Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira was a Japanese courtier and waka poet of the early Heian period. He was named one of both the Six Poetic Geniuses and the Thirty-Six Poetic Geniuses, one of his poems was included in the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu collection, he is known as Zai Go-Chūjō, Zai Go, Zai Chūjō or Mukashi-Otoko. There are 87 poems attributed to Narihira in court anthologies, though some attributions are dubious. Narihira's poems are exceptionally ambiguous. Narihira's many renowned love affairs have exerted a profound influence on Japanese culture. Legends have held that he had affairs with the high priestess of the Ise Grand Shrine and the poet Ono no Komachi, that he fathered Emperor Yōzei, his love affairs inspired The Tales of Ise, he has since been a model of the handsome, amorous nobleman. Ariwara no Narihira was born in 825, he was a grandson of two emperors: Emperor Heizei through Prince Abo. He was the fifth child of Prince Abo, but was the only child of Princess Ito, who lived in the former capital at Nagaoka.
Some of Narihira's poems are about his mother. Abo was banished from the old capital Heijō-kyō to Tsukushi Province in 824 due to his involvement in a failed coup d'état known as the Kusuko Incident. Narihira was born during his father's exile. After Abo's return to Heijō, in 826, Narihira and his brothers Yukihira and Morihira were made commoners and given the surname Ariwara; the scholar Ōe no Otondo was a brother of Narihira's. Although he is remembered for his poetry, Narihira was of high birth and served at court. In 841 he was appointed Lieutenant of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards, before being promoted to Lieutenant of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards and Chamberlain. In 849, he held Lower Grade. Narihira rose to the positions of Provisional Assistant Master of the Left Military Guard, Assistant Chamberlain, Provisional Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards, Captain of the Right Division of the Bureau of Horses, Provisional Middle Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards, Provisional Governor of Sagami, reaching the Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade.
By the end of his life he had risen to Provisional Governor of Mino. Literary historian and critic Donald Keene observed in his description of Narihira as the protagonist of The Tales of Ise: Narihira combined all the qualities most admired in a Heian courtier: he was of high birth handsome, a gifted poet, an all-conquering lover, he was also an expert horseman, adept in arms, a competent official. These aspects of his life are not emphasized in The Tales of Ise, but they distinguish Narihira from other heroes of Heian literature, including Genji. Narihira was known as a great lover, it has been speculated that this romantic affair with the consort of the emperor was the reason why the Sandai Jitsuroku describes his rank as going down from Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade to Senior Sixth Rank, Upper Grade, before again rising to Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade the following year. However, it has been speculated that this may be an error in the Sandai Jitsuroku as a result of binding changing the order of events.
Furthermore, Fujiwara no Takaiko reputedly had an affair with the monk Zen'yū, which may have formed the core of the otherwise fictional legend that she had an affair with Narihira. Whether the affair was historical or not, the Reizei family's commentary on The Tales of Ise speculates that Emperor Yōzei was a product of this union, not the previous emperor. One of Narihira's most famous affairs—the one that gave The Tales of Ise its name—was said to be with Yasuko, high priestess of the Ise Grand Shrine and daughter of Emperor Montoku; the Tales of Ise describes the protagonist, presumed to be Narihira, visiting Ise on a hunt, sleeping with the priestess. However, a passage in the Kokinshū describes the meeting ambiguously, in a manner that implies Narihira did not sleep with the priestess herself but rather another woman in her service; the 12th-century work Gōshidai and the 13th-century work Kojidan claim that the product of this union was Takashina no Moronao, adopted by Takashina no Shigenori.
Japanologist Helen Craig McCullough stated there was "no evidence" the affair between Narihira and Yasuko was "more than a romantic myth". A headnote to poems 784 and 785 in the Kokinshū connects Narihira to the daughter of Ki no Aritsune. Medieval commentaries call her Narihira's wife, some modern scholars, such as Katagiri, do the same, although the only early source that explicitly names her is the note in the Kokinshū. In the classical Noh play Izutsu, an adaptation by Zeami Motokiyo of "Tsutsu-Izutsu" from The Tales of Ise, portrays Narihira and Ki no Aritsune's daughter as childhood playmates who marry, it has been speculated, based in part on their being considered the most beautiful man and woman of their age, that Narihira and the poet On
Miyabi is one of the traditional Japanese aesthetic ideals, though not as prevalent as Iki or Wabi-sabi. In modern Japanese, the word is translated as "elegance," "refinement," or "courtliness" and sometimes to a "sweet loved one"; the ideal posed by the word demanded the elimination of anything, absurd or vulgar and the "polishing of manners and feelings to eliminate all roughness and crudity so as to achieve the highest grace." It expressed that sensitivity to beauty, the hallmark of the Heian era. Miyabi is closely connected to the notion of Mono no aware, a bittersweet awareness of the transience of things, thus it was thought that things in decline showed a great sense of miyabi. An example of this would be one of a lone cherry tree; the tree would soon lose its flowers and would be stripped of everything that made it beautiful and so it showed not only mono no aware, but miyabi in the process. Adherents to the ideals of miyabi strove to rid the world of crude forms or aesthetics and emotions that were common in artworks of the period, such as those contained in the Man'yōshū, the oldest extant collection of Japanese poetry.
