Petr Chelčický was a Czech Christian spiritual leader and author in the 15th century Bohemia. He was one of the most influential thinkers of the Bohemian Reformation, his published works concentrated on critique of immorality and violence of the contemporary church and state. He proposed a number of Bible-based improvements for human society, including nonresistance, which influenced such luminaries as Tolstoy, M. L. King. Paradoxically, the main part of the Hussite movement rejected his teachings of nonviolence which led to much violence among the Hussite movement in the end. Chelcicky's teachings laid the foundation of the Unity of the Brethren. Petr Chelčický is thought to have been born in southern Bohemia in about 1390, although one theory puts his birth as early as 1374. Little is known about his personal history. Different historians have called him a serf, an independent farmer, a squire, a nobleman, a cobbler, a priest, a Waldensian. On one occasion, Chelčický called himself a peasant, but this description is at odds with his ability to live in Prague from 1419–1421, his rudimentary knowledge of Latin, the time he was able to devote to literary and religious pursuits.
It is certain that he was unusually literate for a medieval man without a regular academic education. After 1421 he farmed in the village of Chelčice, near Vodňany, he produced 56 known works, but the majority remain unpublished and inaccessible except in the original manuscripts. His thinking was influenced by Thomas of Štítný, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, the Waldensian tradition, he died around 1460. Petr Chelčický's teachings included ideas adopted by the Moravians, Anabaptists and Baptists, he was the first pacifist writer of the Renaissance, predating Erasmus and Menno Simons by nearly 100 years. Chelčický called the Pope and the emperor "whales who have torn the net of true faith", because they established the church as the head of a secular empire. Chelčický believed that Christians should follow the law of love, in so doing should not be compelled by state authority, he taught that the believer should not accept government office, nor appeal to its authority, as for the true believer to take part in government was sinful.
He argued that other forms of violent punishment were wrong. His positions on government are similar to the Christian anarchist principles of Leo Tolstoy. Tolstoy praised Chelčický's work in his 1894 book. "The man who obeys God needs no other authority." — Petr Chelčický As early as 1420 Chelčický taught that violence should not be used in religious matters. Chelčický used the parable of the wheat and the tares to show that both the sinners and the saints should be allowed to live together until the harvest, he thought that it is wrong to kill the sinful, that Christians should refuse military service. He argued. Chelčický taught that no physical power can destroy evil, that Christians should accept persecution without retaliating, he believed war was the worst evil, thought soldiers were no more than murderers. He opposed defensive war, he believed the example of Jesus and the Gospel was an example of peace. Chelčický was a communalist in the original Christian sense, thought that there must be complete equality in the Christian community.
He said there should be no poor, since the Christian relinquished all property and status. He maintained that Christians could expel evil persons from their community, but could not compel them to be good, he believed in equality, but that the State should not force it upon society, went so far as to proffer that social inequality is a creature of the State, rises and falls with it. According to Karl Kautsky in Communism in Central Europe in the Time of the Reformation, "The nature of the first organisation of the Bohemian Brethren is not at all clear, as the Brothers were ashamed of their communistic origin, endeavoured to conceal it in every possible way." Some of Chelčický's statements tend to indicate that he thought only the poor were genuine Christians. Chelčický criticized the use of force in matters of faith, he taught that the Christian should strive for righteousness of his own free will, that he must not force others to be good, that goodness should be voluntary. He believed that the Christian must love God and one's neighbor, that this is the way to convert people rather than by compulsion.
He maintained that any type of compulsion is evil, that Christians should not participate in political power struggles. O boji duchovním, written in 1421, was his first major work. In it, Chelčický argued that the Taborites had participated in violence through the devil's deceit and the lust for the things of the world, he criticized the chiliasts, opposed physical warfare, noted that obligations of debts gave lenders power over debtors. In O trojím lidu Chelčický criticized the nobility, the clergy, the middle class. In it he described how they subjected the common people and rode them "as if they were beasts", his most comprehensive work, written around 1443 and one of his last, was Sieť viery pravé. In it he showed how the apostles treated all people as equals, considered Christ as the only head, it was in this book that he argued that the emperor and the pope were the two great whales that burst the net of faith. In it he included extensive commentary on the Council of Basel. Chelčický has been called "the foremost thinker of
Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism. It is governed as an autonomous polity within the Greek Republic. Mount Athos is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Mount Athos is referred to in Greek as the "Holy Mountain" and the entity as the "Athonite State". Other languages of Orthodox tradition use names translating to "Holy Mountain", including Bulgarian and Serbian Света гора, Sveta gora. In the classical era, while the mountain was called Athos, the peninsula was known as Acté or Akté. Mount Athos has been inhabited since ancient times and is known for its nearly 1,800-year continuous Christian presence and its long historical monastic traditions, which date back to at least 800 A. D. and the Byzantine era. Today, over 2,000 monks from Greece and many other countries, including Eastern Orthodox countries such as Romania, Georgia, Bulgaria and Russia, live an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world.
The Athonite monasteries feature a rich collection of well-preserved artifacts, rare books, ancient documents, artworks of immense historical value, Mount Athos has been listed as a World Heritage site since 1988. Although Mount Athos is part of the European Union like the rest of Greece, the Monastic State of the Holy Mountain and the Athonite institutions have a special jurisdiction, reaffirmed during the admission of Greece to the European Community; this empowers the Monastic State's authorities to regulate the free movement of people and goods in its territory. The peninsula, the easternmost "leg" of the larger Chalkidiki peninsula in central Macedonia, protrudes 50 kilometres into the Aegean Sea at a width of between 7 and 12 kilometres and covers an area of 335.6 square kilometres. The actual Mount Athos has steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres; the surrounding seas at the end of the peninsula, can be dangerous. In ancient Greek history two fleet disasters in the area are recorded: In 492 BC Darius, the king of Persia, lost 300 ships under general Mardonius.
In 411 BC the Spartans lost a fleet of 50 ships under admiral Epicleas. Though land-linked, Mount Athos is accessible only by ferry; the Agios Panteleimon and Axion Estin travel daily between Ouranoupolis and Dafni, with stops at some monasteries on the western coast. There is a smaller speed boat, the Agia Anna, which travels the same route, but with no intermediate stops, it is possible to travel by ferry to and from Ierissos for direct access to monasteries along the eastern coast. The number of daily visitors to Mount Athos is restricted, all are required to obtain a special entrance permit valid for a limited period. Only men are permitted to visit the territory, called the "Garden of Virgin Mary" by the monks, with Orthodox Christians taking precedence in permit issuance procedures. Residents on the peninsula must be men aged 18 and over who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church and either monks or workers. Athos in Greek mythology is the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia.
Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which became Mount Athos. According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant. Homer mentions the mountain Athos in the Iliad. Herodotus writes that, during the Persian invasion of Thrace in 492 BC, the fleet of the Persian commander Mardonius was wrecked with losses of 300 ships and 20,000 men, by a strong North wind while attempting to round the coast near Mount Athos. Herodotus mentions the peninsula called Acte, telling us that Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos populated it and naming five cities thereon, Cleonae, Thyssos and Acrothoï. Strabo mentions the cities of Dion and Acrothoï. Eretria established colonies on Acte. At least one other city was established in the Classical period: Acanthus; some of these cities minted their own coins. The peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes I, who spent three years excavating the Xerxes Canal across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in 483 BC.
After the death of Alexander the Great, the architect Dinocrates proposed carving the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander. The history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the exact location of the cities reported by Strabo, it is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos' new inhabitants, the monks, started arriving some time before the ninth century AD. According to the Athonite tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was sailing accompanied by St John the Evangelist from Joppa to Cyprus to visit Lazarus; when the ship was blown off course to then-pagan Athos, it was forced to anchor near the port of Klement, close to the present monastery of Iviron. The Virgin walked ashore and, overwhelmed by the wonderful and wild natural beauty of the mountain, she blessed it and asked her Son for it to be her garden. A voice was heard saying "Ἔστω ὁ τόπος οὖτος κλῆρος σὸς καὶ περιβόλαιον σὸν καὶ παράδεισος, ἔτι δὲ καὶ λιμὴν σωτήριος τῶν θελόντων σωθῆναι"
John Amos Comenius
John Amos Comenius was a Czech philosopher and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia, considered the father of modern education. He served as the last bishop of the Unity of the Brethren before becoming a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept set forth in his book Didactica Magna; as an educator and theologian, he led schools and advised governments across Protestant Europe through the middle of the seventeenth century. Comenius introduced a number of educational concepts and innovations including pictorial textbooks written in native languages instead of Latin, teaching based in gradual development from simple to more comprehensive concepts, lifelong learning with a focus on logical thinking over dull memorization, equal opportunity for impoverished children, education for women, universal and practical instruction. Besides his native Bohemian Crown, he lived and worked in other regions of the Holy Roman Empire, other countries: Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, England, the Netherlands and Hungary.
John Amos Comenius was born in 1592 in the Margraviate of Moravia in the Bohemian Crown. His birthplace is uncertain and possibilities include Uherský Brod and Komňa, all of which are located in Uherské Hradiště District of today's Czech Republic. John was the youngest child and only son of Martin Komenský and his wife Anna Chmelová, his grandfather, whose name was Jan Szeges, was of Hungarian origin. He started to use the surname Komenský after leaving Komňa to live in Uherský Brod; the name Komenský translates to "the man from Komňa". Martin and Anna Komenský belonged to the Moravian Brethren, a pre-Reformation Protestant denomination, Comenius became one of its leaders, his parents and two of his four sisters died in 1604 and young John went to live with his aunt in Strážnice. Owing to his impoverished circumstances he was unable to begin his formal education until in life, he was 16. He continued his studies in the University of Heidelberg. In 1612 he read the Rosicrucian manifesto Fama Fraternitatis.
Comenius was influenced by the Irish Jesuit William Bathe as well as his teachers Johann Piscator, Heinrich Gutberleth, Heinrich Alsted. The Herborn school held the principle that every theory has to be functional in practical use, therefore it has to be didactic. In the course of his study he became acquainted with the educational reforms of Ratichius and with the report of these reforms issued by the universities of Jena and Giessen. In 1631, he produced the book Janua linguarum reserata. However, as the Unity of the Brethren became an important target of the Counter Reformation movement, he was forced into exile as his fame grew across Europe. Comenius became rector of a school in Přerov. In 1616 he was ordained into the ministry of the Moravian Brethren and four years became pastor and rector at Fulnek, one of its most flourishing churches. Throughout his life this pastoral activity was his most immediate concern. In consequence of the religious wars, he lost all his property and his writings in 1621.
Comenius took refuge in Leszno in Poland, where he led the gymnasium and, was given charge of the Bohemian and Moravian churches. In 1628 he corresponded with Johann Valentin Andreae. In 1638 Comenius responded to a request by the government of Sweden and traveled there to draw up a scheme for the management of the schools of that country, in 1641, he responded to a request by the English parliament and joined a commission there charged with the reform of the system of public education; the English Civil War interfered with the latter project, so in 1642 he returned to Sweden to work with Queen Christina and the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna on the task of reorganizing the Swedish schools. The same year he moved to Elbląg in Poland and in 1648 went to England with the aid of Samuel Hartlib, who came from Elbląg. In 1650 Zsuzsanna Lorántffy, widow of George I Rákóczi prince of Transylvania invited him to Sárospatak. Comenius remained there until 1654 as a professor at the first Hungarian Protestant College.
Comenius returned to Leszno. During the Deluge in 1655, he declared his support for the Protestant Swedish side, for which Polish Catholic partisans burned his house, his manuscripts, the school's printing press in 1656. From Leszno he took refuge in Amsterdam in the Netherlands, where he died in 1670. For unclear reasons he was buried in Naarden, where visitors can see his grave in the mausoleum, located in the Klooster straat, devoted to him. After his religious duties, Comenius's second great interest was in furthering the Baconian attempt at the organization of all human knowledge, he became one of the leaders in the encyclopædic or pansophic movement of the seventeenth century, and, in fact, was inclined to sacrifice his more practical educational interests and opportunities for these more imposing but somewhat visionary projects. In 1639, Comenius published his Pansophiæ Prodromus, in the following year his English friend Hartlib published, without his consent, the plan of the pansophic work as outline
Zbiroh is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. It lies some 30 km to the east-northeast from the region capital of Plzeň. Zbiroh is a Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority within the Rokycany Municipality with Extended Competence. Media related to Zbiroh at Wikimedia Commons
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau; the style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession. Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, graphic art, interior design, furniture, ceramics, glass art, metal work. By 1910, Art Nouveau was out of style, it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing that featured the new style. In France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style" due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the Arts and Crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the "Glasgow" style. In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was called Stile Liberty, Stile floreale, or Arte nuova. In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time. In Austria and the neighboring countries part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a similar style emerged, called Secessionsstil in German, or Wiener Jugendstil, after the artists of the Vienna Secession; the style was called Modern in Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. In Spain the related style was known as Modernismo, Arte joven.
Some names refer to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal in France. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris, in the Arts and Crafts movement founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House of Morris, the lavish Peacock Room by James Abbott McNeill Whistler; the new movement was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite painters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones, by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including Selwyn Image, Heywood Sumner, Walter Crane, Alfred Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley. In France, the style combined several different tendencies. In architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur l'architecture, he wrote, "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture.
For each function its material. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí; the French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, in other media. Another important influence on the new style was Japonism: the wave of enthusiasm for Japanese woodblock printing the works of Hiroshige and Utagawa Kunisada which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s; the enterprising Siegfried Bing founded a monthly journal, Le Japon artistique in 1888, published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891.
It influenced both artists, including Gustav Klimt. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain and furniture. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and color lithographs, played an essential role in popularizing the new style; the Studio in England, Arts et
Charles Richard Crane
Charles Richard Crane was a wealthy American businessman, heir to a large industrial fortune and connoisseur of Arab culture, a noted Arabist. His widespread business interests gave him entree into domestic and international political affairs where he enjoyed privileged access to many influential power brokers at the top levels of government, his special arena of interest was the Middle East. He was the eldest son of Chicago manufacturer, Richard T. Crane. In the 1900s, he brought Thomas Masaryk, Maksim Kovalevsky and Pavel Milyukov to lecture at the University of Chicago. After meeting Masaryk, he became interested in Slavic nationalism and sponsored The Slav Epic paintings by Alphonse Mucha When Mucha designed the Czechoslovak bills, he used a previous portrait of Josephine Crane Bradley as Slavia for the 100 koruna bill. President William Howard Taft appointed Crane minister to China on July 16, 1909, but on the eve of his departure to his post on October 4, 1909, he was recalled to Washington and forced to resign under pressure by U.
S. Secretary of State Philander C. Knox, who held him responsible for the publication in a Chicago newspaper of the U. S. government's objections to two recent treaties between China. Crane contributed to Woodrow Wilson's 1912 election campaign. Wilson rewarded Crane with appointments to the 1917 Special Diplomatic Commission to Russia, known as the Root Commission, as a member of the American Section of the Paris Peace Conference, to the 1919 Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey that became known as the King-Crane Commission. While the commission was proposed by the U. S. to develop an international consensus on the future make up and status of post-World War I Middle East nations, the commission became a U. S.-only sponsored effort. With the appointment of Crane as co-head of the commission, it set about to issue a report to inform U. S. policy makers. In respect to the creation of a Jewish state in the Middle East, the report cautioned "Not only you as president but the American people as a whole should realize that if the American government decided to support the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, they are committing the American people to the use of force in that area, since only by force can a Jewish state in Palestine be established or maintained."
Crane opposed the establishment of a Jewish state in the Middle East. He was a passionate spokesman for the independence of the Arab states. Crane was appointed United States Ambassador to China by President Wilson and served from March 22, 1920, to July 2, 1921. In 1925 Crane founded the New York-based Institute of Current World Affairs; the institute employed field representatives in Mexico and Moscow. These representatives compiled regular reports on developments in their regions, shared their expertise during ICWA-sponsored lecture tours of major U. S. universities. The reports were made available to the U. S. State Department. In 1931, Crane helped finance the first explorations for oil in Saudi Yemen, he was instrumental in gaining the American oil concession there. He was a member of the famous Jekyll Island Club on Jekyll Island, Georgia; when Franklin Roosevelt appointed William E. Dodd American ambassador to Germany in 1933, Crane wrote Dodd a letter of congratulation that told him: The Jews, after winning the war, galloping along at a swift pace, getting Russia and Palestine, being caught in the act of trying to seize Germany and meeting their first real rebuff, have gone plumb crazy and are deluging the world—particularly easy America—with anti-German propaganda.
I advise you to resist every social invitation. According to Larson, at a dinner, Ambassador Dodd heard Crane express admiration for Hitler and learned that Crane had no objection to how the Nazis were treating Germany's Jews, telling Dodd: "Let Hitler have his way."In his biography of Crane, Norman E. Saul notes that he maintained relationships with prominent Jews such as Louis Brandeis and Lillian Wald and suggests that his “vague but open” anti-Semitism was not uncommon among Anglo-Saxons of his time. Saul notes that his admiration of Hitler left, in retrospect, the most damaging legacy to his reputation, he was predeceased in 1938 by Richard Teller Crane II, a diplomat. On April 24, 2006, Crane's art collection was sold at Christie's auction house. Norman E. Saul, The Life and Times of Charles R. Crane, 1858-1939: American Businessman, a Founder of Russian Studies in America. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2013. Charles R. Crane Institute of World Affairs Crane-Rogers Foundation King-Crane Commission Report Crane Family Papers 1875-1980