People's Action Party
The People's Action Party is a major centre-right political party in Singapore. It was founded in 1954 as a pro-independence political party descended from an earlier student organization, it has gone on to dominate the political system of the nation. Since the 1959 general elections, the PAP has dominated Singapore's politics and has been credited as being central to the city-state's rapid political and economic development. In the 2015 Singapore general election, the most recent election held in 2015, the PAP won 83 of the 89 constituency elected seats in the Parliament of Singapore, with 69.86% of total votes cast. Lee Kuan Yew, Toh Chin Chye and Goh Keng Swee were involved in the Malayan Forum, a London-based student activist group, against colonial rule in Malaya in the 1940s and early 1950s. Upon returning to Singapore, the group met to discuss approaches to attain independence in Malayan territories, started looking for like-minded individuals to start a political party. Journalist S. Rajaratnam was introduced to Lee by Goh.
Lee was introduced to several English-educated left-wing students and Chinese-educated union and student leaders while working on the Fajar sedition trial and the National Service riot case. The PAP was registered as a political party on 21 November 1954. Convenors of the party include a group of trade unionists and journalists such as Lee Kuan Yew, Abdul Samad Ismail, Toh Chin Chye, Goh Keng Swee, Devan Nair, S. Rajaratnam, Chan Chiaw Thor, Fong Swee Suan, Tann Wee Keng and Tann Wee Tiong; the political party was led by Lee Kuan Yew as its secretary-general, with Toh Chin Chye as its founding chairman. Other party officers include Lee Gek Seng, Ong Eng Guan and Tann Wee Keng; the PAP first contested the 1955 elections, in which 25 of 32 seats in the legislature were up for election. In this election, the PAP's four candidates gained much support from the trade union members and student groups such as the University Socialist Club, who canvassed for them; the party won three seats, one by its leader Lee Kuan Yew for the Tanjong Pagar division, one by co-founder of the PAP, Lim Chin Siong, for the Bukit Timah division.
22 years old, unionist Lim Chin Siong was and remained the youngest Assemblyman to be elected to office. The election was won by Labour Front, headed by David Marshall. In April 1956, Lim and Lee represented the PAP at the London Constitutional Talks along with Chief Minister Marshall, which ended in failure: the British declined to grant Singapore internal self-government. On 7 June 1956, David Marshall, disappointed with the constitutional talks, stepped down as Chief Minister, as he had pledged to do so earlier if self-governance was not achieved, he was replaced by another Labour Front member Lim Yew Hock. Lim pursued a anti-communist campaign and managed to convince the British to make a definite plan for self-government; the Constitution of Singapore was revised accordingly in 1958, replacing the Rendel Constitution with one that granted Singapore self-government and the ability for its own population to elect its Legislative Assembly. PAP, left-wing members who were communists, were criticised for inciting riots in the mid-1950s.
Lim Chin Siong, Fong Swee Suan and Devan Nair, as well as several unionists, were detained by the police after the Chinese middle schools riots. Following this, the PAP decided to re-assert ties with the labour faction of Singapore in the hope of securing the votes of working-class Chinese Singaporeans, many of whom were supporters of the jailed unionists. Lee Kuan Yew convinced the incarcerated union leaders to sign documents to state their support for the party and its policies, promising to release the jailed members of the PAP when the party came to power in the next elections. Ex-Barisan Sosialis member Tan Jing Quee claims that Lee was secretly in collusion with the British to stop Lim Chin Siong and the labour supporters from attaining power because of their huge popularity. Quee states that Lim Yew Hock deliberately provoked the students into rioting and had the labour leaders arrested. "Lee Kuan Yew was secretly a party with Lim Yew Hock" – adds Dr Greg Poulgrain of Griffiths University "in urging the Colonial Secretary to impose the subversives ban in making it illegal for former political detainees to stand for election".
Lee Kuan Yew accused Lim Chin Siong and his supporters of being communists working for the Communist United Front, but evidence of Lim being a communist cadre was a matter of debate as many documents have yet to be declassified. The PAP won the 1959 election under Lee Kuan Yew's leadership; the 1959 election was the first election to produce a elected parliament and a cabinet wielding powers of full internal self-government. The party has suspiciously won a majority of seats in every general election since then. Lee, who became the first prime minister, requested for the release of the PAP left-wing members to form the new cabinet. In 1961, disagreements on the proposed merger plan with Malaysia and long-standing internal party power struggle led to the split of the left-wing group from the PAP; the breakaway group of members formed the Barisan Sosialis with Lim Chin Siong as Secretary-General. Aside from the Chinese union leaders, lawyers Thampoe Thamby Rajah and Tann Wee Tiong, as well as several members from the University Socialist Club such as James Puthucheary and Poh Soo Kai joined the party.
After gaining independence from Britain, Singapore joined the federation of Malaysia in 1963. Although the PAP was the ruling party in the state of Singapore, the PAP functioned as an opposition party at the federal level in the larger Malaysian political landscape. At that time
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades. Lee is recognised as the nation's founding father, with the country described as transitioning from the "third world to first world in a single generation" under his leadership. After attending the London School of Economics, Lee graduated from Fitzwilliam College, with double starred-first-class honours in law. In 1950, he became a barrister of the Middle Temple and practised law until 1959. Lee co-founded the People's Action Party in 1954 and was its first secretary-general until 1992, leading the party to eight consecutive victories. After Lee chose to step down as Prime Minister in 1990, he served as Senior Minister under his successor, Goh Chok Tong until 2004 as Minister Mentor until 2011, under his son Lee Hsien Loong. In total, Lee held successive ministerial positions for 56 years, he continued to serve his Tanjong Pagar constituency for nearly 60 years as a member of parliament until his death in 2015.
From 1991, he helmed the 5-member Tanjong Pagar GRC, remained unopposed for a record five elections. Lee campaigned for Britain to relinquish its colonial rule, attained through a national referendum to merge with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963, but racial strife and ideological differences led to its separation to become a sovereign city-state two years later. With overwhelming parliamentary control at every election, Lee oversaw Singapore's transformation from a British crown colony with a natural deep harbour to a developed economy. In the process, he forged a system of meritocratic effective and incorrupt government and civil service. Many of his policies are now taught at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Lee eschewed populist policies in favour of long-term economic planning, he championed meritocracy and multiracialism as governing principles, making English the common language to integrate its immigrant society and to facilitate trade with the West, whilst mandating bilingualism in schools to preserve students' mother tongue and ethnic identity.
His rule was criticised for curtailing civil liberties and bringing libel suits against political opponents. He argued that such disciplinary measures were necessary for political stability which, together with rule of law, were essential for economic progress, famously saying:Anybody who decides to take me on needs to put on knuckle-dusters. If you think you can hurt me more than I can hurt you, try. There is no other way. On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew died of pneumonia, at 91. In a week of national mourning, 1.7 million residents and guests paid tribute to him at his lying-in-state at Parliament House and at community tribute sites around the island. Lee was a fourth-generation Singaporean of ethnic Chinese ancestry of Hakka and Peranakan descent, his Hakka great-grandfather, Lee Bok Boon, born in 1846, emigrated from Dabu County, China, to Singapore in 1863. He married a shopkeeper's daughter, Seow Huan Nio, but returned to China in 1882, leaving behind his wife and three children, he died just two years after his return.
Lee Kuan Yew's grandfather Lee Hoon Leong, was born in Singapore in 1871. He was educated in English at Raffles Institution, graduated with the top mark among Malay and other Singaporean students in the school. Lee Hoon Leong worked as a dispenser, an unqualified pharmacist, as a purser on a steamship of the Heap Eng Moh Shipping Line owned by a Chinese Indonesian businessman, Oei Tiong Ham. While working as a purser, Lee Hoon Leong, aged 26, married 16-year-old Ko Liem Nio, an Indonesian Peranakan, in Semarang, Dutch East Indies, it was an arranged marriage, as was the custom. Both families were middle-class, the bride and groom were both English-educated. Lee Hoon Leong's maternal grandfather owned the Katong market, a few rubber estates and houses at Orchard Road. Lee Hoon Leong became managing director of the Heap Eng Moh Steamship Company Ltd. Lee Hoon Leong had two wives, common at that time, fathered five daughters and three sons, his son Lee Chin Koon was educated in English too. He married Chua Jim Neo, a Peranakan, who gave birth to Lee Kuan Yew, their first child, in 1923, in Singapore.
