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The Smashing Pumpkins

The Smashing Pumpkins are an American alternative rock band from Chicago, Illinois. Formed in 1988 by frontman Billy Corgan, D'arcy Wretzky, James Iha, Jimmy Chamberlin, the band has undergone many line-up changes; the current lineup features Corgan, Chamberlin and guitarist Jeff Schroeder. Disavowing the punk rock roots of many of their alt-rock contemporaries, they have a diverse, densely layered, guitar-heavy sound, containing elements of gothic rock, heavy metal, dream pop, psychedelic rock, progressive rock and electronica in recordings. Corgan is the group's primary songwriter; the Smashing Pumpkins broke into the musical mainstream with their second album, 1993's Siamese Dream. The group built its audience with extensive touring and their 1995 follow-up, the double album Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart. With 30 million albums sold worldwide, the Smashing Pumpkins were one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed bands of the 1990s.

However, internal fighting, drug use, diminishing record sales led to a 2000 break-up. In 2006, Corgan and Chamberlin reconvened to record Zeitgeist. After touring throughout 2007 and 2008 with a lineup including new guitarist Jeff Schroeder, Chamberlin left the band in early 2009; that year, Corgan began a new recording series with a rotating lineup of musicians entitled Teargarden by Kaleidyscope, which encompassed the release of stand-alone singles, compilation EP releases, two full albums that fell under the project's scope—Oceania in 2012 and Monuments to an Elegy in 2014. Chamberlin and Iha rejoined the band in February 2018; the reunited lineup released the album Shiny and Oh So Bright, Vol. 1 / LP: No Past. No Future. No Sun. in November 2018. After the breakup of his gothic rock band the Marked and guitarist Billy Corgan left St. Petersburg, Florida, to return to his native city of Chicago, where he took a job in a record store and formed the idea of a new band to be called the Smashing Pumpkins.

While working there, he met guitarist James Iha. Adorning themselves with paisley and other psychedelic trappings, the two began writing songs together that were influenced by the Cure and New Order; the duo performed live for the first time on July 9, 1988 at the Polish bar Chicago 21. This performance included only Corgan on Iha on guitar with a drum machine. Shortly thereafter, Corgan met D'arcy Wretzky after a show by the Dan Reed Network where they argued the merits of the band. After finding out Wretzky played bass guitar, Corgan recruited her into the lineup, the trio played a show at the Avalon Nightclub. After this show, Cabaret Metro owner Joe Shanahan agreed to book the band on the condition that they replace the drum machine with a live drummer. Jazz drummer Jimmy Chamberlin was recommended by a friend of Corgan's. Chamberlin knew little of alternative music and changed the sound of the nascent band; as Corgan recalled of the period, "We were into the sad-rock, Cure kind of thing. It took about two or three practices before I realized that the power in his playing was something that enabled us to rock harder than we could have imagined."

On October 5, 1988, the complete band took the stage for the first time at the Cabaret Metro. In 1989, the Smashing Pumpkins made their first appearance on record with the compilation album Light Into Dark, which featured several Chicago alternative bands; the group released its first single, "I Am One", in 1990 on local Chicago label Limited Potential. The single sold out and they released a follow-up, "Tristessa", on Sub Pop, after which they signed to Caroline Records; the band recorded their 1991 debut studio album Gish with producer Butch Vig at his Smart Studios in Madison, Wisconsin for $20,000. In order to gain the consistency he desired, Corgan played all instruments excluding drums, which created tension in the band; the music fused heavy metal guitars and dream pop, garnering them comparisons to Jane's Addiction. Gish became a minor success, with the single "Rhinoceros" receiving some airplay on modern rock radio. After releasing the Lull EP in October 1991 on Caroline Records, the band formally signed with Virgin Records, affiliated with Caroline.

The band supported the album with a tour that included opening for bands such as the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Jane's Addiction, Guns N' Roses. During the tour and Wretzky went through a messy breakup, Chamberlin became addicted to narcotics and alcohol, Corgan entered a deep depression, writing some songs for the upcoming album in the parking garage where he lived at the time. With the breakthrough of alternative rock into the American mainstream due to the popularity of grunge bands such as Nirvana and Pearl Jam, the Smashing Pumpkins were poised for major commercial success. At this time, the Smashing Pumpkins were lumped in with the grunge movement, with Corgan protesting, "We've graduated now from'the next Jane's Addiction' to'the next Nirvana', now we're'the next Pearl Jam'."Amid this environment of intense internal pressure for the band to break through to widespread popularity, the band relocated to Marietta, Georgia in late 1992 to begin work on their second album, with Butch Vig returning as producer.

The decision to record so far away from their hometown was motivated by the band's desire to avoid friends and distractions during the recording, but as a desperate attempt to

Monkton Combe

Monkton Combe is a village and civil parish in north Somerset, England, 3 miles south of Bath. The parish, which includes the hamlet of Tucking Mill, had a population of 554 in 2013, it has been called Monckton Combe and Combe Monckton/Monkton. Monkton Combe was part of the Anglo-Saxon era hundred of Bath Forum. According to Rev. John Collinson in his History of Somerset, the village's original name was Combe, with the Monkton element being attached as an adjective to differentiate it from neighbouring Combe Down and Combe Grove; the village was owned by the monks of Bath Abbey, hence Monkton Combe. It was on the route of the Somerset Coal Canal. Monkton Combe railway station featured in the 1953 film The Titfield Thunderbolt, one of the Ealing comedies; the film's plot centred on efforts by villagers to preserve their local railway line. It was on the short-lived branch line of the Bristol and North Somerset Railway which went from Limpley Stoke to Camerton and had closed to passenger traffic in 1925, though the line was used for freight traffic from the Somerset coalfield until 1952.

The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, such as the village car park and playgrounds, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are of interest to the council; the Village Hall and Village Green are the responsibility of the Village Hall Committee and not of the Parish Council. The parish falls within the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset, created in 1996, as established by the Local Government Act 1992, it provides a single tier of local government with responsibility for all local government functions within its area including local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection, cemeteries, leisure services and tourism.

It is responsible for education, social services, main roads, public transport, Trading Standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, although fire and ambulance services are provided jointly with other authorities through the Avon Fire and Rescue Service and Somerset Constabulary and the Great Western Ambulance Service. Bath and North East Somerset's area covers part of the ceremonial county of Somerset but it is administered independently of the non-metropolitan county, its administrative headquarters is in Bath. Between 1 April 1974, 1 April 1996, it was the Wansdyke district and the City of Bath of the county of Avon. Before 1974 that the parish was part of the Bathavon Rural District; the parish falls within the'Bathavon South' electoral ward. The ward starts in the north east at Monkton Combe and stretches south west through Wellow to Shoscombe; the total population of this ward at the 2011 census was 3,052. The parish is represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom as part of the North East Somerset constituency.

It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. The parish church of St Michael, thought to have been Norman, was razed in the early 19th century and rebuilt in 1814; the 1814 church was soon found to be too small, was rebuilt in 1865 at the initiative of the first Vicar of Monkton Combe, the Revd. Francis Pocock, it was designed by ecclesiastical architect C. E. Giles of London, the builder was Mr. S. G. Mitchell, it was extended within just a few years to accommodate the growing number of pupils from nearby Monkton Combe School, founded by Revd. Pocock in 1868; the church is a Grade II listed building. The churchyard contains the grave of Harry Patch, the last surviving British soldier who served in the First World War, a handful of Commonwealth War Graves; the village has one public house, the Wheelwrights Arms, built as a private house in the mid-late 18th century. There are two mills, neither of, in working order; the Old Mill was built in the early-mid 19th century.

A village lock-up was built in the 18th century circa 1776. This is now an Ancient monument. A significant proportion of properties in the village are now owned and occupied by Monkton Combe School, an independent Christian boarding and day school in the English public school tradition, founded in 1868 by the first Vicar of Monkton Combe, Revd. Francis Pocock. Village website Monkton Combe School

Gunai language

The Gunai language is an Australian aboriginal dialect cluster of the Gunai people in Gippsland in south-east Victoria. Bidhawal was either a divergent dialect or a related language. Gunai means'man'; the language had no traditional name. In a 1996 report to the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages, Clark refers to five Gunai dialects: Brabralung, Brataualung and Tatungalung. Brabralung located in central Gippsland. Braiakalung located around Sale through to the mountains. Brataualung located in South Gippsland. Krauatungalung located eastwards to the Snowy River. Tatungalung located in the coast area between Lake Wellington. Gunai dialects have been confused with Muk-thang/Bidhawal. Like other Victorian languages, Gunai allowed initial ⟨l⟩ in its words. However, it allowed initial ⟨rr⟩, well as the clusters ⟨gr⟩ and ⟨br⟩; this is quite unusual for an Australian language, the same pattern was found in the Tasmanian languages across Bass Strait. Since the early 1990s, the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages organisation, established the Yirruk-Tinnor Gunnai/Kŭrnai language program which focused on reviving and reclaiming the Gunnai language of Gippsland.

Doris Paton, Coordinator of the Program and Lynnette Solomon-Dent, Language worker and consultant are involved in the program. They have been responsible for developing a number of resource materials to support and educate further knowledge of the Gunnai language and Culture. Lynnette Solomon-Dent co-wrote with Christina Eira the VACL Linguist, the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority Aboriginal Languages and reclamation in Victorian schools: standards P-10 and protocols and were involved in the VCE Revival and Reclamation Study; these teaching documents and resources are collectively used to educate school aged children P-10, VCE, higher learning institutions and the Aboriginal community members, to further their knowledge and allow community members to continue to educate future generations. A number of placenames in Gunai country feature the ending -munjie, meaning "place". Dixon, R. M. W.. Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47378-0.

Mathews, R. H.. "Language of the Birdhawal tribe, in Gippsland, Victoria". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 346–359. Gardner, P. D.. "The language of the Kurnai tribes of Gippsland: with notes on grammar and pronunciation". Pronunciation: 9–10. Fesl, Eve. "Ganai: a study of the Aboriginal languages of Gippsland based on 19th century materials". Chapter 8: 80–92. Butcher, Andrew. "Linguistic aspects of Australian Aboriginal English". Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 22: 625–642. Doi:10.1080/02699200802223535. "Welcome to VACL". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011


Servius Sulpicius Galba was Roman emperor from 68 to 69, the first emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors. He was known as Lucius Livius Galba Ocella prior to taking the throne as a result of his adoption by his stepmother, Livia Ocellina; the governor of Hispania at the time of the rebellion of Gaius Julius Vindex in Gaul, he seized the throne following Nero's suicide. Born into a wealthy family, Galba held at various times the offices of praetor and governor of the provinces Aquitania, Upper Germany, Africa during the first half of the first century AD, he retired during the latter part of Claudius' reign but Nero granted him the governorship of Hispania. Taking advantage of the defeat of Vindex's rebellion and Nero's suicide, he became emperor with the support of the Praetorian Guard, his physical weakness and general apathy led to him being dominated by favorites. Unable to gain popularity with the people or maintain the support of the Praetorian Guard, Galba was murdered by Otho, who became emperor.

Galba was not related to any of the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, but he was a member of a distinguished noble family. The origin of the cognomen Galba is uncertain. Suetonius offers a number of possible explanations. One of Galba's ancestors had been consul in 200 BC, another of his ancestors was consul in 144 BC. Galba's grandfather was a historian and his son was a barrister whose first marriage was to Mummia Achaica, granddaughter of Quintus Lutatius Catulus and great-granddaughter of Lucius Mummius Achaicus. According to Suetonius, he fabricated a genealogy of paternal descent from the god Jupiter and maternal descent from the legendary Pasiphaë, wife of Minos. Galba was distantly related to Livia to whom he had much respect and in turn by whom he was advanced in his career. Servius Sulpicius Galba was born near Terracina on 24 December 3 BC, his elder brother Gaius fled from Rome and committed suicide because the emperor Tiberius would not allow him to control a Roman province.

Livia Ocellina became the second wife of Galba's father, whom she may have married because of his wealth. Ocellina adopted Galba, he took the name Lucius Livius Galba Ocella. Galba had a sexual appetite for males, he married a woman named Aemilia Lepida and had two sons. Aemilia and their sons died during the early years of the reign of Claudius. Galba would remain a widower for the rest of his life. Galba became praetor in about 30 governor of Aquitania for about a year consul in 33. In 39 the emperor Caligula learned of a plot against himself in which Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, the general of the Upper German legions, was an important figure. According to one report Galba ran alongside Caligula's chariot for twenty miles; as commander of the legions of Upper Germany, Galba gained a reputation as a disciplinarian. Suetonius writes that Galba was advised to take the throne following the assassination of Caligula in 41, but loyally served Caligula's uncle and successor Claudius. Galba was appointed as governor of Africa in 44 or 45.

He retired at an uncertain time during the reign of Claudius in 49. He was recalled in 60 by the emperor Nero to govern Hispania. A rebellion against Nero was orchestrated by Gaius Julius Vindex in Gaul on the anniversary of the death of Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, in 68. Shortly afterwards Galba, in rebellion against Nero, rejected the title "General of Caesar" in favor of "General of the Senate and People of Rome", he was supported by the imperial official Tigellinus. On 8 June 68 another imperial official, Nymphidius Sabinus, falsely announced to the Praetorian Guard that Nero had fled to Egypt, the Senate proclaimed Galba emperor. Nero committed assisted suicide with help from his secretary. Upon becoming emperor Galba was faced by the rebellion of Nymphidius, who had his own aspirations for the imperial throne. However, he was killed by the Praetorians. While Galba was arriving to Rome with the Lusitanian governor Marcus Salvius Otho, his army was attacked by a legion, organized by Nero.

Galba, who suffered from chronic gout by the time he came to the throne, was advised by a corrupt group which included the Spanish general Titus Vinius, the praetorian prefect Cornelius Laco, Icelus, a freedman of Galba. Galba seized the property of Roman citizens, disbanded the German legions, did not pay the Praetorians and the soldiers who fought against Vindex; these actions caused him to become unpopular. On 1 January 69, the day Galba and Vinius took the office of consul, the fourth and twenty-second legions of Upper Germany refused to swear loyalty to Galba, they toppled his statues. On the following day, the soldiers of Lower Germany refused to swear their loyalty and proclaimed the governor of

Keith Blount

Vice Admiral Keith Edward Blount, is a senior Royal Navy officer and pilot. From 2015 to 2019, he was head of the Fleet Air Arm, he serves as Commander Allied Maritime Command, NATO. Blount was born on 22 June 1966 in England, he was educated at a state secondary school in Plymouth. He attended King's College London to study for a Master of Arts degree in defence studies, which he completed in 2004. Blount joined the Royal Navy in 1984, qualified as a helicopter pilot in 1986. Following training, he served with 810, 771, 705 and 820 Naval Air Squadrons, his commands have included HMS Ocean, the Iraqi Maritime Task Group, the United Kingdom's Maritime Component in Bahrain. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 Queen's Birthday Honours. From May 2015 until February 2019, Blount served as Assistant Chief of Naval Staff and Rear Admiral Fleet Air Arm. Blount was elected a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society in 2016, appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 2018 New Year Honours.

In February 2019 it was announced. Blount became commander effective 20 May 2019, was promoted to vice admiral. While a commodore, Blount was awarded the Legion of Merit in the degree of officer by the President of the United States "in recognition of meritorious and distinguished services during coalition operations in the field"

Jane Muus

Mary Jane Crafoord Muus was a Danish painter and illustrator. Most of her works portray people, either in portraits or walking about on streets or market places in foreign countries, she is remembered above all for her sensitive, realistic illustrations in a wide range of Danish books. One of Denmark's foremost 20th-century illustrators, she had a unique style of her own. Born in Odder in central Jutland, she studied both painting and graphic arts at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts under Aksel Jørgensen, she travelled to France, Italy, North Africa and North America. Working in a predominantly Realist style, she made woodcuts, illustrating the works of Charles Dickens or Herman Bang's Ved Vejen. In 1949, while in Paris, she illustrated an anthology of Jules Romains' works, she became a member of the Corner artists association in 1965. As a graphic artist, Muus preferred woodcuts but used lithography and etching for her illustrations. Jane Muus exhibited her woodcuts both in Denmark and in Czechoslovakia, Lugano and Rostock.

Her works can be seen in the national institutions of Norway and France as well as in London's Victoria and Albert Museum and New York's Museum of Modern Art. In 1968, Muus was awarded the Eckersberg Medal and, in 1984, the Thorvaldsen Medal. Illustrated list of Jane Muus' works in Danish museums Selection of Jane Muus' works from Clausens Kunsthandel