great potential in Southern California, during one of her husband's visits, she encouraged him to purchase real estate there. Among the properties he bought was land he sold at a considerable profit to Charlie Chaplin so the filmmaker could construct his studio there.
Although her mother tried to persuade her husband to move to California permanently, he preferred ranch life and the three returned to Montana. Soon afterward, Loy's mother needed a hysterectomy and insisted Los Angeles was a safer place to have it done, so she and Loy's brother David moved to Ocean Park, where Loy began to take dancing lessons. After the family returned to Montana, Loy continued her dancing lessons, at the age of 12, Myrna Williams made her stage debut performing a dance she had choreographed based on "The Blue Bird" from the Rose Dream operetta at Helena's Marlow Theater. After the November 1918 death of Loy's father from the 1918 flu pandemic, Loy's mother permanently relocated the family to California, where they settled in Culver City. Loy attended the exclusive Westlake School for Girls while continuing to study dance in downtown Los Angeles; when her teachers objected to her extracurricular participation in theatrical arts, her mother enrolled her in Venice High School, at 15, she began appearing in local stage productions.
In 1921, Loy posed for Venice High School sculpture teacher Harry Fielding Winebrenner for the central figure "Inspiration" in his allegorical sculpture group Fountain of Education. Completed in 1922, the sculpture group was installed in front of the campus outdoor pool in May 1923 where it stood for decades. Loy's slender figure with her uplifted face and one arm extending skyward presented a "vision of purity, youthful vigor, aspiration", singled out in a Los Angeles Times story that included a photo of the "Inspiration" figure along with the model's name—the first time her name appeared in a newspaper. A few months Loy's "Inspiration" figure was temporarily removed from the sculpture group and transported aboard the battleship Nevada for a Memorial Day pageant in which "Miss Myrna Williams" participated. Fountain of Education can be seen in the opening scenes of the 1978 film Grease. After decades of exposure to the elements and vandalism, the original concrete statue was removed from display in 2002, replaced in 2010 by a bronze duplicate paid for through an alumni-led fundraising campaign.
Loy left school at the age of 18 to help with the family's finances. She obtained work at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre, where she performed in elaborate musical sequences that were related to and served as prologues for the feature film. During this period, she saw Eleonora Duse in the
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name