The Man'yōshū contained poems by people of every walk of life, many of which stood in stark contrast to the sensibilities of miyabi. For example, one poem in the collection likened a woman's hair to snail innards; the ideals of miyabi stood against the use of metaphors such as this. Furthermore, appreciation of miyabi and its ideal was used as a marker of class differences, it was believed that only members of the upper class, the courtiers, could appreciate the workings of miyabi. Miyabi in fact limited. Miyabi tried to stay away from the rustic and crude, in doing so, prevented the traditionally trained courtiers from expressing real feelings in their works. In years and its aesthetic were replaced by ideals inspired by Zen Buddhism, such as Wabi-sabi and Iki; the characters of the classic eleventh-century Japanese novel "The Tale of Genji" by Lady Murasaki provide examples of miyabi
Rinpa, is one of the major historical schools of Japanese painting. It was created in 17th century Kyoto by Hon ` ami Tawaraya Sōtatsu. Fifty years the style was consolidated by brothers Ogata Kōrin and Ogata Kenzan; the term "Rinpa" is an abbreviation consisting of the last syllable from "Kōrin" with the word for school, coined in the Meiji period. The style was referred to variously as the Kōetsu school, or Kōetsu-Kōrin school, or the Sōtatsu-Kōrin school. Hon'ami Kōetsu founded an artistic community of craftsmen supported by wealthy merchant patrons of the Nichiren Buddhist sect at Takagamine in northeastern Kyoto in 1615. Both the affluent merchant town elite and the old Kyoto aristocratic families favored arts which followed classical traditions, Kōetsu obliged by producing numerous works of ceramics and lacquerware, his collaborator, Tawaraya Sōtatsu maintained an atelier in Kyoto and produced commercial paintings such as decorative fans and folding screens. Sōtatsu specialized in making decorated paper with gold or silver backgrounds, to which Kōetsu assisted by adding calligraphy.
Both artists came from families of cultural significance. Kōetsu's father evaluated swords for the Maeda clan. However, Kōetsu was less concerned with swords as opposed to painting, calligraphy and the Japanese tea ceremony His own painting style was flamboyant, recalling the aristocratic style of the Heian period. Sōtatsu pursued the classical Yamato-e genre as Kōetsu, but pioneered a new technique with bold outlines and striking color schemes. One of his most famous works are the folding screens "Wind and Thunder Gods" at Kennin-ji temple in Kyoto and "Matsushima" at the Freer Gallery; the Rinpa school was revived in the Genroku era by Ogata Kōrin and his younger brother Ogata Kenzan, sons of a prosperous Kyoto textile merchant. Kōrin's innovation was to depict nature as an abstract using numerous color and hue gradations, mixing colors on the surface to achieve eccentric effects, as well as liberal use of precious substances like gold and pearl, his masterpiece Red and White Plum Blossoms c.
1714–15, is now at the MOA Museum of Art in Atami, Shizuoka. A dramatic composition, it established the direction of Rinpa for the remainder of its history. Kōrin collaborated with Kenzan in painting designs and calligraphy on his brother's pottery. Kenzan remained as a potter in Kyoto until after Kōrin's death in 1716 when he began to paint professionally. Other Rinpa artists active in this period were Tatebayashi Kagei, Tawaraya Sori, Watanabe Shiko, Fukae Roshu and Nakamura Hochu. Rinpa was revived in 19th century Edo by Sakai Hōitsu, a Kanō school artist whose family had been one of Ogata Kōrin’s sponsors. Sakai published a series of 100 woodcut prints based on paintings by Kōrin, his painting Summer and Autumn Grasses painted on the back of Kōrin’s "Wind and Thunder Gods screen" is now at the Tokyo National Museum. Paintings of the early "Rinpa" artists were anthologized in small paperback booklets such as the Korin gafu by Nakamura Hochu, first published in 1806; this was followed by an original work by Sakai Hoitsu called the Oson gafu, published in 1817.