Lee Kuan Yew had three younger brothers: Dennis Lee Kim Yew, Freddy Lee Thiam Yew and Dr Lee Suan Yew. Like Lee Kuan Yew, his brother Dennis read law at the University of Cambridge, they set up a law firm, Lee & Lee. Edmund W. Barker, Lee's close friend joined the law firm. Lee and Barker left the law firm to enter politics. Lee's brother Freddy became a stockbroker. Lee Kuan Yew's grandfathers' wealth declined during the Great Depression. However, his father had a secure job as a shopkeeper at Shell, where he was promoted to depot manager and provided with a chauffeured car and house, his aunt, Lee Choo Neo, was the first female doctor to practice in Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew once described his father as a man who affected his family negatively due to his nasty temper, Lee Kuan Yew learned from a young age to keep his temper in check. Lee's English-educated parents named him'Kuan Yew', which stands for'light and brightness', with an alternate meaning'bringing great glory to one's ancestors', his paternal grandfather gave him the
Cabinet of Singapore
The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government of Singapore together with the President of Singapore. It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore, the head of government; the Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore. The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice. Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from engaging in any commercial enterprise; the Cabinet directs and controls the Government and is collectively responsible to Parliament. It has significant influence over lawmaking. Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to be in charge of particular ministries, or as Ministers in the Prime Minister's Office. Singapore's ministers are the best paid in the world. Prior to a salary review in 2011, the Prime Minister's annual salary was S$3.07 million, while the pay of ministerial-grade officers ranged between S$1.58 million and S$2.37 million.
On 21 May 2011, a committee was appointed by the Prime Minister to review the salaries of the Prime Minister as well as the President, political appointment holders, Members of Parliament. Following the recommended wage reductions by the committee which were debated and subsequently accepted in Parliament, the Prime Minister's salary was reduced by 36% to S$2.2 million. Nonetheless, the Prime Minister remains the highest-paid political leader in the world; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements. It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959.
The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most to command the authority of the Assembly, other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore; the executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965. Following the 2011 general election, a Cabinet reshuffle took place effective 21 May 2011. Lim Hng Kiang and Lim Swee Say retained their Trade and Industry and Prime Minister's Office portfolios, while other ministers were given new appointments to the remaining 11 ministries. Heng Swee Keat and Chan Chun Sing, both elected to Parliament for the first time, were assigned the posts of Minister for Education, Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports.
A Cabinet Reshuffle took place in May 2018 with the stated purpose was to better prepare for a leadership transition to the "4G" leaders, Minister for Trade and Industry Lim Hng Kiang, Minister for Manpower Lim Swee Say, Minister for Communications and Information Yaacob Ibrahim all retired and were succeeded by Chan Chun Sing, Josephine Teo, S. Iswaran all of whom had held other cabinet appointments. Up to the outbreak of World War II, Singapore was part of the Crown colony known as the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was arguably the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, though its function was different from that of today's Cabinet. The Council, composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, existed to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would prejudice the public service.
In such urgent cases, the Governor had to inform the Council of the measures. Following the Second World War, the Straits Settlements were disbanded and Singapore became a Crown colony in its own right; the reconstituted Executive Council consisted of six officials and four nominated "unofficials". In February 1954, the Rendel Constitutional Commission under the chairmanship of Sir George William Rendel, appointed to comprehensively review the constitution of the Colony of Singapore, rendered its report. Among other things, it recommended that a Council of Ministers be created, composed of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House, who would be the leader of the largest political party or coalition of parties having majority support in the legislature; the recommendation was implemented in 1955. In the general election held that year, the Labour Front took a majority of the seats in the Assembly, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore.
Major problems with the Rendel Constitution were that the Chief Minister and Ministers' powers were il
Battle of Singapore
The Battle of Singapore known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East". Singapore was the major British military base in South-East Asia and was the key to British imperial interwar defence planning for South-East Asia and the South-West Pacific; the fighting in Singapore lasted from 8 to 15 February 1942, after the two months during which Japanese forces had advanced down the Malayan Peninsula. The campaign, including the final battle, was a decisive Japanese victory, resulting in the Japanese capture of Singapore and the largest British surrender in history. About 80,000 British and Australian troops in Singapore became prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken by the Japanese in the earlier Malayan Campaign; the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, called it the "worst disaster" in British military history. During 1940 and 1941, the Allies had imposed a trade embargo on Japan in response to its continued campaigns in China and its occupation of French Indochina.
The basic plan for taking Singapore was worked out in July 1940. Intelligence gained in late 1940 – early 1941 did not alter the basic plan, but confirmed it in the minds of Japanese decision makers. On 11 November 1940, the German raider Atlantis captured the British steamer Automedon in the Indian Ocean, carrying papers meant for Air Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, the British commander in the Far East, which included much information about the weakness of the Singapore base. In December 1940, the Germans handed over copies of the papers to the Japanese; the Japanese had broken the British Army's codes and in January 1941, the Second Department of the Imperial Army had interpreted and read a message from Singapore to London complaining in much detail about the weak state of "Fortress Singapore", a message, so frank in its admission of weakness that the Japanese at first suspected it was a British plant, believing that no officer would be so open in admitting weaknesses to his superiors, only believed it was genuine after cross-checking the message with the Automedon papers.
As Japan's oil reserves were depleted by the ongoing military operations in China as well as industrial consumption, in the latter half of 1941, the Japanese began preparing a military response to secure vital resources if diplomatic efforts to resolve the situation failed. As a part of this process, the Japanese planners determined a broad scheme of manoeuvre that incorporated simultaneous attacks on the territories of Britain, The Netherlands and the United States; this would see landings in Malaya and Hong Kong as part of a general move south to secure Singapore, connected to Malaya by the Johor–Singapore Causeway, an invasion of the oil-rich area of Borneo and Java in the Dutch East Indies. In addition, strikes would be made against the United States naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, as well as landings in the Philippines, attacks on Guam, Wake Island and the Gilbert Islands. Following these attacks, a period of consolidation was planned, after which the Japanese planners intended to build up the defences of the territory, captured by establishing a strong perimeter around it stretching from the India–Burma frontier through to Wake Island, traversing Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea and New Britain, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.
This perimeter would be used to block Allied attempts to regain the lost territory and defeat their will to fight. The Japanese 25th Army invaded from Indochina, moving into northern Malaya and Thailand by amphibious assault on 8 December 1941; this was simultaneous with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which precipitated the United States entry into the war. Thailand resisted, but soon had to yield; the Japanese proceeded overland across the Thai–Malayan border to attack Malaya. At this time, the Japanese began bombing strategic sites in Singapore; the Japanese 25th Army was resisted in northern Malaya by III Corps of the British Indian Army. Although the 25th Army was outnumbered by Allied forces in Malaya and Singapore, the Allies did not take the initiative with their forces, while Japanese commanders concentrated their forces; the Japanese were superior in close air support, armour, co-ordination and experience. While conventional British military thinking was that the Japanese forces were inferior, characterised the Malayan jungles as "impassable", the Japanese were able to use it to their advantage to outflank hastily established defensive lines.
Prior to the Battle of Singapore the most resistance was met at the Battle of Muar, which involved the Australian 8th Division and the Indian 45th Brigade, as the British troops left in the city of Singapore were garrison troops. At the start of the campaign, the Allied forces had only 164 first-line aircraft on hand in Malaya and Singapore, the only fighter type was the obsolete Brewster 339E Buffalo; these aircraft were operated by two Royal Australian Air Force, two Royal Air Force, one Royal New Zealand Air Force squadron. Major shortcomings included a slow rate of climb and the aircraft's fuel system which required the pilot to hand pump fuel if flying above 6,000 feet. In contrast, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force was more numerous and better trained than the second-hand assortment of untrained pilots and inferior allied equipment remaining in Malaya and Singapore, their fighter aircraft were superior to the Allied fighters, which helped the Japanese to gain air supremacy. Although outnumbered and outclassed, the Buffalos were able to provide some resistance
Internal Security Act (Singapore)
The Internal Security Act of Singapore is a statute that grants the executive power to enforce preventive detention, prevent subversion, suppress organized violence against persons and property, do other things incidental to the internal security of Singapore. The present Act was enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia as the Internal Security Act 1960, extended to Singapore on 16 September 1963 when Singapore was a state of the Federation of Malaysia. Before a person can be detained under the ISA by the Minister for Home Affairs, the President must be satisfied that such detention is necessary for the purposes of national security or public order. In the landmark case of Chng Suan Tze v. Minister for Home Affairs, the Court of Appeal sought to impose legal limits on the power of preventive detention by requiring the Government to adduce objective facts which justified the President's satisfaction. Two months after the decision, a series of legislative and constitutional amendments was enacted that reversed the Chng Suan Tze decision.
These amendments were subsequently confirmed to be valid by the High Court and Court of Appeal in Teo Soh Lung v. Minister for Home Affairs, which held it is sufficient for the President to be subjectively satisfied that a detainee is a threat to national security in order for a detention order to be issued under the ISA. Notable ISA cases include Operation Coldstore in 1963 which led to the arrest of some 100 left-wing politicians and trade unionists, including members of the socialist opposition party, the Barisan Sosialis. Chia Thye Poh, an alleged Communist, was detained and subject to other restrictions on his liberty under the ISA from 1966 to 1998; the Chng Suan Tze and Teo Soh Lung cases resulted from a 1987 security operation called Operation Spectrum in which 22 Roman Catholic church and social activists and professionals accused of being members of a Marxist conspiracy were detained under the ISA. The ISA empowers the authorities to prohibit political and quasi-military organizations, ban subversive documents and publications, shut down entertainments and exhibitions that are or are to be detrimental to the national interest, to suppress organized violence by declaring parts of Singapore to be security areas.
British colonial Malaya introduced the Emergency Regulations Ordinance 1948 on 7 July 1948 during the Malayan Emergency in response to a Communist uprising and guerrilla war. The regulations allowed the police to arrest anybody suspected of having acted or being to act in a way that would threaten security without evidence or a warrant, hold them incommunicado for investigation, detain them indefinitely without the detainee being charged with a crime or tried in a court of law; the successor to the Emergency Regulations Ordinance, the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance 1955, was introduced a result of the 1955 Hock Lee bus riots by the Labour Party government in Singapore. There was strong opposition to the PPSO by the party in opposition, the People's Action Party. In 1958, Lee Kuan Yew of the PAP accused the Lim Yew Hock government of using the PPSO to stifle political dissent. In 1960, three years after Malaya's independence, the Emergency was declared over. However, the Malayan Internal Security Act 1960 was passed in place of the PPSO with much of the same powers.
During parliamentary debates on the Act, Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman stated that the ISA would only be applied against only the remaining Communist insurgents. The Malayan Communist Party and its insurgents surrendered in 1989. Nonetheless, the ISA was retained in Malaysia; the drafter of the Malayan ISA was Hugh Hickling, a British lawyer and professor. In 1989, he commented that he "could not imagine that the time would come when the power of detention and deliberately interlocked with Article 149 of the Constitution, would be used against political opponents, welfare workers and others dedicated to nonviolent, peaceful activities". Nonetheless, he commented that he supported review of the ISA but it was not for him to say if the law should be scrapped, as "you've got a multi-racial society in which emotions can run high quickly"; when Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya in 1963, the Malayan ISA was extended to Singapore. The Act was retained in Singapore after its separation from Malaysia in 1965.
The current version of the Act is known as Chapter 143 of the 1985 Revised Edition. In September 2011, the debate over whether the ISA should be retained was re-opened after Malaysia announced that it was considering repealing the ISA. Prime Minister Najib Razak stated that the Act would be abolished and replaced by new laws to safeguard peace and order; the legitimacy and relevance of the ISA were subsequently debated by former ISA detainees, the Singapore Government, others. Member of Parliament for Pasir Ris–Punggol Group Representation Constituency, Dr. Janil Puthucheary, commented in Parliament on 18 August 2011 that "while he felt it inappropriate to detain a citizen without trial, he is convinced by the hard logic that the safety and security of Singapore must be paramount". However, he agreed that there needed to be more safeguards to prevent abuse of the ISA and that "the ISA needs to be discussed in a more transparent manner as the facts associated with a given detainee need to be kept secret".
The following day, 19 October 2011, Deputy Prime Minister, Coordinating Minister for National Security and Minister for Home Affairs Teo Chee Hean explained the relevance of the ISA and its powers of preventive detention. He noted that in the 1960s preventive detention was used to counter the subversive Communist threat pose
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a ministry of the Government of Singapore responsible for conducting and managing diplomatic relations between Singapore and other countries and regions. It is headed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the office held by Dr Vivian Balakrishnan. Established in 1965, the Ministry now has 50 overseas missions including 7 High Commissions, 21 Embassies, 4 Permanent Missions to the United Nations, 17 consulates. Singapore has appointed 31 Honorary Consuls-General/Consuls abroad and has 46 non-resident Ambassadors and High Commissioners based in Singapore; the MFA provides consular assistance to Singaporeans travelling and studying overseas. The MFA is divided into 11 Directorates which deal with political and economic matters, 7 Directorates which oversee matters relating to protocol, consular issues and the Singapore Cooperation Programme among others; the Corporate Affairs Directorate oversees organisational and resource management while the Human Resource Directorate and Diplomatic Academy manage the development of personnel and training.
Singapore maintains diplomatic relations with 188 countries. In Singapore, there are 70 resident foreign Embassies and High Commissions, 43 foreign Consulates, 11 International Organisations based in Singapore. In addition, more than 60 non-resident foreign Ambassadors are accredited to Singapore. Minister for Foreign Affairs Foreign relations of Singapore List of diplomatic missions of Singapore Official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs