Motion Picture Production Code
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines, applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America from 1922 to 1945. Under Hays' leadership, the MPPDA known as the Motion Picture Association of America, adopted the Production Code in 1930, began rigidly enforcing it in mid-1934; the Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. From 1934 to 1954, the code was identified with Joseph Breen, the administrator appointed by Hays to enforce the code in Hollywood; the film industry followed the guidelines set by the code well into the late 1950s, but during this time, the code began to weaken due to the combined impact of television, influence from foreign films, controversial directors pushing boundaries, intervention from the courts, including the Supreme Court.
In 1968, after several years of minimal enforcement, the Production Code was replaced by the MPAA film rating system. In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood's image. Hollywood in the 1920s was badgered by a number of widespread scandals, such as the murder of William Desmond Taylor and alleged rape of Virginia Rappe by popular movie star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, which brought widespread condemnation from religious and political organizations. Many felt. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Faced with the prospect of having to comply with hundreds, thousands, of inconsistent and changed decency laws in order to show their movies, the studios chose self-regulation as the preferable option. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities".
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula", which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916—little had come of the efforts. New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court's decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, but many of these were ineffectual.
By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas. Moviemakers were looking at the possibility that many states and cities would adopt their own codes of censorship, requiring a multiplicity of versions of movies made for national distribution. Self-censorship seemed a preferable outcome. In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Sol Wurtzel of Fox, E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls", based on items that were challenged by local censor boards; this list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, Hays created the Studio Relations Committee to oversee its implementation.
The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929. The Code enumerated a number of key points known as the "Don'ts" and "Be Carefuls": Resolved, That those things which are included in the following list shall not appear in pictures produced by the members of this Association, irrespective of the manner in which they are treated: Pointed profanity – by either title or lip – this includes the words "God", "Lord", "Jesus", "Christ", "hell", "damn", "Gawd", every other profane and vulgar expression however it may be spelled.
Larry Gates was an American actor. His notable roles include H. B. Lewis on daytime's Guiding Light and Doc Baugh in the film version of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, he played the role of Lewis from 1983 to 1996 and won the Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Supporting Actor at the 1985 awards. Gates is remembered for his role in the film version of In the Heat of the Night, where his character is part of a crucial scene involving his slapping Sidney Poitier's face, gets slapped in return. Gates was born in Minnesota; as a chemical engineering student at the University of Minnesota, he acted in student plays. Some of his early acting experience came at the Barter Theatre in Virginia. Gates had a long career in film and theater, he appeared in the Broadway productions of First Monday in October, The Highest Tree, The Carefree Tree, The Taming of the Shrew, The Teahouse of the August Moon Bell and Candle and A Case of Libel. Gates played Polonius opposite Sam Waterston in a New York revival of Hamlet, he starred in the 1976 Broadway play Poor Murderer, about an actor who questions whether or not he, playing Hamlet killed the actor playing Polonius, or if it was just a dream.
His films included Has Anybody Seen My Gal?, Francis Covers the Big Town, The Girl Rush, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, The Strange One, The Brothers Rico, Some Came Running, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Remarkable Mr. Pennypacker, One Foot in Hell, Underworld U. S. A; the Young Savages, Toys in the Attic, Cattle King, The Sand Pebbles, In the Heat of the Night, Hour of the Gun, Death of a Gunfighter, Lucky Luciano, Funny Lady. On television, Gates had numerous roles on such anthology drama series as Philco Television Playhouse, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Twilight Zone, Goodyear Television Playhouse, Kraft Television Theatre, Studio One, Playhouse 90, he continued to make dozens of guest appearances in a wide variety of primetime series, including Bonanza, Route 66, The Defenders and Twelve O'Clock High. He played the role of Secretary of State Dean Rusk in the 1974 teleplay The Missiles of October, played President Herbert Hoover in the 1979 miniseries Backstairs at the White House. In 1964, Gates was nominated for a Tony Award in the category Actor, Supporting or Featured, for his work in A Case of Libel.
Gates died of leukemia in 1996. He was survived by a sister. Larry Gates on IMDb Larry Gates at the Internet Broadway Database Larry Gates at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Black and white
Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. The history of various visual media has begun with black and white, as technology improved, altered to color. However, there are exceptions to this rule, including black-and-white fine art photography and in motion pictures, many art films. Most early forms of motion pictures or film were white; some color film processes, including hand coloring were experimented with, in limited use, from the earliest days of motion pictures. The switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the 1930s to the 1960s; when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and cumbersome. For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films and cartoons until the 1950s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock.
For the years 1940–1966, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. The earliest television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white, received and displayed by black-and-white only television sets. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color television transmission on July 3, 1928 using a mechanical process; some color broadcasts in the U. S. began in the 1950s, with color becoming common in western industrialized nations during the late 1960s. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954. Color television became more widespread in the U. S. between 1963 and 1967, when major networks like CBS and ABC joined NBC in broadcasting full color schedules. Some TV stations in the US were still broadcasting in B&W until the late 80s to early 90s, depending on network.
Canada began airing color television in 1966 while the United Kingdom began to use an different color system from July 1967 known as PAL. The Republic of Ireland followed in 1970. Australia experimented with color television in 1967 but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until 1975, New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in 1973 but didn't convert until 1975. In China, black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the 1990s, color TVs not outselling them until about 1989. In 1969, Japanese electronics manufacturers standardized the first format for industrial/non-broadcast videotape recorders called EIAJ-1, which offered only black-and-white video recording and playback. While used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white. Throughout the 19th century, most photography was monochrome photography: images were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Personal and commercial photographs might be hand tinted. Colour photography was rare and expensive and again containing inaccurate hues.
Color photography became more common from the mid-20th century. However, black-and-white photography has continued to be a popular medium for art photography, as shown in the picture by the well-known photographer Ansel Adams; this can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results. For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until 2009. Certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Printing is an ancient art, color printing has been possible in some ways from the time colored inks were produced. In the modern era, for financial and other practical reasons, black-and-white printing has been common through the 20th century. However, with the technology of the 21st century, home color printers, which can produce color photographs, are common and inexpensive, a technology unimaginable in the mid-20th century.
Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early 1980s. Some claim. In the UK, color was only introduced from the mid-1980s. Today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is less expensive than color. Daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips.:Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or black-and-white until the end of the 2000s when it became all-color. Manga are published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image. Many school yearbooks are still or in black-and-white; the Wizard of Oz is in color when Dorothy is in Oz, but in black-and-white when she is in Kansas, although the latter scenes were in sepia when the film was released. The British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white, earthly events in color.
Wim Wenders's film Wings of Desire uses sepia-tone black-and-white f
Peter Mark Richman
Peter Mark Richman is an American actor who has starred in films and on television, for many years credited as Mark Richman. He appeared over 130 television series since the 1950s. Born Marvin Jack Richman in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Jewish parents, he is the son of Yetta Dora and Benjamin Richman, a painting and paper-hanger contractor, he has been married to actress Helen Richman since 1953, they have five children together, including composer and Grammy Award-winning conductor Lucas Richman. Making his feature film debut in William Wyler's 1956 film Friendly Persuasion, Richman was, by that time a employed television actor, as well as a member of New York's Actors Studio, a resource of which he would avail himself until moving to Los Angeles in 1961, he is best known for his role as Nicholas "Nick" Cain in the 1961 films The Murder Men and The Crimebusters. He reprised his role as Nicholas Cain in the NBC television series Cain's Hundred. Richman's other TV roles were on the soap opera Santa Barbara as Channing Creighton'C.
C.' Capwell, Longstreet as Duke Paige, on the ABC soap opera Dynasty as Andrew Laird, a recurring role on Three's Company as Chrissy's father, Rev. Luther Snow. Guest star on Beverly Hills, 90210, his other films include Friday the 13th Part VIII: Jason Takes Manhattan and Vic. His television credits include Hawaii Five O, The Fall Guy, The DuPont Show with June Allyson, Stoney Burke, Breaking Point, The Fugitive, The Outer Limits, Blue Light, The Invaders, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Wild Wild West, Daniel Boone, The Silent Force, Get Christie Love!, The Bionic Woman, Knight Rider, Three's Company and Matlock. He was seen on Mission: Impossible and Combat!, as well as other shows of that era. He appeared as Ralph Offenhouse in Star Trek: The Next Generation's first season episode "The Neutral Zone". Richman starred in the penultimate filmed episode of The Twilight Zone, called "The Fear", he voiced The Phantom in the animated series Defenders of the Earth. His most recent film credits are Mysteria and After the Wizard, both released in 2011.
Richman sits on the Board of Trustees of the Motion Television Fund. Official website Peter Mark Richman on IMDb Peter Mark Richman at the Internet Broadway Database Peter Mark Richman at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Mark Richman at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection Peter Mark Richman Interview http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2018/06/01/threes-company-actor-peter-mark-richman-reveals-what-it-was-like-working-with-suzanne-somers-sophia-loren.html
George Peppard Jr. was an American film and television actor. Peppard secured a major role when he starred alongside Audrey Hepburn in Breakfast at Tiffany's, portrayed a character based on Howard Hughes in The Carpetbaggers. On television, he played the title role of millionaire insurance investigator and sleuth Thomas Banacek in the early-1970s mystery series Banacek, he played Col. John "Hannibal" Smith, the cigar-smoking leader of a renegade commando squad, in the hit 1980s action show The A-Team. George Peppard, Jr. was born October 1, 1928, in Detroit, the son of building contractor George Peppard, Sr. and opera singer Vernelle Rohrer. He graduated from Dearborn High School in Dearborn, Michigan in 1946. Peppard enlisted in the United States Marine Corps July 8, 1946, rose to the rank of corporal, leaving the Corps at the end of his enlistment in January 1948. During 1948 and 1949, he studied civil engineering at Purdue University where he was a member of the Purdue Playmakers theatre troupe and Beta Theta Pi fraternity.
He transferred to Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1955. He trained at the Pittsburgh Playhouse. In addition to acting, Peppard was a pilot, he spent a portion of his 1966 honeymoon training to fly his Learjet in Kansas. Peppard made his stage debut in 1949 at the Pittsburgh Playhouse. After moving to New York City, Peppard enrolled in the Actors Studio, where he studied the Method with Lee Strasberg, he did a variety of jobs to pay his way during this time, such as working as a disc jockey, being a radio station engineer, teaching fencing, driving a taxi and being a mechanic in a motorcycle repair shop. He worked in summer stock in New England and appeared at the open air Oregon Shakespeare Festival in Ashland, Oregon, his first work on Broadway led to his first television appearance, with Paul Newman, in The United States Steel Hour, as the singing, guitar-playing baseball player Piney Woods in Bang the Drum Slowly. He made his film debut in The Strange One.
Peppard had signed to play a role on Broadway in The Pleasure of His Company when he auditioned for MGM's Home from the Hill. He ended up appearing in Pleasure of His Company for six months before making Home from the Hill. Part of the arrangement of the latter involved signing with MGM for a long term contract. Home from the Hill was a prestigious film directed by Vincente Minnelli and starring Robert Mitchum, who played Peppard's father, it was a success at the box office. Peppard's next film for MGM was an adaptation of the novel by Jack Kerouac, it flopped and Peppard said "I couldn't get arrested" afterwards. His good looks, elegant manner and superior acting skills landed Peppard his most famous film role as Paul Varjak in Breakfast at Tiffany's with Audrey Hepburn, based on a story by Truman Capote; this 1961 role boosted him to a major film star. That year a newspaper article dubbed him "the next big thing". Peppard was focused on being a film star, his contract with MGM was for two pictures a year, allowing for one outside film and six TV appearances a year, plus the right to star in a play every second year.
He was meant to appear in Unarmed in Paradise, not made. Instead MGM cast him in the lead of their epic western How the West Was Won in 1962, it was a massive hit. He followed this with a war story for Carl Foreman, The Victors in 1963 most notably, The Carpetbaggers, a 150-minute saga of a ruthless, Hughes-like aviation and film mogul based on a best-selling novel by Harold Robbins, it turned out to be one of the biggest box-office hits of 1964. "My performances bore me", said Peppard in a 1964 interview, adding that his ambition was to deliver "one great performance. And I must say I feel a little presumptuous to shoot for that, but that's the goal, like a hockey goal. I figure I've got a choice... not of the objective. And my objective is that one performance."For MGM he appeared in Operation Crossbow. He was meant to follow this with an adaptation of the play Merrily We Roll Along but it was never made. Peppard started choosing tough-guy roles in big, ambitious pictures where he was somewhat overshadowed by ensemble casts.
For this role, Peppard earned a private pilot's license and did much of his own stunt flying, although stunt pilot Derek Piggott was at the controls for the famous under-the-bridge scene. "I'm an actor not a star," he said around this time, adding that he looked for "three things" in a film, "a good director, a good part and a good script. If I get two out of three of those I'm satisfied." He was cast as the lead in Sands of the Kalahari but walked off the set after only a few days of filming. Film critic David Shipman writes of this stage in his career: "With his cool, blond baby-face looks and a touch of menace, of meanness, he had established a screen persona as strong as any of the time, he might have been the Alan Ladd or the Richard Widmark of the sixties: but the sixties didn't want a new Alan Ladd. Peppard began appearing in a series of action movies, predictably as a tough guy, but there were much tougher guys around — like Cagney and Robinson, whose films had now become television staples."
A string of Peppard films that followed made little or no impact, including Tobruk, P. J; the Executioner
Hazing, initiation ceremonies, ragging, or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, team, or club. Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups, including gangs, sports teams, military units, fraternities and sororities; the initiation rites can range from benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct. Hazing is prohibited by law or prohibited by institutions such as colleges and universities because it may include either physical or psychological abuse, it may include nudity or sexual assault. In some languages, terms with a religious theme or etymology are preferred, such as baptism or purgatory or variations on a theme of naïveté and the rite of passage such as a derivation from a term for freshman, for example bizutage in French French, ontgroening in Netherlandic Dutch and Afrikaans, novatada in Spanish, from novato, meaning newcomer or rookie or a combination of both, such as in the Finnish mopokaste.
In Latvian, the word iesvētības, which means "in-blessings", is used standing for religious rites of passage confirmation. In Swedish, the term used is nollning "zeroing". In Portugal, the term praxe, which means "practice" or "habit", is used for initiation. In Brazil, it is called trote and is practiced at universities by older students against newcomers in the first week of their first semester. In the Italian military, the term used was nonnismo, from nonno, a jargon term used for the soldiers who had served for most of their draft period. A similar equivalent term exists in the Russian military, where a hazing phenomenon known as дедовщи́на dedovshchina exists, meaning "grandfather" or the slang term "gramps". At education establishments in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, this practice involves existing students baiting new students and is called ragging. In Polish schools, hazing is known as kocenie, it features cat-related activities, like competitive milk drinking. Other popular tasks include measuring a long distance with matches.
Most or all of the endurance or the more serious ordeal is concentrated in a single session, which may be called hell night, or prolonged to a hell week, sometimes again at the pledge's birthday, but some traditions keep terrorizing pledges over a long period, resembling fagging. In Israel, the practice is called זובור zubur and exists in Israeli Defense Force combat units and the Israel Air Force. Unlike hazing in many other places, zubur is used to mark the achievement of important milestones, such as after a pilot's first solo flight. Hazing activities can involve forms of ridicule and humiliation within the group or in public, while other hazing incidents are akin to pranks. A snipe hunt is such a prank, when a credulous person is given an impossible task. Examples of snipe hunts include being sent to find a "dough repair kit" in a bakery, while in the early 1900s rookies in the Canadian military were ordered to obtain a "brass magnet" when brass is not magnetic. Spanking is done in the form of paddling among fraternities and similar clubs, sometimes over a lap, a knee, furniture or a pillow, but with the victim "assuming the position", i.e. bending over forward.
A variation of this is trading licks. This practice is used in the military. Alternative modes have been reported; the hazee may be humiliated by sprinkler or buckets. Olive or baby oil may be used to "show off" the bare skin, for wrestling or just slipperiness, e.g. to complicate pole climbing. Cleaning may be limited to a dive into water, hosing down or paddling the worst off, they may have to do tedious cleaning including swabbing the decks or cleaning the toilets with a toothbrush. In fraternities, pledges must clean up a mess intentionally made by brothers which can include fecal matter and dead animals. Servitude such as waiting on others or various other forms of housework with tests of obedience. In some cases, the hazee may be made to eat raw eggs, hot sauce, or drink too much alcohol; some hazing includes eating or drinking vile things such as bugs or rotting food. The hazee may have to wear an imposed piece of clothing, item or something else worn by the victim in a way that would bring negative attention to the wearer.
Examples include a uniform. Markings