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The Silmarillion

The Silmarillion is a collection of mythopoeic works by English writer J. R. R. Tolkien and published posthumously by his son, Christopher Tolkien, in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay; the Silmarillion, along with J. R. R. Tolkien's other works, forms an extensive, though incomplete, narrative that describes the universe of Eä in which are found the lands of Valinor, Beleriand, Númenor, Middle-earth, within which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place. After the success of The Hobbit, Tolkien's publisher requested a sequel. Tolkien sent them an early draft of The Silmarillion but they rejected the work as being obscure and "too Celtic"; the result was that Tolkien began work on "A Long Expected Party", the first chapter of what he described at the time as "a new story about Hobbits", which became The Lord of the Rings. The Silmarillion comprises five parts; the first part, Ainulindalë, tells of the creation of Eä, the "world that is". Valaquenta, the second part, gives a description of the Valar and Maiar, the supernatural powers in Eä.

The next section, Quenta Silmarillion, which forms the bulk of the collection, chronicles the history of the events before and during the First Age, including the wars over the Silmarils that gave the book its title. The fourth part, Akallabêth, relates the history of the Downfall of Númenor and its people, which takes place in the Second Age; the final part, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age, is a brief account of the circumstances which led to and were presented in The Lord of the Rings. The five parts were separate works, but it was the elder Tolkien's express wish that they be published together; because J. R. R. Tolkien died before he finished revising the various legends, Christopher gathered material from his father's older writings to fill out the book. In a few cases, this meant that he had to devise new material, though within the tenor of his father's thought, in order to resolve gaps and inconsistencies in the narrative; the Silmarillion, like Tolkien's other Middle-earth writings, was meant to have taken place at some time in Earth's past.

In keeping with this idea, The Silmarillion is meant to have been translated from Bilbo's three-volume Translations from the Elvish, which he wrote while at Rivendell. Chapters in the book include: "The Music of the Ainur" "Quenta Silmarillion" "Of Beren and Lúthien" "Túrin Turambar" "Of Tuor and The Fall of Gondolin" "Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"The inside title page contains an inscription written in Tengwar. In the English it reads "The tales of the First Age when Morgoth dwelt in Middle-earth and the Elves made war upon him for the recovery of the Silmarils to which are appended the downfall of Númenor and the history of the Rings of Power and the Third Age in which these tales come to their end." The first section of The Silmarillion, Ainulindalë, takes the form of a primary creation narrative. Eru called Ilúvatar, first creates the Ainur, a group of eternal spirits or demiurges, called "the offspring of his thought". Ilúvatar brings the Ainur together and shows them a theme, from which he bids them make a great music.

Melkor – whom Ilúvatar had given the "greatest power and knowledge" of all the Ainur – breaks from the harmony of the music to develop his own song. Some Ainur join him, causing discord in the music; this happens thrice, with Eru Ilúvatar overpowering his rebellious subordinate with a new theme each time. Ilúvatar stops the music and shows them a vision of Arda and its peoples; the vision disappears after a while, Ilúvatar offered the Ainur the opportunity to enter into Arda and govern over the new world. Many Ainur accept, becoming bound to that world; the greater Ainur become known as the Valar. The Valar attempt to prepare the world for the coming inhabitants, while Melkor, who wants Arda for himself destroys their work. Valaquenta describes each of the 14 Valar in detail, as well as a few of the Maiar, it reveals how Melkor seduces many Maiar – including those who would become Sauron and the Balrogs – into his service. Quenta Silmarillion, which makes up the bulk of the book, is a series of interconnected tales set in the First Age that make up the tragic saga of the three jewels, the Silmarils.

The Valar attempt to fashion the world for Elves and Men, but Melkor continually destroys their handiwork. After he destroys the two lamps that illuminated the world, the Valar move to Aman, a continent to the west of Middle-earth, where they establish their home, Valinor. Yavanna creates the Two Trees, which illuminate Valinor, leaving Middle-earth to darkness and Melkor. Soon after, stars created by Varda begin to shine; the elves form three groups: the Vanyar, the Noldor, the Teleri, though some are captured and enslaved by Melkor to be bred into orcs. Knowing the danger the Elves are in, the Valar decide to fight Melkor to keep the Elves safe. After defeating and capturing Melkor, they invite the Elves to live in Aman. Many Elves accept, while others refuse, still others start for Aman but stop along the way, including the Elves who become the Sindar, ruled by the Elf King Thingol and Melian, a Maia. All of the V

Jimmy Higdon

James Cecil Higdon II, known as Jimmy Higdon, is a businessman from Lebanon, a Republican member of the Kentucky State Senate since 2009. He represents District 14, which until August 23, 2013 included Marion, Nelson and Washington counties in Central Kentucky. Under redistricting legislation signed by Governor Steve Beshear, Taylor County, where Higdon was born, was removed from Higdon's District 14 and placed in District 16 represented by Republican Sara Beth Gregory of Monticello in Wayne County. Higdon now has a vastly revised district: Casey, Marion and Spencer counties as well as a portion of Jefferson County. In addition to Taylor County and her own Wayne County, Gregory represented Adair, Cumberland, McCreary, Russell counties, she lost the succeeding primary election to Max Wise of Campbellsville, now senator. The Kentucky Supreme Court struck down the 2012 districting on the grounds that it did not comply with the federal "one man, one vote" concept. Higdon said that he is "just really disappointed in the way that the plan worked out, as far as my losing Taylor County."

The oldest of seven children of James Cecil and Alice Higdon, Jimmy Higdon was reared in Lebanon, where he graduated in 1971 from Marion County High School. In 1975, he earned his Bachelor of Science degree in industrial arts technology with a minor in business administration from Morehead State University in Morehead in Rowan County in northeastern Kentucky. Thereafter, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Army, trained at Fort Lee, in Prince George County near Petersburg, Virginia. In 1976, Higdon returned to Lebanon to become a partner in Key Market, subsequently Higdon's Foodtown IGA, or Independent Grocers Alliance. On January 22, 2011, after three consecutive years of losses, Higdon's IGA closed. Higdon sold the business based in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Houchens established a Save-A-Lot outlet at the former IGA location. Higdon compared independent grocers such as himself to "dinosaurs. There's a few less every." He continued to operate his Higdon's Appliance Service in Lebanon.

Higdon is a former board member of the Lebanon Housing Authority, the Kentucky Grocers Association, the Marion County Chamber of Commerce. He is affiliated with Rotary International. Higdon is married to the former Jane Miles, a native of Loretto in Marion County; the couple has two grown children, Brittany H. Nagle, James Cecil Higdon, III, known as James Higdon on his byline. On December 8, 2009, Higdon a state representative, won a special election for Senate District 14, he defeated Democrat Jodie Haydon of Nelson County. Haydon is a former member of the Kentucky House; the vacancy in the upper chamber of the legislature occurred when Republican Senator Dan Kelly of Springfield in Washington County was appointed as a state district court judge by Democratic Governor Steve Beshear. Elected the next year to a full four-year term on November 2, 2010, Higdon's first full term in office expired on December 31, 2014. Beshear appointed a second Republican senator, Charlie Borders of Russell in Greenup County in far northeastern Kentucky, to the Kentucky Public Service Commission, another state position with a generous retirement pension.

In both cases, Beshear hoped to open two Republican Senate seats to possible Democratic victory but failed in that goal with Higdon's election. During his campaign Higdon opposed the generous pensions from which these senators benefit and vowed to try to repeal the higher pensions after he took office. In 2002, with a 45 percent overall turnout of registered voters, Higdon narrowly won election for the first time to the Kentucky House from District 24 for the position vacated by Democrat William U. Scott. Higdon defeated Democrat Connie Sue Rakes, 5,911 to 5,657. Rakes had been unopposed for the Democratic nomination, he was reelected in 2004, 2006, 2008. District 24 includes Marion, a portion of Pulaski counties; when he was elevated to the Senate, voters early in 2010 chose a Democrat, Terry Mills from Lebanon, to succeed Higdon in the House. Mills defeated Republican Leo Johnson, 3,000 to 2,518 votes though Johnson had been an easy winner in his own Casey County. In 2008 in his last election to the House for the term which he did not complete, Higdon was endorsed by the Kentucky Education Association.

He is a past recipient of the Joe Kelly Education Award from the Kentucky Department of Education and holds the "Friend of Education" designation from the Kentucky School Board Association. A Roman Catholic, Higdon carries the endorsement of Kentucky Right to Life. A backer too of the Second Amendment, he has been endorsed by the National Rifle Association. In 2012 Higdon introduced Senate Bill 158 to exempt Kentuckians from state laws that contradict an individual's religious beliefs unless there is an overriding reason why such laws should be enforced. A liberal blog called it "Higdon's Sharia law" though he had intended it to protect Christians from secularism. In 2011, Senator Higdon called for tighter state regulations to prevent physicians from establishing temporary clinics from which they issue prescriptions to drug abusers. A "pain clinic" of this kind opened in Lebanon in 2010, but citizens complained of van-loads of people waiting in the parking lot to purchase prescriptions; as police began to investigate, the clinic abruptly closed.

Many pain clinics are legal, but others have been questioned as "pill mills". Higdon supports allowing independent voters to cast ballots in major party primary elections, his legislation to accomplish that goal passed the state Sen

Kenneth Manning

Kenneth R. Manning is an American academic professor and author, he is the Thomas Meloy Professor of Rhetoric and of the History of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Born in Dillon, South Carolina and educated in local schools, Manning moved to North Haven, soon afterwards. Manning entered Harvard University in 1966 and completed his Bachelor of Arts in 1970, his Master of Arts in 1971, his Ph. D. in 1974. While he was doing his graduate studies, Manning helped guide fellow Dillon native Ben Bernanke, who would become the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, to apply to Harvard, he helped assuage the Bernanke family, who were concerned that Ben would "lose his Jewish identity" if he went to Harvard, that "there were Jews in Boston." Manning has been on the faculty at MIT since 1974. Manning's 1983 book, Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just, depicts the life and career of Ernest Everett Just, born in Charleston, South Carolina and went on to become a world-famous biologist.

Manning was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in Biography. Manning was inducted into the Order of the Palmetto by former South Carolina governor, Richard Riley. Manning's other writings have appeared in numerous scholarly publications, he is working on a book manuscript that examines health care for African Americans and the role and experience of blacks in the American medical profession from 1860 until 1980. Kenneth R. Manning Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503299-4 Kenneth R. Manning MIT: Shaping the Future; the MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-63141-9 Kenneth R. Manning, Bayla Singer Asa J. Davis Blueprint for Change: The Life and Times of Lewis H. Latimer. Queens Borough Public Library. ISBN 978-0-9645337-0-7 Kenneth Manning's home page at M. I. T

Jassim Ghulam Al-Hamd

Jassim Mohammed Ghulam Al Hamd is an Iraqi former professional footballer who last played for Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya in Iraq. A tall defender, Ghulam was a member of the victorious squad in the 2000 AFC Youth Championship. After starting his career with Al Jaish, he joined Al Zawraa before moving to Al Quwa Al Jawiya. In 2001, Jassim was brought into the 2002 World Cup qualifying squad by Adnan Hamad after the sacking of Milan Zivadinovic, but he was not called into the final squad until Sadiq Saadoun and Sabah Jeayer were not fit enough to travel to Kazakhstan, making his debut in the 4-2 win over Nepal. In August 2006, he left Al Quwa Al Jawiya to join Jordan’s Al Baqaa before moving to Jordanian league champions Al Wihdat. In 2007 Ghulam played all 6 matches with Iraq national team to win the Asian cup for the first time in history, he played a big role in defence alongside Bassim Abbas and Haidar Abdul-Amir. In 2008 Ghulam signed with Aboomoslem. Scores and results list Iraq's goal tally first.

2002 WAFF Champions 2007 Asian Cup winners Jassim Ghulam Al-Hamd at

Dasymalla terminalis

Dasymalla terminalis known as native foxglove, is a flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a shrub with its branches and some of its flower parts densely covered with white, woolly hairs; the leaves are thick and soft and the flowers are tube-shaped, pale to deep pinkish-purple or claret red. Dasymalla terminalis is an erect shrub which grows to a height of 0.5–1 m with its branches and leaves densely covered with white or grey, woolly hairs. The leaves are oblong to narrowly elliptic, 2–3.5 cm long, 0.8–1.5 cm wide, thick and covered with small pimples which are hidden in the thick layer of woolly hairs. The flowers are pale to deep pinkish-purple or claret red and arranged in leaf axils in groups of up to five on a densely hairy stalk, 3–5 mm long; the flowers are surrounded by woolly bracts and bracteoles which are hairy on the outside but glabrous on the inside. The five sepals are 1–1.5 cm long and joined at their base to form a short tube, woolly on the outside and glabrous on the inside.

The five petals are joined to form a tube 15–20 mm long, 8–10 mm wide in the upper half, with five lobes on the end. The tube has scattered hairs outside but is glabrous inside except for a ring of hairs near the ovary; the lower petal lobe in more or less circular and twice as large as the other four lobes which are equal in size. The four stamens are shorter than the tube with one pair shorter than the other. Flowering occurs from may to November or December and the hairy fruit which follows splits into two when mature. Dasymalla terminalis was first formally described in 1839 by Stephan Endlicher and the description was published in his book Novarum Stirpium Decades; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "of the ends". This species of Dasymalla is the most distributed of the genus and grows from near the Murchison River in the north-west to Kalgoorlie in the south-east, in the Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Mallee and Yalgoo biogeographic regions. Dasymalla terminalis is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife

The Simulacra

The Simulacra is a 1964 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick; the novel portrays a future totalitarian society dominated by a matriarch, Nicole Thibodeaux. It revolves around the themes of reality and illusionary beliefs. Additionally, it touches on Nazi ideology. Dick published the story as a novelette in the magazine Fantastic, titled "The Novelty Act", he titled the novel First Lady of Earth. Before publication, the title was changed to The Simulacra; the novel was published in 1964 as a paperback by Ace Books. It was one of four novels released by Dick that year. Set in the middle of the twenty-first century, after World War Three, The Simulacra is the story of several protagonists within the United States of Europe and America, formed by the merger of Germany and the United States, where the whole government is a fraud and the President is a simulacrum. Other global superpowers are People's Republic of China and Free Africa; the war may have involved tactical nuclear weapons.

Poland has become the global focus of communist authority, with its administrative centre in Warsaw. Society is stratified into'Ges' and'Bes' classes. Political and broadcast media power are consolidated; the Democratic and Republican parties have merged to become the'Democrat-Republican Party' and the networks have amalgamated into the'United Triadic Network'. Actual political power has devolved to a permanent First Lady, Nicole Thibodeaux, whose consorts are a series of male presidents – die Alten; the current Alte, Rudi Kalbfleisch, is a simulacrum. Since the death of the original "Nicole", her role has been portrayed by four consecutive human actors, the latest of, Kate Rupert; this is the Geheimnis, possession of. A secretive governing council controls the USEA. Kalbfleisch, whom Nicole dislikes, appears only momentarily in the story; the contract for the next simulacrum, Dieter Hogbein, has been awarded to'Frauenzimmer Associates', the previous contractor,'Karp und Söhne Werke' is unhappy about this change.

One subplot involves the Karp und Söhne Werke threatening exposure of what has been a state secret over the last five decades. A. G. Chemie, the leading USEA psycho-pharmaceutical drug cartel, has engineered the prohibition of psychotherapy under the "MacPhearson Act." However, the USEA is willing to let Doctor Egon Superb continue to treat Richard Kongrosian, a well known pianist who performs in the White House, who holds the delusory belief that his body odor is lethal. Kongrosian can play piano using only his telekinetic abilities. Bertold Goltz, an alleged neofascist, is trying to overthrow the government, runs the'Sons of Job', a religious paramilitary organisation, he is head of the covert USEA governing council. There is a subplot that involves Charles Strikerock, his brother and a cut-price colonisation spacecraft sales firm involved in Martian colonisation. Mars boasts insectoid life, the sentient and empathic'papoola', while Ganymede is inhabited by multicellular primitive life forms.

As the plot develops, the der Alte-simulacrum is revealed as an android and Kate/Nicole is disclosed as an impostor, this undoing the raison d'etre for ges/bes class stratification. Bertold Goltz is killed by a National Police detachment, as is the rest of the covert governing council. Using telekinesis, Kongrosian kills Pembroke before he can overthrow Nicole in a coup d'état and teleports her to safety at his secluded Northern US home. Karp und Sohnen rebel against the abortive coup and soon the National Police and USEA armed forces are engaged in civil war, with active use of low-yield nuclear weapons. Re-emerging Neanderthals, happy at this turn of events, gather near Kongrosian's home in anticipation that self-destruction of Homo sapiens might give them another opportunity to dominate Earth; the novel ends. Rossi, Umberto, “The Great National Disaster: The Destruction of Imperial America in P. K. Dick’s The Simulacra”, RSA: Rivista di Studi Nord Americani #13/2002, pp. 22–39. Tuck, Donald H..

The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 142. ISBN 0-911682-20-1