Sakai had numerous students who carried the movement forward into the late 19th century, when it was incorporated into the Nihonga movement by Okakura Kakuzō and other painters. The influence of Rinpa was strong throughout the early modern period, today Rinpa-style designs are popular. One artist of note is Kamisaka Sekka. Rinpa artists worked in various formats, notably screens and hanging scrolls, woodblock printed books, lacquerware and kimono textiles. Many Rinpa paintings were used on the sliding walls of noble homes. Subject matter and style were borrowed from Heian period traditions of yamato-e, with elements from Muromachi ink paintings, Chinese Ming dynasty flower-and-bird paintings, as well as Momoyama-period Kanō school developments; the stereotypical standard painting in the Rinpa style involves simple natural subjects such as birds and flowers, with the background filled in with gold leaf. Emphasis on refined design and technique became more pronounced; the Rinpa style flourished in Kyōto, Ōsaka, i.e. the political and cultural triangle of ancient Japan.
Kyōto and Ōsaka were two of the most important cities of the Nanga known as Bunjinga school's style. Hon'ami Kōetsu Tawaraya Sōtatsu Ogata Kōrin Ogata Kenzan Sakai Hōitsu Suzuki Kiitsu Kamisaka Sekka Rimpa: Outstanding Works of the Korin School Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo Treasures by Rinpa Masters Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo Korin: National Treasure Irises of the Nezu Museum and Eight-Bridge of The Metropolitan Museum of Art Nezu Museum, Tokyo Designing Nature: The Rinpa Aesthetic in Japanese Art Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City RINPA: The Aesthetics of the Capital Kyoto National Museum, Kyoto Sōtatsu: Making Waves Arthur M. Sa
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, affiliated with Columbia University. It is directed by Jennifer Crewe and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, social work, religion and international studies. Founded in 1893, Columbia University Press is notable for publishing reference works, such as The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry and The Columbia Gazetteer of the World and for publishing music. First among American university presses to publish in electronic formats, in 1998 the Press founded an online-only site, Columbia International Affairs Online and Columbia Earthscape. In 2011, Columbia University Press bought UK publisher Wallflower Press. Official website Columbia Earthscape Columbia International Affairs Online Columbia Granger's World of Poetry Columbia Gazetteer of the World
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
Ki no Tsurayuki
Ki no Tsurayuki was a Japanese author and courtier of the Heian period. He is best known as the principal compiler of the Kokin Wakashū writing its Japanese Preface, as a possible author of the Tosa Diary, although this was published anonymously. Tsurayuki was a son of Ki no Mochiyuki. In the 890s he became a poet of short poems composed in Japanese. In 905, under the order of Emperor Daigo, he was one of four poets selected to compile the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperially-sponsored anthology of waka poetry. After holding a few offices in Kyoto, he was appointed the provincial governor of Tosa Province and stayed there from 930 until 935, he was appointed the provincial governor of Suō Province, since it was recorded that he held a waka party at his home in Suo. He is well known for his waka and is counted as one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals selected by Fujiwara no Kintō, he was known as one of the editors of the Kokin Wakashū. Tsurayuki wrote one of two prefaces to Kokin Wakashū, his preface was the first critical essay on waka.
He wrote of its history from its mythological origin to his contemporary waka, which he grouped into genres, referred to some major poets and gave a bit of harsh criticism to his predecessors like Ariwara no Narihira. His waka is included in one of the important Japanese poetry anthologies, the Hyakunin Isshu, compiled in the 13th century by Fujiwara no Teika, long after Tsurayuki's death. Besides the Kokin Wakashū and its Japanese preface, Tsurayuki's major literary work was the Tosa Nikki, written using kana; the text details a trip in 935 returning to Kyoto from Tosa Province, where Tsurayuki had been the provincial governor. Tsurayuki's name is referred to in the Tale of Genji as a waka master. In this story, Emperor Uda ordered him and a number of female poets to write waka on his panels as accessories. Media related to Ki no Tsurayuki at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Ki no Tsurayuki at Internet Archive Works by Ki no Tsurayuki at LibriVox e-texts of Tsurayuki's works at Aozora Bunko A Note on the English Translation: an example of his poem from the Hyakunin Isshu with seven different translations, Also see Primitive and Mediaeval Japanese Texts translated into English by F. V. Dickins.
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1906. Pp 379–391
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources