Graham Vick is an English opera director known for his experimental and revisionist stagings of traditional and modern operas. He has worked in many of the world's leading opera houses and is artistic director of Birmingham Opera Company. Vick studied at the Royal Northern College of Music in Manchester. At age 24, he directed a production of Gustav Holst's Savitri for Scottish Opera, became the company's director of productions in 1984. From 1994 to 2000, Vick was director of productions at Glyndebourne Opera. In 1987, he remains its artistic director. Vick's productions with Birmingham Opera include the first UK production of Othello to feature a black tenor in the title role in 2009, the 2012 world premiere of Karlheinz Stockhausen's notoriously difficult Mittwoch aus Licht. Vick was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 Birthday Honours. Many of Vick's productions can be seen on DVD including Lulu Warner Music Vision B000189L10, Falstaff Opus Arte B00005NUP8, he is the voice of Cabot Finch in Jurassic world evolution Millington, Barry, "Vick, Graham" in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, ed. Stanley Sadie ISBN 0-333-73432-7 Jasper Rees,'La traviata: A Nuremberg-style display of synchronised chair-swivelling', The Daily Telegraph, 25 October 2007 Edward Rothstein,'In New Hall, Echoes of Glyndebourne Old', New York Times, 4 June 1994 Martin Bernheimer,'Living Dangerously', Opera News, June 2000 Hamilton, Mary..
A-Z of Opera. New York, Sydney: Facts On File. p. 212. ISBN 0-8160-2340-9. Sadie and John Tyrrell.. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Vol. 26, p. 530. ISBN 0-333-60800-3. Warrack and Ewan West.. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 538. ISBN 0-19-280028-0. Birmingham Opera Company biography
The Escorts (British band)
The Escorts were a Merseybeat band formed in October 1962 in Liverpool, England, by three classmates who had just left the Morrison School for Boys in Rose Lane, Allerton — Mike Gregory, Terry Sylvester and John Kinrade. In 1963, they were voted the ninth most popular group in Liverpool by readers of Mersey Beat magazine from a competitive field of several dozen popular Liverpool bands of the time, they consisted of: Terry Sylvester — guitar/lead vocals John Kinrade — lead guitar/vocals Mike Gregory — bass guitar/vocals Ray Walker — lead vocals Johnny Foster — drums. Terry Sylvester was replaced by Frank Townsend from The Easybeats and the Beachwoods, to become a member of Tony Rivers and the Castaways. Paddy Chambers subsequently replaced Townsend. Sylvester left to join The Swinging Blue Jeans in 1966, before replacing Graham Nash in The Hollies, he now lives in Toronto and travels all over the United States and Canada playing concerts with artists such as Billy J. Kramer, Peter Noone, Joey Molland and other British Invasion acts.
Sylvester does a one-man show. Paul McCartney played tambourine on their last record, "From Head to Toe" in 1966. John Kinrade stopped playing after The Escorts split up in 1967, sold his Gretsch guitar and became a hairdresser with two salons. Mike Gregory would leave The Escorts in 1967 to join The Swinging Blue Jeans, stayed until 1971, whereupon after leaving and doing sessions for a couple of years, he formed a group with Johnny Goodison of the original Brotherhood of Man called Big John's Rock'n' Roll Circus in 1975. Gregory stayed in'The Circus' until its demise in 2005, is now a solo artist. Drummer Pete Clarke managed to record a fine instrumental solo single in 1968. For a while that same year he became the in-house session drummer for Apple Music and is notable on a couple of songs on Jackie Lomax's album, Is This What You Want?. Still wanting to be in a group, in 1969 he joined the strange poetry band, The Liverpool Scene, still working for Apple he did sessions for Kiki Dee and Billy Preston, did a brief stint in Badfinger.
He is now living in the US. Although they never released a full album during their short time together, much at the instigation of Elvis Costello, Edsel Records released an LP containing all twelve songs from the six singles, it was released on CD in 1995 as EDCD 422 and entitled From the Blue Angel, as a reference to the club where The Escorts began performing in 1962. Costello released a single, a copy of The Escorts last recording, "From Head to Toe"/"Night Time". Singles"Dizzy, Miss Lizzy" / "All I Want Is You" - Fontana TF 453, April 64 "The One to Cry" / "Tell Me Baby" - Fontana TF 474, June 64 "I Don't Want to go on Without You" / "Don't Forget to Write" - Fontana TF 516, 1965 "C'mon Home Baby" / "You'll Get No Lovin' That Way" - Fontana TF 570, 1965 "Let It Be Me" / "Mad Mad World" - Fontana TF 651, January 1966 "From Head to Toe" / "Night Time" - Columbia DB 8061, December 1966LPsFrom the Blue Angel - EDCD 422, 1995 "Dizzy, Miss Lizzy" - 2:11 "All I Want Is You" - 1:49 "The One to Cry" - 1:55 "Tell Me Baby" - 2:16 "I Don't want to Go on Without You" - 2:23 "Don't Forget to Write" - 2:21 "C'Mon Home Baby" - 2:05 "You'll Get No Lovin' That Way" - 1:57 "Let It Be Me" - 2:19 "Mad Mad World" - 2:05 "From Head to Toe" - 2:32 "Night Time" - 2:53 Allmusic.com biography The Escorts discography at Discogs
His Master's Voice
His Master's Voice is a famous trademark in the recording industry and was the unofficial name of a major British record label. The phrase was coined in the 1890s as the title of a painting of a terrier mix dog named Nipper, listening to a wind-up disc gramophone. In the original painting, the dog was listening to a cylinder phonograph. In the 1970s, the statue of the dog and gramophone, His Master's Voice, were cloaked in bronze and was awarded by the record company to artists or music producers or composers as a music award and only after selling more than 100,000 recordings; the trademark image comes from a painting by English artist Francis Barraud and titled His Master's Voice. It was acquired from the artist in 1899 by the newly formed Gramophone Company and adopted as a trademark by the Gramophone Company's United States affiliate, the Victor Talking Machine Company. According to contemporary Gramophone Company publicity material, the dog, a terrier named Nipper, had belonged to Barraud's brother, Mark.
When Mark Barraud died, Francis inherited Nipper, with a cylinder phonograph and recordings of Mark's voice. Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the horn, conceived the idea of committing the scene to canvas. In early 1899, Francis Barraud applied for copyright of the original painting using the descriptive working title Dog looking at and listening to a Phonograph, he was unable to sell the work to any cylinder phonograph company, but William Barry Owen, the American founder of the Gramophone Company in England, offered to purchase the painting under the condition that Barraud modify it to show one of their disc machines. Barraud complied and the image was first used on the company's catalogue from December 1899; as the trademark gained in popularity, several additional copies were subsequently commissioned from the artist for various corporate purposes. Emile Berliner, the inventor of the Gramophone, had seen the picture in London and took out a United States copyright on it in July, 1900.
The painting was adopted as a trademark by Berliner's business partner, Eldridge R. Johnson of the Consolidated Talking Machine Company, reorganized as the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor used the image far more aggressively than its UK affiliate, from 1902 most Victor records had a simplified drawing of Barraud's dog-and-gramophone image on their labels. Magazine advertisements urged record buyers to "look for the dog." In British Commonwealth countries, the Gramophone Company did not use the dog on its record labels until 1909. The following year the Gramophone Company replaced the Recording Angel trademark in the upper half of the record labels with the Nipper logo; the company was not formally called HMV or His Master's Voice, but became identified by that term due to the prominence of the phrase on the record labels. Records issued by the company before February 1908 were referred to by record collectors as G&Ts, while those after that date are called HMV records; the image continued to be used as a trademark by Victor in the US, Latin America.
In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. In British Commonwealth countries it was used by various subsidiaries of the Gramophone Company, which became part of EMI; the trademark's ownership is divided among different companies in different countries, reducing its value in the globalised music market. The name HMV was used by a chain of music shops owned by HMV in the UK, Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. RCA purchased the Victor Company in 1929 and with it a major shareholding in the Gramophone Company, which Victor had owned in part since 1920. RCA was instrumental in the 1931 creation of EMI, which continued to own the His Master's Voice name and image in the UK. In 1935, RCA Victor sold its stake in EMI but continued to own the rights to His Master's Voice in the Americas. HMV continued to distribute Victor recordings in the UK and elsewhere until 1957, when EMI purchased Capitol Records as their distributor in the western hemisphere.
The hostilities between the US and Japan during World War II led RCA Victor's Japanese subsidiary, the Victor Company of Japan, to become independent, today the company is still allowed use of the "Victor" brand and Nipper trademark in Japan only. In 1968, RCA restricted the use of Nipper to Red Seal album covers; the Nipper trademark was reinstated to most RCA record labels in the Western Hemisphere beginning in late 1976 and was once again used in RCA advertising throughout the late 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1980s, the dog reappeared for a time on RCA television sets and was used on the ill-fated RCA CED videodisc system. EMI owned the His Master's Voice label in the UK until the 1980s, the HMV shops until 1998. In 1967, EMI converted the HMV label into an exclusive classical music label and dropped its POP series of popular music. HMV's POP series artists' roster was moved to Columbia Graphophone and Parlophone and licensed American POP record deals to Stateside Records; the globalised market for CDs pushed EMI into abandoning the HMV label in favour of "EMI Classics", a name they could use worldwide.
The HMV trademark is now owned by the retail chain in the UK. The formal trademark transfer from EMI took place in 2003; the old HMV classical music catalogue is now controlled by the Warner Classics unit of Warner Music Group. Reissues of HMV pop material that EMI controlled are now reis
Bromborough is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in Merseyside. In Cheshire, it is situated on the Wirral Peninsula, to the south of Bebington and to the north of Eastham. In the 2001 Census, the population of the township was 12,630, But the total number of people in the larger Bromborough Ward was 13,963. By the time of the 2011 Census the population of the township was no longer collected although that of the Ward was shown as having increased to 14,850. Bromborough is the primary contender for the site of an epic battle of 937, the Battle of Brunanburh, which confirmed England as an Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Reconstructed from fragments, an Anglo Saxon cross is in the churchyard of local parish church St Barnabas. A charter for a market to be held each Monday was granted by Edward I in 1278 to the monks of St. Werburgh's Abbey, it was hoped that establishing the market in the vicinity of Bromborough Cross would promote honest dealing. The market cross was the traditional centre of the village and an assembly point for local farm labourers available for hire.
The steps of the cross are from the original 13th-century monument. The cross itself is a more recent reproduction, presented to the town by the Bromborough Society. With a watermill having been recorded at Bromborough at the time of the Domesday Survey, Bromborough watermill was to have been the oldest mill site on the Wirral. Located on the River Dibbin at what is known as Spital Dam, it was worked until 1940 and demolished in 1949; the site is now a children's nursery. A windmill, built in 1777, existed on higher ground at the same location. Having fallen into disuse and much deteriorated, it was destroyed by gunpowder in about 1878. An increase in traffic passing through the area resulted in Bromborough undergoing extensive redevelopment in the 1930s. Bromborough Hall, built in 1617, was demolished in 1932 to make way for a by-pass and a number of farmhouses and cottages in the area of Bromborough Cross were replaced with shops. Before local government reorganisation on 1 April 1974, it was part of the urban district of Bebington, within the county of Cheshire.
Bromborough is situated on the eastern side of the Wirral Peninsula, at the western side of the River Mersey. The area is 12.5 km south-south-east of the Irish Sea at New Brighton and about 8 km east-north-east of the Dee Estuary at Parkgate. Bromborough Cross is at an elevation of about 32 m above sea level. East of the A41 road, towards the River Mersey, is industrial development and includes Bromborough Pool, an early industrial "model village" developed from 1853–58 by Price's Candles. Part of the industry is connected to the former Bromborough Dock and includes a controversial ammonium nitrate warehouse and the main landfill site for the Wirral, now a Walkway with views of the river. Cereal Partners employs 340 people and produces Cheerios and Corn Flakes, among other breakfast cereals, in a factory owned by Viota. Rank Hovis McDougall owned the business in the 1990s. Another major business is Sun Valley Snacks ltd; the Croft Retail & Leisure Park, which opened in March 1990, is located off the A41 and contains a seven-screen Odeon cinema and a Gala Bingo, a 24-hour Asda superstore.
Other major retailers in the area include Mothercare, Dunelm, Argos, Boots, a combined Currys PC World, Halfords, M&S Simply Food, Next. Bromborough contains the Fitness First and a DW fitness club. Nando's, Harvester and KFC are new additions to the retail park; the boundary between the council wards of Bromborough and Eastham is Plymyard Avenue, Moreland Avenue, Bridle Road and Eastham Rake. To the west of the A41 New Chester Road, Bromborough is residential development started in the 1930s, centred on the original village centre with its market cross. There are a number of pubs in Bromborough:'The Bromborough,' the'Royal Oak' and the local British Legion, now known as the Bromborough Social Club are situated in Bromborough Village; the Archers pub has closed down and planning permission submitted for it to be demolished. On the outskirts, bordering Eastham, are the'Merebrook' and the'Dibbinsdale', where there is a branch of the Pesto restaurant chain; the local newspapers are the Wirral Globe.
The main road through the area is the A41 New Chester Road. The B5137 Spital Road joins the A41 at Bromborough. Junctions 4 and 5 of the M53 motorway are equidistant from each about 3 km away. There are many local bus services which serve the village operated by Stagecoach Merseyside. Stagecoach Gold service 1 offers direct, premium connections to Liverpool and Birkenhead to the north. Bromborough and Bromborough Rake railway stations are both situated on the Wirral Line of the Merseyrail network. Trains run every 15 minutes to Chester, every 30 minutes to Ellesmere Port, there are six trains per hour to Liverpool Central. Liverpool John Lennon Airport 6 km across the Mersey Estuary, is visible from Bromborough. However, the airport is about 20 km by road. Marfords Park Listed buildings in Bromborough Listed buildings in Bromborough Pool Mortimer, William Williams; the History of the Hundred of Wirral. London: Whittaker & Co. pp207-213. Birkenhead & Surrounds
West Derby is an affluent suburb in the east of Liverpool, England. In Lancashire, it is a Liverpool City Council ward. At the 2011 Census, the population was 14,382. Mentioned in the Domesday Book, West Derby achieved significance far earlier than Liverpool itself; the name West Derby comes from an Old Norse word meaning "place of the wild beasts" or "wild deer park" and refers to the deer park established there by King Edward the Confessor. West Derby became the main administrative area in today's Liverpool for the Norman Conquests and was the largest area within the West Derby Hundred which covered most of south west Lancashire. West Derby once had a Motte and Bailey castle, now disappeared. There is some suggestion of a Roman site on a street called Castlesite; the site is now a small public park, the shape and dimensions of which are similar to that of a Roman barracks or castra. The remnants of a wooden castle were unearthed on this plot during excavations in the mid 1930s; the Earls of Derby were conferred their title from West Derbyshire, not as thought Derbyshire and where the word Derby is derived from.
There still remains a courthouse built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I: the first court in West Derby was established around 1,000 years ago. The West Derby Courthouse, built in 1586, was restored and conserved in 2005 and is the only freestanding post-medieval courthouse in Britain; the tiny Grade II* listed building is open to the public between 2 pm and 4 pm every Sunday except Easter from April to October inclusive, admission free. Opposite the courthouse is a set of Victorian cast iron stocks once used as a public restraint for offenders. Villagers used fruit and rotten vegetables to throw at the offenders; the stocks were placed in their current position to commemorate the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. Temporarily removed in 2008 whilst the site was renovated, the stocks have since been put back in place; the area was home to the Earls of Sefton, whose house, Croxteth Hall, the surrounding countryside estate now forms Croxteth Park, an attractive public space. The three elected councillors for West Derby ward are Cllrs Pam Thomas, Daniel Barrington and Lana Orr of the Labour Party.
The area is part of the Liverpool West Derby Parliamentary constituency represented by Stephen Twigg. Alder Hey Children's Hospital is located at Eaton Road. Both Everton, Liverpool football clubs located their training grounds in West Derby, Everton at Bellefield and Liverpool at Melwood. However, in 2007 Everton moved to their new complex in south Liverpool called Finch Farm; the West Derby Society holds regular monthly meetings and outings. It lobbies on planning and environmental issues; the West Derby Community Association, a registered charity, owns Grade II-listed'Lowlands' in West Derby. This 1846 mansion underwent restoration and renovation with the help of a £1 million Heritage Lottery Fund grant. West Derby is home to a number of schools that have produced famous pupils: West Derby School, one of whose alumni is actor Craig Charles. St. Edward's College produced Sir Terry Leahy, former England rugby union player Mike Slemen and actor Michael Williams. Cardinal Heenan Catholic High School includes Liverpool footballer Steven Gerrard, professional boxer David Price and musician Mike di Scala.
Called Cardinal Allen Grammar School, it was attended by Everton footballer Colin Harvey, United States Eagles rugby player,Michael Caulder, who played in the first Rugby World Cup in 1987, actor Paul McGann. Broughton Hall High School former pupils include singer Natasha Hamilton of Atomic Kitten, actress Jennifer Ellison. Ellison moved to St. Edward's College for sixth form. Other schools in the area include Holly Lodge Girls' College, St. Marys Primary School, St. Paul's Junior School, Blackmoor Park Junior School and Emmaus Primary School. Well known residents of West Derby have been. C. football manager, whose house overlooked Bellefield. Albert Menotti Haynes was born and lived in West Derby, he worked as a railway clerk before emigrating to Argentina and founded the Editorial Haynes publishing empire, he and his wife were involved in founding Northlands School. Trent Alexander-Arnold, a youngster of local club Liverpool F. C. was born in West Derby near the Melwood Training Centre. West Derby railway station was located on the North Liverpool Extension Line.
The station building has since become a shop and the access ramps to the former platforms remain, although one of the passages have been closed off to the public. The track has been lifted and the trackbed now forms part of National Cycle Network Route 62 and a public footpath between Liverpool and Southport. Bus Routes 12, 13 and 15 run through West Derby and provides links to the City Centre and Stockbridge Village, the 15 bus links to the nearby Alder Hey Children's Hospital, bus route 61 runs through We
Skiffle is a music genre with jazz, blues and American folk influences using a combination of manufactured and homemade or improvised instruments. Originating as a term in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, it became popular again in the UK in the 1950s, where it was associated with artists such as Lonnie Donegan, The Vipers Skiffle Group, Ken Colyer and Chas McDevitt. Skiffle played a major part in beginning the careers of eminent jazz, blues and rock musicians such as The Beatles and Rory Gallagher, it has been seen as a critical stepping stone to the second British folk revival, blues boom and British Invasion of the US popular music scene. The origins of skiffle are obscure but are thought to lie in African-American musical culture in the early 20th century. Skiffle is said to have developed from New Orleans jazz, but this claim has been disputed. Improvised jug bands playing blues and jazz were common across the American South in the early decades of the 20th century.
They used instruments such as the washboard, washtub bass, cigar-box fiddle, musical saw and comb-and-paper kazoos, as well as more conventional instruments, such as acoustic guitar and banjo. The origin of the English word skiffle is unknown. However, in the dialect of the west of England to make a skiffle meaning to make a mess of any business is attested from 1873. In early 20th century America the term skiffle was one of many slang phrases for a rent party, a social event with a small charge designed to pay rent on a house, it was first recorded in Chicago in the 1920s and may have been brought there as part of the African-American migration to northern industrial cities. The first use of the term on record was in 1925 in the name of Jimmy O'Bryant and his Chicago Skifflers. Most it was used to describe country blues music records, which included the compositions "Hometown Skiffle" and "Skiffle Blues" by Dan Burley & his Skiffle Boys, it was used by Ma Rainey to describe her repertoire to rural audiences.
The term skiffle disappeared from American music in the 1940s. Skiffle was a obscure genre, it might have been forgotten if not for its revival in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and the success of its main proponent, Lonnie Donegan. British skiffle grew out of the developing post-war British jazz scene, which saw a move away from swing music and towards authentic trad jazz. Among these bands were Bill Bailey Skiffle Group and Ken Colyer's Jazzmen, whose banjo player Donegan performed skiffle music during intervals, he would sing and play guitar with accompaniment of two other members on washboard and tea-chest bass. They played a variety of American folk and blues songs those derived from the recordings of Lead Belly, in a lively style that emulated American jug bands; these were listed on posters as "skiffle" breaks, a name suggested by Ken Colyer's brother Bill after recalling the Dan Burley Skiffle Group. Soon the breaks were as popular as the traditional jazz. After disagreements in 1954, Colyer left to form a new outfit with Chris Barber, the band became Chris Barber's Jazz Band.
The first British recordings of skiffle were carried out by Colyer's new band in 1954, but it was the release by Decca of two skiffle tracks by Barber's Jazz Band under the name of the "Lonnie Donegan Skiffle Group" that transformed the fortunes of skiffle in late 1955. Donegan's fast-tempo version of Lead Belly's "Rock Island Line" was a major hit in 1956, featuring a washboard, with "John Henry" on the B-side, it spent eight months in the Top 20, peaking at No. 6. It was the first debut record to go gold in Britain, selling over a million copies worldwide, it was the success of this single and the lack of a need for expensive instruments or high levels of musicianship that set off the British skiffle craze. A few bands enjoyed chart success in the skiffle craze, including the Chas McDevitt Skiffle Group, Johnny Duncan and the Bluegrass Boys, the Vipers, but the main impact of skiffle was as a grassroots amateur movement popular among working class males, who could cheaply buy, improvise, or build their own instruments and who have been seen as reacting against the drab austerity of post-war Britain.
The craze reached its height with the broadcasting of the BBC TV programme Six-Five Special from 1957. It was the first British youth music programme, using a skiffle song as its title music and showcasing many skiffle acts, it has been estimated. Sales of guitars grew and other musicians were able to perform on improvised bass and percussion in venues such as church halls and cafes and in the flourishing coffee bars of Soho, like the 2i's Coffee Bar, the Cat's Whisker and nightspots like Coconut Grove and Churchill's, without having to aspire to musical perfection or virtuosity. A large number of British musicians began their careers playing skiffle in this period, some became leading figures in their respective fields; these included leading Northern Irish musician Van Morrison and British blues pioneer Alexis Korner, as well as Ronnie Wood, Alex Harvey and Mick Jagger. Most notably, the Beatles developed from John Lennon's skiffle group the Quarrymen; the Bee Gees developed from Barry Gibb's skiffle group the Rattlesnakes.
After splitting from Barber, Donegan went on to make a series of popular records as "Lonnie Donegan's Skiffle Gr
British Hit Singles & Albums
British Hit Singles & Albums was a music reference book published in the United Kingdom by the publishing arm of the Guinness breweries, Guinness Superlatives. Editions were published by Guinness World Records and HiT Entertainment, it listed all the singles and albums featured in the Top 75 pop charts in the UK. In 2004 the book became an amalgamation of two earlier Guinness publications known as British Hit Singles and British Hit Albums; the publication of this amalgamation ceased in 2006. A new version of the book published by Virgin and entitled The Virgin Book of British Hit Singles, first published in November 2008; the first ten editions were compiled by Paul Gambaccini, Mike Read and brothers Tim Rice and Jonathan Rice. Read left the team in the mid-1980s and the other editors resigned in 1996. Chart editor for many editions was David Roberts. British Hit Singles & Albums was considered to be the authoritative reference source for both the UK Singles Chart and the UK Albums Chart, it listed all the singles and albums to have been in the UK charts since 1952, listing them in alphabetical order and by both artist and song title.
The entries included the date of chart entry, highest position, catalogue number and number of weeks in the chart. Short biographical notes accompanied many of the artists' chart details; the book's sources are the New Musical Express chart from November 1952 to March 1960, the Record Retailer chart thereafter. It could be said that this division is misleading, since the Record Retailer chart was little known until it was adopted by the BBC in 1969 and that by adopting this chart as its standard, the editors had a non-consensual view. An example given is the case of The Beatles' second single "Please Please Me", recognised as a number one hit by every other publicly available chart of the time, but not by Record Retailer and therefore not by British Hit Singles. Other records to which this applies include "19th Nervous Breakdown" by The Rolling Stones, "Stranger on the Shore" by Acker Bilk and the Eurovision Song Contest entry "Are You Sure?" by The Allisons. Co-founder Jo Rice has defended the book's choice of source material on the grounds that Record Retailer was the only chart to publish a Top 50 from 1960 onwards.
This can be substantiated by the fact that charts published in the NME were of a shorter format and other chart listings such as those in Melody Maker, became less and less informative although they were more accurate. Subsequent research has shown that during the "disputed" period of the 1960s, the samples sizes of the Record Retailer chart were inferior to those of the other charts: around 30 shops in 1963 in comparison to more than 100 used by Melody Maker, around 80 in comparison to NME's 150 and Melody Maker's 200; as a result, the placings in that chart were more open to error and manipulation – a situation further worsened by the larger number of records listed in the chart. The first edition was published as The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles in November 1977, it wasn't the first Guinness music reference publication, as the previous year a book called The Guinness Book of Music Facts & Feats had been published. It contained feats from the world of classical music; the first edition was issued to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the first UK singles sales chart, published in November 1952, by the New Musical Express.
Subsequently, a new edition was published every two years, adding a few hundred titles to each edition. Keeping in line with the book's parent publication The Guinness Book of Records, each edition of British Hit Singles contained a'facts and feats' section, which included various lists of remarkable chart feats such as'Most hits','Most no. 1 hits','Most weeks on chart' or'Least successful chart artist'. Included in the books were photographs and introductions written by the four authors, they wrote a bi-annual lookback on the major developments in the UK charts in the two preceding years. The series was soon regarded as the number one source for music and chart reference, thanks to the commercial success of the books and its various sister publications; the series' 10th edition, published in June 1995, was the last to feature its original authors Rice and Gambaccini. From the 11th edition onwards, the book was compiled by in-house editors at Guinness Publishing and by David Roberts, a chart editor and designer for the original team.
From the 12th edition onwards, the book was published every year rather than bi-annually. In 2004, the book merged with The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums to form The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums; the eighteenth edition of the book was billed as a "Special Collector's Edition" as it featured detailed information on the 1,000 Number Ones in the UK Singles Chart from Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" on 14 November 1952 to Elvis Presley's "One Night / I Got Stung", 22 January 2005. The 19th edition was the last in the series. A supposed 20th edition was due to be published in 2007, but the original publishers lost interest in chart reference books after their contract with The Official Charts Company expired, which saw that organisation sell the contract to Virgin. Following the success of the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles series, the original authors and Guinness turned to other charts-related books and projects; the following books were written by them: The Guinn