John Peter Berger was an English art critic, novelist and poet. His novel G. won the 1972 Booker Prize, his essay on art criticism, Ways of Seeing, written as an accompaniment to a BBC series, is used as a university text. He lived in France for more than half a century. Berger was born on 5 November 1926 in Stoke Newington, the first of two children of Miriam and Stanley Berger, his grandfather was from Trieste, his father, raised as a non-observant Jew who converted to Catholicism, had been an infantry officer on the Western Front during the First World War and was awarded the Military Cross and an OBE. Berger was educated at Oxford, he served in the British Army from 1944 to 1946. He enrolled in the Central School of Art in London. Berger began his career as a painter and exhibited works at a number of London galleries in the late 1940s, his art has been shown at the Wildenstein and Leicester Galleries in London. Berger taught drawing at St Mary's teacher training college, he became an art critic, publishing many essays and reviews in the New Statesman.
His Marxist humanism and his stated opinions on modern art combined to make him a controversial figure early in his career. As a statement of political commitment, he titled an early collection of essays Permanent Red. Berger was never a formal member of the Communist Party of Great Britain: rather he was a close associate of it and its front, the Artists’ International Association, until the latter disappeared in 1953, he was active in the Geneva Club, a discussion group that appears to have overlapped with British communist circles in the 1950s. In 1958, Berger published his first novel, A Painter of Our Time, which tells the story of the disappearance of Janos Lavin, a fictional exiled Hungarian painter, his diary's discovery by an art critic friend called John; the work was withdrawn by the publisher under pressure from the Congress for Cultural Freedom a month after its publication. His next novels were Corker's Freedom. Berger moved to Quincy in France in 1962 due to his distaste for life in Britain.
In 1972, the BBC broadcast his television series Ways of Seeing and published its companion text, an introduction to the study of images. The work was derived in part from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". Berger's novel G. a picaresque romance set in Europe in 1898, won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Booker Prize in 1972. Berger donated half the Booker cash prize to the Black Panther Party in Britain, retained half to support his work on the study on migrant workers that became A Seventh Man, asserting that both endeavors represented aspects of his political struggle. Berger's sociological writings include A Fortunate Man: The Story of a Country Doctor and A Seventh Man: Migrant Workers in Europe. Berger and photographer Jean Mohr, his frequent collaborator, sought to document and understand the experiences of peasants, their subsequent book, Another Way of Telling and illustrates their documentary technique and treats the theory of photography through Berger's essays and Mohr's photographs.
His studies of individual artists include The Success and Failure of Picasso, a survey of that modernist's career, Art and Revolution: Ernst Neizvestny and the Role of the Artist in the USSR. In the 1970s, Berger collaborated on three films with the Swiss director Alain Tanner: He wrote or co-wrote La Salamandre, The Middle of the World, Jonah who will be 25 in the year 2000, his major fictional work of the 1980s, the trilogy Into Their Labours, treats the European peasant experience from its farming roots to contemporary economic and political displacement and urban poverty. In 1974, Berger co-founded the Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative Ltd in London with Arnold Wesker, Lisa Appignanesi, Richard Appignanesi, Chris Searle, Glenn Thompson, Siân Williams, others; the cooperative was active until the early 1980s. In essays, Berger wrote about photography, art and memory, he published in The Shape of a Pocket a correspondence with Subcomandante Marcos, penned short stories that appeared in The Threepenny Review and The New Yorker.
His sole volume of poetry is Pages of the Wound, though other volumes, such as the theoretical essay And Our Faces, My Heart, Brief as Photos contain poetry. His novels include To the Wedding, a love story dealing with the AIDS crisis, King: A Street Story, a novel about homelessness and shantytown life told from the perspective of a stray dog. Berger insisted that his name be kept off the cover and title page of King, wanting the novel to be received on its own merits. Berger's 1980 volume About Looking includes an influential chapter, "Why Look at Animals?" It is cited by numerous scholars in the interdisciplinary field of animal studies. The chapter was reproduced in a Penguin Great Ideas selection of essays of the same title. Berger's novel From A to X was long-listed for the 2008 Booker Prize. Among his last works is Confabulations. In 1999, Berger voiced both twin brother characters Archie and Albert Crisp in the video game Grand Theft Auto: London 1969, he was a member of the Sup
Strong on Oaks, Strong on the Causes of Oaks
Strong on Oaks, Strong on the Causes of Oaks is a 1998 album by the English Sinfonia conducted by Bramwell Tovey. The work, by Michael Nyman, is paired with The Protecting Veil by John Tavener featuring Josephine Knight on the cello; the photography and liner notes indicate that Nyman was directly involved in the album, the premiere recording of the work, while Tavener, whose piece, eleven years old at the time of the recording, has been recorded more than once, is represented by a headshot and stock commentary from Richard Steinetz. Strong on Oaks, Strong on the Causes of Oaks, written in 1997, was commissioned from Nyman by the English Sinfonia; the work he gave. 4, which in turn was based on Yamamoto Perpetuo. The title is derived from the name of the town of Stevenage, where the Sinfonia moved in 1997; the Anglo-Saxon name of the town, "Sithenaece" means "Strong on Oaks." Nyman took a cue from Tony Blair's campaign slogan, "Tough on Crime, Tough on the Causes of Crime." He dedicated the work to Simon Jeffes, founder of the Penguin Café Orchestra, a friend and colleague.
Jeffes died on December 11, 1997. Nyman was orchestrating the final page when he learned of his death, in honor of him, styled 4-note pizzicato chords in the style of Jeffes's ukulele work; the Protecting Veil is a work composed by John Tavener in 1987 and premiered in 1989, based on his conversion from the Anglican Church to the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is scored for strings with a solo cello, but unlike in a concerto, the cello part is an "endless arch" in the style of music from Byzantium rather than being virtuosic. First movement 3'50" Second movement 3'30" Third movement 3'02" Fourth movement 3'05" Fifth movement 2'47" The Protecting Veil 9'35" The Nativity of the Mother of God 6'26" The Annunciation 3'33" The Incarnation 4'32" The Lament of the Mother of God at the Cross 11'41" The Resurrection 3'05" The Dormition 8'18" The Protecting Veil 3'39" Josephine Knight, cello English Sinfonia Bramwell Tovey, conductor Producer: Matthew Dilley Engineer: Dick Lewzey 20 bit digital recording and post production by Sound Recording Technology, Cambridge Photography: Neil Applegate John Tavener photograph: Catherine Manners Josephine Knight photograph: Clive Barda Liner Notes: English Sinfonia, Michael Nyman, Richard Steinitz
The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists of the soprillo, soprano, tenor, bass, contrabass saxophone and tubax. Soprano saxophones are the smallest saxophone in common use. A transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F♯ key have a range from B♭3 to F♯6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone; some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and G at the top of the range. These extra keys are found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the altissimo register, which allows them to play higher. There is a soprano pitched in C, less common and until had not been made since around 1940; the soprano saxophone can be compared to the B♭ clarinet, although the clarinet can play an augmented fourth lower and over a fifth higher.
Due to the wide bore of the soprano, it is less forgiving with respect to intonation than the lower saxophones, though an experienced player will use alternate fingerings or vary breath support, tongue position or embouchure to compensate. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation. Due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it. In addition to straight sopranos, there are slightly and curved sopranos; the curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some players believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer, less nasal tone; the soprano has all the keys of other saxophone models and some may have a top'G' key next to the F♯ key. Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required. In 2001, François Louis created the aulochrome, a woodwind instrument made of two joined soprano saxophones, which can be played either in unison or in harmony.
The soprano saxophone is used as a solo and chamber instrument in classical music, though it is used in a concert band or orchestra. It plays a lead role. Many solo pieces have been written for it by composers such as Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alan Hovhaness, Jennifer Higdon, Takashi Yoshimatsu, Charles Koechlin, John Mackey; as an orchestral instrument, it has been used in several compositions. It was used by Richard Strauss in his Sinfonia Domestica, where included in the music are parts for four saxophones, including a soprano saxophone in C, it is used in Maurice Ravel's "Bolero" and has a featured solo directly following the tenor saxophone's solo. Vincent d'Indy includes a soprano in his opera Fervaal. Notable classical soprano saxophonists include Carina Rascher, Christine Rall, Eugene Rousseau, Kenneth Tse, Jean-Yves Fourmeau, Jean-Denis Michat, Vincent David, John Harle, Mariano Garcia, Claude Delangle, Arno Bornkamp and Christopher Creviston. While not as popular as the alto and tenor saxes in jazz, the soprano saxophone has played a role in its evolution.
Greats of the jazz soprano sax include 1930s virtuoso Sidney Bechet, 1950s innovator Steve Lacy, beginning with his landmark 1960 album My Favorite Things, John Coltrane. Other well known jazz players include: Wayne Shorter, Paul McCandless, Johnny Hodges, Walter Parazaider, Bob Berg, Joe Farrell, Lucky Thompson, Sonny Fortune, Anthony Braxton, Sam Rivers, Gary Bartz, Dan Forshaw, Bennie Maupin, Branford Marsalis, Kirk Whalum, Jan Garbarek, Danny Markovitch of Marbin, Paul Winter, Dave Liebman, Evan Parker, Sam Newsome, Kenny G and Charlie Mariano. Other notable soprano saxophonists include Joshua Redman, Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, Grover Washington Jr. Ronnie Laws, Nigerian Afrobeat multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti. List of saxophonists
The Actors is a 2003 film written and directed by Conor McPherson and starring Dylan Moran and Michael Caine. In supporting roles are Michael Gambon, Miranda Richardson and Lena Headey; the Actors is a contemporary comedy set in Dublin. It follows the exploits of two mediocre stage actors as they devise a plan to con a retired gangster out of £50,000; the gangster owes the money to a third party. The actors take advantage of this fact by impersonating this'unidentified' third party, claiming the debt as their own. To pull it off they enlist Moran's eerily intelligent nine-year-old niece, who restructures the plan each time something goes wrong; the two protagonists are acting in a version of Shakespeare's Richard III in which everyone dresses in Nazi uniform, a sly nod to Ian McKellen's production. The film is centred on the Olympia Theatre, it is noteworthy for featuring the famous glass awning over the entrance which has since been destroyed in a traffic accident; the glass awning has since been rebuilt to its full former glory.
Empire magazine gives the film 2/5, describing it as "Based on an idea by Neil Jordan, The Actors had the potential to be gut-achingly funny. But instead it ends up raising a few paltry smiles." Act One - The Michael Nyman Band and Moss Hall Junior Choir Star Of The Sea - Laura Cullinan, Bebhinn Ni Chiosain, Cliona Ni Chiosain & Niamh H Reynolds Zinc Bar Walk - The Michael Nyman Band A Certain Party - The Michael Nyman Band House On Fire - The Michael Nyman Band Act Two - The Michael Nyman Band Could This Be Love? - Lena Headey & Dylan Moran Mary Directs Tom - The Michael Nyman Band Una's Waltz - Una Ni Chiosain/Conor McPherson Rope Trick - The Michael Nyman Band Dolores On The Beach - The Michael Nyman Band Return To The Scene Of The Crime - The Michael Nyman Band Seems So Long - Cathy Davey Wheelchair Chase - The Michael Nyman Band Tubbetstown Elegy - The Michael Nyman Band Lovely Morning - Cathy Davey Mrs O'Growny Appears - The Michael Nyman Band Zinc Piano - The Michael Nyman Band Final Act - The Michael Nyman Band The Actors on IMDb The Actors at Rotten Tomatoes
The viola is a string instrument, bowed or played with varying techniques. It is larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound. Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin and the cello; the strings from low to high are tuned to C3, G3, D4, A4. In the past, the viola varied in style, as did its names; the word viola originates from Italian. The Italians used the term: "viola da braccio" meaning literally:'of the arm'. "Brazzo" was another Italian word for the viola. The French had their own names: cinquiesme was a small viola, haute contre was a large viola, taile was a tenor. Today, the French use the term alto, a reference to its range; the viola was popular in the heyday of five-part harmony, up until the eighteenth century, taking three lines of the harmony and playing the melody line. Music for the viola differs from most other instruments in that it uses the alto clef; when viola music has substantial sections in a higher register, it switches to the treble clef to make it easier to read.
The viola plays the "inner voices" in string quartets and symphonic writing, it is more than the first violin to play accompaniment parts. The viola plays a major, soloistic role in orchestral music. Examples include the symphonic poem Don Quixote by Richard Strauss and the symphony Harold en Italie by Hector Berlioz. In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis and William Primrose. English composers Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, Frank Bridge, Benjamin Britten and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote substantial chamber and concert works. Many of these pieces were written for Lionel Tertis. William Walton, Bohuslav Martinů, Toru Takemitsu, Tibor Serly, Alfred Schnittke, Béla Bartók have written well-known viola concertos. Paul Hindemith, a violist, wrote a substantial amount of music for viola, including the concerto Der Schwanendreher; the concerti by Paul Hindemith, Béla Bartók, William Walton are considered the "big three" of viola repertoire.
The viola is similar in construction to the violin. A full-size viola's body is between 25 mm and 100 mm longer than the body of a full-size violin, with an average length of 41 cm. Small violas made for children start at 30 cm, equivalent to a half-size violin. For a child who needs a smaller size, a fractional-sized violin is strung with the strings of a viola. Unlike the violin, the viola does not have a standard full size; the body of a viola would need to measure about 51 cm long to match the acoustics of a violin, making it impractical to play in the same manner as the violin. For centuries, viola makers have experimented with the size and shape of the viola adjusting proportions or shape to make a lighter instrument with shorter string lengths, but with a large enough sound box to retain the viola sound. Prior to the eighteenth century, violas had no uniform size. Large violas were designed to play the lower register viola lines or second viola in five part harmony depending on instrumentation.
A smaller viola, nearer the size of the violin, was called an alto viola. It was more suited to higher register writing, as in the viola 1 parts, as their sound was richer in the upper register, its size was not as conducive to a full tone in the lower register. Several experiments have intended to increase the size of the viola to improve its sound. Hermann Ritter's viola alta, which measured about 48 cm, was intended for use in Wagner's operas; the Tertis model viola, which has wider bouts and deeper ribs to promote a better tone, is another "nonstandard" shape that allows the player to use a larger instrument. Many experiments with the acoustics of a viola increasing the size of the body, have resulted in a much deeper tone, making it resemble the tone of a cello. Since many composers wrote for a traditional-sized viola in orchestral music, changes in the tone of a viola can have unintended consequences upon the balance in ensembles. One of the most notable makers of violas of the twentieth century was Englishman A. E. Smith, whose violas are sought after and valued.
Many of his violas remain in Australia, his country of residence, where during some decades the violists of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra had a dozen of them in their section. More recent innovations have addressed the ergonomic problems associated with playing the viola by making it shorter and lighter, while finding ways to keep the traditional sound; these include the Otto Erdesz "cutaway" viola, which has one shoulder cut out to make shifting easier. Other experiments that deal with the "ergonomics vs. sound" problem have appeared. The American composer Harry Partch fitted a viola with a cello neck to allow the use of his 43-tone scale. Luthiers have created five-stringed violas, which allow a greater playing range. A person who plays the viola is called a violist or a viola
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
Types of trombone
There are many different types of trombone. The most encountered trombones today are the tenor and bass, though as with other Renaissance instruments such as the recorder, the trombone has been built in every size from piccolo to contrabass; the cimbasso is a brass instrument in the trombone family, with a sound ranging from warm and mellow to bright and menacing. It has three to six piston or rotary valves, a predominantly cylindrical bore, in its modern incarnation is most pitched in F, though models are available in E♭, C, B♭, it is in the same range as a contrabass trombone. Technique on the cimbasso can be much quicker; the modern cimbasso is most used in opera scores by Giuseppe Verdi from Oberto to Aida, by Giacomo Puccini, though only in Le Villi, though the word appears in the score of Vincenzo Bellini's Norma, which premiered in 1831. Outside of the operatic context, the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi included the instrument in his scoring of the symphonic poem Pines of Rome, the British composer Brian Ferneyhough has used it in his large orchestral work Plötzlichkeit.
It can be heard in motion picture soundtracks. The early use of "cimbasso" referred to an upright serpent of a narrower bore than the "basson russe" made of wood with a brass bell; this term was extended to a range of instruments including the ophicleide. In general, after the advent of the more conical bass tuba, the term cimbasso was used to refer to a more blending voice than the "basso tuba" or "bombardone", began to imply the lowest trombone. Giuseppe Verdi, who at times specified a preference for the blending timbre of a low trombone over the heavier-sounding tuba, developed an instrument with the firm Pelliti, a contrabass trombone in BB♭ wrapped in tuba form and configured with 4 rotary valves. In most of Verdi's operas the cimbasso used nowadays are the common types of the'bucino' form: designed in the 1950s by Hans Kunitz, the mouthpipe and middle section are placed in front of the player, the bell section is forward pointed, in a downward angle; this causes a direct, concentrated sound to be projected towards conductor and audience.
The cimbasso in its original form had a bell pointed upwards like the wider-bored tuba, the FF, EE♭ and BB♭ basses. Verdi disliked the wide-bore "damned Bombardoni Austriche!", not only because of the hoarse, broad tone, but because of the Austrian origin of those wide-bore'Bombardone-tubas'. This attitude was inspired by the hated Austrian occupation of northern Italy in the years before the Risorgimento; these instruments were, well appreciated in the military brass and reed bands, playing the bass role of the string basses. It is a challenge for instrument builders and players of low-brass, to get copies of the cimbassi Verdi used. To begin with the'Bas-valve' horns were derived from'Basson Russe' until the tuba formed'Trombone Basso' as used after 1867 until Otello/Falstaff. Another challenge is, following the initiative of John Eliot Gardiner, to accompany 19th century operas, including Verdi's juvenilia and early period pieces until his mid-life period, to perform with a'Period' orchestra.
This includes the most discussed instruments of that era used by Verdi, the cimbasso / low brass instruments, the 3-string contrabasses described by musicologist Bonifazio Asioli in about 1820s. The cimbasso in its original form as developed by Verdi and atelier Pelitti, included the diapason A4 on 430 Hz instead of the norm around 1848, 435 Hz; the contrabass trombone is pitched in 12′ F a perfect fourth lower than the modern tenor or bass trombone and has been through a number of changes in its history. Its first incarnation during the Renaissance was in 18′ B♭ as the "Octav-Posaune", while it was the Bass Trombone, pitched in F, E♭, or D. During this period the Contrabass Trombone was built with a long slide and extension handle to reach the lower positions; this horn was unsatisfactory with players, being unwieldy and taxing to play. During this period it was built as an oversized bass trombone with a long slide and extension handle to reach the lower positions; the innovation of the double slide took place in 1816, proposed by Gottfried Weber in which he described its construction.
In 1830 the first double-slide trombone was produced by Halary in Paris. The slide was wound back on itself to produce four tubes, each of which moved in tandem with its partner and halved the usual length of the slide shifts. During this time, the contrabass trombone enjoyed a revival and it was constructed according to the double slide principle; as with developments in the other members of the Trombone family at the time, the bores were enlarged and bell flares were widened to give a more broad, darker tone. The application of valves was first applied to the Tenor and Bass Trombones, with the older bass in F being replaced by a horn pitched in B♭ with F and D triggers. At the turn of the 20th century, Conn manufactured a small number of contrabass trombones, of which three are known to survive. Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen employed the contrabass trombone for the first time in the opera house, he had a horn with double slides built in 18’ B♭ in Berlin, by C. A. Moritz; this horn had only 6 positions, the low E1 called for in Der Ring des Nibelungen was only possible by lipping down.
This type of contrabass trombone has lasted into the 20th century, is complemented by a valve which changes the pitch of the horn to F1. The double-slide contrabass trombone has less resistanc