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The Supremes

The Supremes were an American female singing group and a premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s. Founded as The Primettes in Detroit, Michigan, in 1959, the Supremes were the most commercially successful of Motown's acts and are, to date, America's most successful vocal group with 12 number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100. Most of these hits were written and produced by Motown's main songwriting and production team, Holland–Dozier–Holland. At their peak in the mid-1960s, the Supremes rivaled the Beatles in worldwide popularity, it is said that their success made it possible for future African American R&B and soul musicians to find mainstream success. Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, Diana Ross, Betty McGlown, the original group, are all from the Brewster-Douglass public housing project in Detroit, they formed the Primettes as the sister act to the Primes. Barbara Martin replaced McGlown in 1960, the group signed with Motown the following year as The Supremes. Martin left the act in early 1962, Ross and Wilson carried on as a trio.

During the mid-1960s, the Supremes achieved mainstream success with Ross as lead singer and Holland-Dozier-Holland as its songwriting and production team. In 1967, Motown president Berry Gordy renamed the group Diana Ross & the Supremes, replaced Ballard with Cindy Birdsong. In 1970, Ross left to pursue a solo career and was replaced by Jean Terrell and the group reverted to being The Supremes again. During the mid-1970s, the lineup changed with Lynda Laurence, Scherrie Payne and Susaye Greene joining until, after 18 years, the group disbanded in 1977. In Detroit in 1958, Florence Ballard, a junior high school student living in the Brewster-Douglass Housing Projects, met Paul Williams and Eddie Kendricks, who were two members of a Detroit singing group known as the Primes. Ballard sang, as did Paul Williams' girlfriend Betty McGlown, so Milton Jenkins, the Primes's manager, decided to create a sister group to be called the Primettes. Ballard recruited her best friend Mary Wilson. Mentored and funded by Jenkins, the Primettes began by performing hit songs of artists such as Ray Charles and the Drifters at sock hops, social clubs and talent shows around the Detroit area.

Receiving additional guidance from group friend and established songwriter Jesse Greer, the quartet earned a local fan following. The girls crafted an age-appropriate style, inspired by the collegiate dress of popular doo-wop group Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers. Within a few months, guitarist Marvin Tarplin was added to the Primettes' lineup— a move that helped distinguish the group from Detroit's many other aspiring acts by allowing the girls to sing live instead of lip-synching. After winning a prestigious local talent contest, the Primettes' sights were set on making a record. In hopes of getting the group signed to the local upstart Motown label, in 1960 Ross asked an old neighbor, Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson, to help the group land an audition for Motown executive Berry Gordy, who had proven himself a capable songwriter. Robinson liked "the girls" and agreed to help, but he liked their guitarist more. Robinson arranged for the Primettes to audition a cappella for Gordy—but Gordy, feeling the girls too young and inexperienced to be recording artists, encouraged them to return when they had graduated from high school.

Undaunted that year the Primettes recorded a single for Lu Pine Records, a label created just for them, titled "Tears of Sorrow", backed with "Pretty Baby". The single failed to find an audience, however. Shortly thereafter, McGlown became left the group. Local girl Barbara Martin was McGlown's prompt replacement. Determined to leave an impression on Gordy and join the stable of rising Motown stars, the Primettes frequented his Hitsville U. S. A. recording studio every day after school. They convinced Gordy to allow them to contribute hand claps and background vocals for the songs of other Motown artists including Marvin Gaye and Mary Wells. In January 1961, Gordy relented and agreed to sign the girls to his label – but under the condition that they change the name of their group; the Primes had by this time combined with Otis Williams & the Distants and would soon sign to Motown as the Temptations. Gordy gave Ballard a list of names to choose from that included suggestions such as "the Darleens", "the Sweet Ps", "the Melodees", "the Royaltones" and "the Jewelettes".

Ballard chose "the Supremes", a name that Ross disliked as she felt it too masculine. On January 15 the group signed with Motown as the Supremes. In the spring of 1962, Martin left the group to start a family. Thus, the newly named Supremes continued as a trio. Between 1961 and 1963, the Supremes released six singles, none of which charted in the Top 40 positions of the Billboard Hot 100. Jokingly referred to as the "no-hit Supremes" around Motown's Hitsville U. S. A. offices, the group attempted to compensate for their lack of hits by taking on any work available at the studio, including providing hand claps and singing backup for Motown artists such as Marvin Gaye and the Temptations. During these years, all three members took turns singing lead: Wilson favored soft ballads, Ballard favored soulful, hard-driving songs, Ross favored mainstream pop songs. Most of their early material was produced by Berry Gordy or Smokey Robinson. In December 1963, the single "When the Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes" peaked at number 23 on the

Ján Krivák

Ján Krivák is a Slovak footballer who plays as centre-back for North Macedonian club Shkëndija Tetovo. Krivák made his professional debut for ŽP Šport Podbrezová against Senica on 27 February 2016. Krivák was called up for two unofficial friendly fixtures held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, in January 2017, against Uganda and Sweden, he made his debut against Sweden, being fielded in the 46th minute, when he substituted Dominik Kružliak. Slovakia went on to lose the game 0–6. FO ŽP Šport Podbrezová official club profile Ján Krivák at Soccerway Futbalnet Profile

Knanaya

The Knanaya known as the Southists or Tekkumbhagar, are an endogamous group in the Saint Thomas Christian community of Kerala, India. They are differentiated from another part of the community, known in this context as the Northists. Today there are about 300,000 Knanaya in India and elsewhere; the origins of the division of the Saint Thomas Christians into Northist and Southist groups are unclear. Various traditions trace it back to the arrival of the Syrian merchant Thomas of Cana who led a migration of Middle Eastern families to India in the 4th or 8th century; the Knanaya claim descent from those who came with him. The divisions were present by the time of the Portuguese colonization in the 16th century and were noted through the European colonial era. Today, the majority of Knanaya are members of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, they became prominent in Kerala in the late 19th century. Many Knanaya migrated away during the 20th and 21st centuries westward, forming communities in non-Malayalam speaking areas, with a large expatriate community living in Houston and Chicago, United States.

The term Knānāya derives from the name Knāy Thoma, an important figure in the Saint Thomas Christian tradition. The earliest written record of the term used as a designation of the community dates to the 1800s, however notations of the term itself are found in Knanaya folk songs such as the song of the erection of Kallisserry Church in 1580; the term is derived from Thomas' Syriac adjectival epithet Knā'nāya in reference to the land of Canaan and is defined as meaning "Those of Caanan". Members of the Knanaya Community are generally called Knāy or Knā, in reference to Thomas. Many Knanaya families those of the Kaduthuruthy region maintain the surname Kinān, a derivative of Thomas’ epithet. Woman of these families preserve gendered forms of the term, examples of this being Kināti Anna, Kināti Mariam, etc; the ultimate derivation of Thomas' English epithet Cana is not clear: it may refer to the town of Cana, mentioned in the Bible, or it may instead refer to the land of Canaan. Alternately, it may be a corruption of a Syriac term for merchant.

However, scholar Richard M. Swiderski states that none of these etymologies are sound. Knanaya priest and scholar Jacob Kollaparambil argues that the "Cana" form is a corruption introduced by European scholars in the 18th century based on the Malayalam form Knāy and its variants found in the folk tradition of the Knanaya and the common parlance and literature of the people of Malabar; this may be a reference to the Christian community of Kynai, in Bét Aramayé in Persia, a historical center of Syriac Christianity. Knanaya is the spelling preferred by community members; the Knanaya are known as Tekkumbhagar in Malayalam. This is in reference to the significant geographical division between them and other Saint Thomas Christians, who are known as Vadakumbhagar or Northists in this context; the Knanaya held the title of being the "protectors of seventeen castes", an authority given to them by the Cheraman Perumal according to folk tradition. This title, reflective of the historical high caste status of the Knanaya, is to this day exhibited during Knanaya marriage ceremonies when individuals taking part in the rituals ask permission before fulfilling their designated role.

A prominent example of this is seen during the "Chandam Charthal" or grooms beautification ceremony, in which the barber petitions the assembly three times with the following request: "I ask the gentlemen here who have superiority over 17 castes, may I shave the bridegroom?". The Knanaya were known as Ancharapallikar or the "Owners of Five and a Half churches" a title reflective of the five churches owned by the Southist Community before the Synod of Diamper in 1599; the churches are listed as the following: Udayamperoor, Kottayam and Kallissery. The "half church" is a reference to the half privilege and share the Knanaya held in other churches they co-owned with the Northist St. Thomas Christians in areas where not many Knanaya lived, it is not clear how the division of the Saint Thomas Christians into Southern and Northern groups originated. The earliest extensive written evidence for the split dates to the 16th century; the St. Thomas Christian tradition defines the division as being both geographical and ethnic, expressing that the Native St. Thomas Christians resided on the north side of the Chera Empire's capitol city of Cranganore while the Middle Eastern migrant Knanaya arrived and settled on the south side, which subsequently led to the designation Northist and Southist.

Directional divisions within communities are common including among Hindu groups. A similar north–south division is found among the Nairs, it appears to have been in place in the early Brahmin settlements in the area; the Saint Thomas Christians may have taken this trait from the Brahmins. A number of traditions and stories have emerged to explain the division, both Southists and Northists use variants of these traditions to claim superiority for their group; the earlier version traces the divide to the figure of Thomas of Cana, a Syrian merchant who led a group of 72 Jewish-Christian immigrant families, a bishop named Uraha Mar Yausef, clergymen from the Middle East to settle in Cranganore, India in the 4th century. This story m