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The Skeptic's Dictionary

The Skeptic's Dictionary is a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, published on his website and in a printed book. The site was launched in 1994 and the book was published in 2003 with nearly 400 entries. As of January 2011 the website has over 700 entries. A comprehensive single-volume guides to skeptical information on pseudoscientific and occult topics, the bibliography contains some seven hundred references for more detailed information. According to the back cover of the book, the on-line version receives 500,000 hits per month; the Skeptic's Dictionary is, according to its foreword, intended to be a small counterbalance to the voluminous occult and paranormal literature. According to Carroll, “The Skeptic’s Dictionary is aimed at four distinct audiences: the open-minded seeker, who makes no commitment to or disavowal of occult claims; the one group this book is not aimed at is the'true believer' in the occult. If you have no skepticism in you, this book is not for you.”Carroll defines each of these categories, explaining how and why, in his opinion, his dictionary may be of interest and benefit to each of them.

He defines the term “skepticism” as he uses it and identifies two types of skeptic, the Apollonian, “committed to clarity and rationality” and the Dionysian, “committed to passion and instinct.” William James, Bertrand Russell, Friedrich Nietzsche exemplify the Apollonian skeptic, Carroll says, Charles Sanders Peirce, Tertullian, Søren Kierkegaard, Blaise Pascal are Dionysian skeptics. The articles in the book are in several categories: Alternative medicine Cryptozoology Extraterrestrials and UFOs Frauds and hoaxes Junk science and pseudoscience Logic and perception New Age beliefs The paranormal and the occult Science and philosophy The supernatural and the metaphysical. Print versions are available in Dutch, Japanese and Russian. Numerous entries have been translated for the Internet in several other languages. A newsletter keeps interested parties up to date on new entries and an archived list of previous newsletters is available for online perusal. Norcross et al. state that Carroll has made considerable progress in exposing pseudoscience and quackery.

Roy Herbert's review of the paperback version written for the New Scientist magazine commented that "it is an amazing assembly, elegantly written and level-headed, with a wry remark here and there", that "this superb work is to be used so that it is a pity it is a softback book.". Skeptical Inquirer stated that it was "a book that should be a staple of everyone’s diet-part of the package we are given at birth to help us avoid the dangers and pitfalls of living in a world riddled with bad ideas and empty promises...". It was described by Gary Jason, a Philosophy professor at California State University as "... a good reference book for a critical thinking class." Official website

Cutthroat Peak

Cutthroat Peak is an 8,050-foot granitic mountain located on the boundary of Chelan County and Skagit County, in Washington state. The mountain is part of the Okanagan Range in the Cascade Range. Cutthroat Peak is about two miles west of Washington Pass and one mile east of Rainy Pass. It's a prominent landmark along the North Cascades Highway. There is a Cutthroat Lake, Cutthroat Creek, Cutthroat Pass on its north and east aspects. Molar Tooth is a granite pillar half a mile north on the ridge extending to Cutthroat Pass. Cutthroat Peak is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains; as fronts approach the North Cascades, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades. As a result, the west side of the North Cascades experiences high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall.

Due to its temperate climate and proximity to the Pacific Ocean, areas west of the Cascade Crest rarely experience temperatures below 0 °F or above 80 °F. During winter months, weather is cloudy, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is little or no cloud cover during the summer; because of maritime influence, snow tends resulting in high avalanche danger. The North Cascades features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks and deep glacial valleys. Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to the various climate differences; these climate differences lead to vegetation variety defining the ecoregions in this area. The history of the formation of the Cascade Mountains dates back millions of years ago to the late Eocene Epoch. With the North American Plate overriding the Pacific Plate, episodes of volcanic igneous activity persisted.

In addition, small fragments of the oceanic and continental lithosphere called terranes created the North Cascades about 50 million years ago. During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating scoured the landscape leaving deposits of rock debris; the "U"-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the North Cascades area. List of Highest Mountain Peaks in Washington Cutthroat Peak weather: Mountain Forecast

Cosmogenesis (album)

Cosmogenesis is the second studio album by German death metal band Obscura. It was released on 17 February 2009 by Relapse Records; the album debuted at No. 71 on the Top Heatseekers chart. A music video was released for the song "Anticosmic Overload"; the songs "Desolate Spheres" and "Centric Flow" are based on the poem "The Dance of Shiva". Cosmogenesis was awarded "Best Death Metal Album of the year 2009" by Loudwire. All lyrics are written by Steffen Kummerer. Writing and production credits are adapted from the album liner notes. ObscuraSteffen Kummerer – guitar, vocals Christian Münzner – guitar Jeroen Paul Thesseling – fretless bass Hannes Grossmann – drumsGuest musiciansVictor Bullok a.k.a. V. Santura – backing vocals on "Universe Momentum," "Desolate Spheres," "Noospheres," "Centric Flow"Additional musiciansTymon Kruidenier – guitar solo on "Choir of Spirits" Ron Jarzombek – guitar solo on "Cosmogenesis"ProductionObscura – production Victor Bullok – production, mixing, masteringArtwork and designOrion Landau – design Norudos – photography Cosmogenesis at AllMusic

Eisenhower Public Library District

The Eisenhower Public Library District is a public library located in Harwood Heights, one of two suburbs surrounded by but not incorporated into Chicago. The Eisenhower Public Library District serves Harwood Norridge residents, its mission is to " patrons of all ages to be successful and informed members of their communities." Pre-1972 - Chicago provided free library services for Norridge and Harwood Heights residents until January 1972.1972 - The library was created with federal funds, named by local school children. Located in the basement of the Parkway Towers apartment complex on Harlem Avenue, the library was supplemented by a bookmobile, which made weekly stops at local schools, churches and the village halls; the bookmobile held about 3,500 volumes.1973 - Residents voted in support of a referendum for a library district, to be supported by property tax revenue. The state library provided funds to match the grant that came from the federal Project Plus program.1974 - October: The library moved to the CANTOS sheet-metal factory at 4652 N. Olcott Avenue.

The Polish language collection was established. 1975 - Computers were first used to check out materials.1976 - The bookmobile stopped running. 1982 - The library building was expanded and remodeled - from 7500 square feet to 11,250 square feet. 1984 - February: A computerized card catalog was added - the library became the 8th in the state of Illinois to offer this service.1997 - A referendum for refurbishment or a new facility failed to pass.1998 - A revised referendum for refurbishment or a new facility failed to pass.2003 - April: A referendum for a new facility passed.2008 - January: New LEED Silver-certified building at 4613 N. Oketo Avenue was completed, encompassing 44,576 square feet; the new building features a dedicated children's department called Kids World, a Quiet Room with a fireplace, study rooms, a computer lab, an independently run cafe, a display room for local history materials.1972-2011 - The library, since inception, was a member of the Metropolitan Library System, a group of libraries made up of public, special, high school and grade school libraries in the near south and west Chicago-area suburbs.

This system, along with most others in Illinois, apart from the Chicago Public Library System, was incorporated into a statewide system called the Reaching Across Illinois Library System in July, 2011. Residents and reciprocal borrowers who have a library card from anywhere else in Illinois can get a library card at the Library Services desk; this department offers materials, craft activities and entertainment events, serving ages 0 through 5th grade. Four age levels of Storytime programs, in English and Polish, are offered regularly; the library has a collection and study area for teens. Special collections here include: local schools' summer reading books, Abraham Lincoln winners, books associated with a teen author panel program called Litworks, coordinated by the library and Ridgewood High School; the library offers many programs for adults and children - patrons can sign up by phone, in person, or online. Most events are free; the bus trips have higher fees. The library hosts 5 book clubs, 2 writing groups, a knitting circle, allows its 2 meeting rooms to be reserved by assorted non-profit organizations, as well.

The library offers computer classes for beginners, including introduction to computers, using a keyboard and mouse, using the internet and various special topic classes, like saving and transferring documents, using online image editors, digital cameras, e-readers, the library catalog, more. The library arranges one bus trip per month to assorted nearby locations and events: museum exhibits, seasonal markets and more. Bus trips last 6 hours, including travel time cost $20, may include a lunch. Non-residents may sign up. There tend to be about 20 spaces per trip. For 4 years, the library participated in an exchange program with the Warsaw Public Library, built around an English-language fluency/Polish literature appreciation contest called "Libros Lege". In both Warsaw and Harwood Heightd, participants were invited to select a passage from a book by a Polish-heritage author, written in or translated into English, present it in a short speech. 5 contestants were selected from each country and were sent on a 9-day, all-expense-paid trip to Warsaw and the Masovia province or Harwood Heights/Chicago.

In addition to computers with Microsoft Office software, free Wi-Fi, a number of databases, downloadable music and audiobooks available to borrow from home, the library has 47 Nook e-readers that can be checked out by residents. The online catalog is available on computers throughout the building and through the library's website and a mobile app; the current Board of the library consists of: Mark Braun - President Janice Magnuson - Secretary Peter Magnelli - Vice President Tom Sticha - Treasurer Elizabeth Ringlestein - Trustee Gary R. Ross - Trustee Scott Parent - Trustee Past board members:Ruth Igoe - Secretary, President. "Kay" Kupczyk - Trustee, President.

Ernesto Pacelli

Ernesto Pacelli was a financial adviser to Pope Leo XIII, Pope Pius X, Pope Benedict XV and the founder and president of the Banco di Roma from March 9, 1880 until 1916. Pacelli served as an unofficial link between the Vatican and the Italian government. Papal historian John Pollard calls him the "first of the great laymen to be associated with the finances of the Holy See."His cousin, Eugenio Pacelli, became Pope Pius XII. Pacelli's involvement in the Vatican began when he secured financial compensation for Leo XIII from the Italian government in the aftermath of the collapse of the Banco Romano, the former bank of the Papal States. Pacelli discreetly supplied financial advice and loans, jobs to relatives of several prominent members of the Roman Curia, notably Pietro Gasparri. Lai speculates that this may have contributed to a perception of Gasparri as nepotistic in the 1922 papal conclave. Due to the legal uncertainty of papal assets during the period of the Roman Question, several papal properties and stocks were nominally held by Pacelli's name, in no small part because of his position in the Banco di Roma.

At the time of the election of Pope Benedict XV in 1914, the Holy See owned 25% of the Banco di Roma, had large cash deposits at the bank. Following massive public withdrawals from the bank in early 1915, under the spectre of World War I, in March of that year Benedict XV arranged a salvage package to the tune of ₤ 9 million—guaranteed by the Vatican's shares in the bank—from Credito Nazionale, a subset of the Catholic Banking Federation; this action further aggravated Italian police informants within the Vatican, who in November 1915 began reporting that Benedict XV planned to transform the bank into an Catholic "confessional" institution, Pacelli was replaced by Carlo Santucci in 1916 as president of the Banco di Roma. By April 1916, the bank's confidence crisis worsened, Benedict XV authorized Pacelli, indebted to the bank, to hand over 425,000 shares to the bank, held by Pacelli on behalf of the Administration of the Assets of the Holy See. Following these handovers, the Vatican no longer controlled any significant shares in the Banco di Roma, although it did still retain deposits.

In September 1907, Pacelli set up—through the Banco di Roma—the Società Editrice Romana with ₤150,000 of the bank's capital to bail out the Catholic daily Il Corriere d'Italia. SER would bail out other Catholic dailies such as L'Avvenire d'Italia in Bologna, L'Italia in Milan, Il Momento in Turin, Il Messaggero Toscano in Pisa, La Sicilia Cattolica in Palermo. In November 1907, Pacelli founded Società Tipografica Editrice Romama to provide financial assistance to Catholic presses, but with ₤100,000 of the company's ₤150,000 in start-up capital coming directly from the ABSS. De Rosa, G.. Storia del Banco di Roma, III. Lai, B.. Finanze e finanzieri vaticani tra l'Ottocento e il Novecento da Pio IX a Benedetto XV. Pollard, John F.. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850–1950. Cambridge University Press

Deer Island Lake

Deer Island Lake is a lake located in Gogebic County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The Lake is one of about 24 clear, clean lakes located in a special wilderness area known as the Sylvania Wilderness, which in turn is located within the Ottawa National Forest a few miles to the west of the town of Watersmeet; the shoreline is undeveloped, surrounded by virgin forest consisting of hemlock and pine. This crystal-clear spring-fed lake is one of the most remote in the Sylvania Tract, but is well worth the journey for those intrepid enough to make it; the total surface area of the lake is 346 acres, with maximum depths of 55 ft. The lake is named for the large island in the center of the lake, which deer inhabit by crossing back and forth on the ice in winter. Several smaller islands and numerous rocky shoals add to the overall beauty of this fine body of water. Like all lakes in the Sylvania Tract, Deer Island lake has numerous special regulations designed to protect and ensure its wilderness quality for future generations.

These regulations include no motors on watercraft and catch and release for bass. List of lakes in Michigan "Michigan DNR map of Deer Island Lake"