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The Thinker

The Thinker is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin placed on a stone pedestal. The work shows a nude male figure of heroic size sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand as though deep in thought used as an image to represent philosophy. There are about 28 full-sized castings, in which the figure is about 186 cm high, though not all were made during Rodin's lifetime and under his supervision. There are various other versions, several in plaster, studies and posthumous castings exist in a range of sizes. Rodin first conceived the figure as part of his work The Gates of Hell commissioned in 1880, but the first of the familiar monumental bronze castings did not appear until 1904; the Thinker was named The Poet, was part of a large commission begun in 1880 for a doorway surround called The Gates of Hell. Rodin based this on The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, most of the figures in the work represented the main characters in the poem with The Thinker at the center of the composition over the doorway and somewhat larger than most of the other figures.

Some critics believe that it was intended to depict Dante at the gates of Hell, pondering his great poem. Other critics reject that theory, pointing out that the figure is naked while Dante is clothed throughout his poem, that the sculpture's physique does not correspond to Dante's effete figure; the sculpture is nude, as Rodin wanted a heroic figure in the tradition of Michelangelo, to represent intellect as well as poetry. This detail from the Gates of Hell was first named The Thinker by foundry workers, who noted its similarity to Michelangelo's statue of Lorenzo de Medici called Il Penseroso, Rodin decided to treat the figure as an independent work at a larger size; the figure was designed to be seen from below and is displayed on a high plinth, although the heights vary chosen by the various owners. The Thinker has been cast in multiple versions and is found around the world, but the history of the progression from models to castings is still not clear. About 28 monumental-sized bronze casts are in public places.

In addition, there are sculptures of different study-sized scales and plaster versions in both monumental and study sizes. Some newer castings have been produced posthumously and are not considered part of the original production. Rodin made the first small plaster version around 1881; the first full-scale model was presented at the Salon des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1904. A public subscription financed a bronze casting in 1906, which became the property of the City of Paris, was put in front of the Panthéon. In 1922, it was moved to the Hôtel Biron, transformed into the Rodin Museum. A bronze cast of the sculpture can be found in front of Grawemeyer Hall on the University of Louisville Belknap Campus in Louisville, Kentucky, it was made in Paris and was first displayed at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904 given to the city; this sculpture was the only cast created by the lost-wax casting method. The "Penseur", a poem by Philadelphia poet Florence Earle Coates at Wikisource Rodin: The B. Gerald Cantor Collection, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on The Thinker Link to The Thinker at the official Web site of the Musée Rodin.

The Thinker Inspiration and Critical Reception The Thinker project, Munich. Discussion of the history of the many casts of this artwork; the Thinker, Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, Object Number 1988.106, bronze cast No. 10, edition of 12. Auguste Rodin and The Thinker, the story behind his most iconic sculpture of all time at

Siege of Dresden

The Siege of Dresden took place in July 1760 during the Third Silesian War when a Prussian force led by Frederick the Great unsuccessfully besieged the city of Dresden in Saxony. Frederick had occupied Dresden in 1756 during his Invasion of Saxony, which had triggered the outbreak of war. In 1759 it had been taken back by Austria-led forces. Frederick now targeted it in an attempt to reassert control over Saxony where he had expansionist territorial ambitions; the Prussian army reached the outskirts of Dresden on 13 July followed by a corps of Austrian troops under Count von Lacy. Frederick's forces crossed the River Elbe and overran the suburbs of the city bringing up heavy guns to target inside the city walls. Frederick was accused of deliberately shelling civilian areas of the city. Deciding to move and confront the threatening army of Daun, Frederick abandoned his attempt to reoccupy the city and withdrew; the large amount of damage done to the city and indiscriminate destruction further damaged Frederick's reputation across much of Europe.

In particular, his destruction of the Elector of Saxony's gardens at Pirna in the wake of the siege, drew criticism. Dresden was the third major siege Frederick had been forced to abandon following Olomouc. Frederick's forces fought the Battle of Liegnitz on 15 August. Childs, John. Armies and Warfare in Europe, 1648–1789. Manchester University Press, 1982. Dull, Jonathan R; the French Navy and the Seven Years' War. University of Nebraska Press, 2005. Szabo, Franz A. J; the Seven Years War in Europe, 1757–1763. Pearson, 2008


Ugra-Karma is the second full-length album by Finnish black metal band Impaled Nazarene. It was released on December 1, 1993 via Osmose Productions, re-released in 1998 with two bonus tracks and a different cover art, because the original one was taken without permission from a work by Madame Koslovsky. "Ugra-Karma" is a term in Sanskrit that denotes a harmful action. All tracks are written by Kimmo and Mika Luttinen, except for "Conned Thru Life" by Pete Hurley, Dean Jones and Phil Vane. Impaled NazareneMika Luttinen — vocals Kimmo Luttinendrums, guitars Taneli Jarvabass Jarno Anttila — guitarsOther staffAhti Kortelainen — production Madame Koslovsky — cover art Jean-Pascal Fournier — cover art Ugra-Karma at Discogs

Schottky transistor

A Schottky transistor is a combination of a transistor and a Schottky diode that prevents the transistor from saturating by diverting the excessive input current. It is called a Schottky-clamped transistor. Standard transistor-transistor logic uses transistors as saturated switches. A saturated transistor is turned on hard, which means it has a lot more base drive than it needs for the collector current it is drawing; the extra base drive creates a stored charge in the base of the transistor. The stored charge causes problems when the transistor needs to be switched from on to off: while the charge is present, the transistor is on. Removing the charge takes time, so the result of saturation is a delay between the applied turn-off input at the base and the voltage swing at the collector. Storage time accounts for a significant portion of the propagation delay in the original TTL logic family. Storage time can be eliminated and propagation delay can be reduced by keeping the switching transistors from saturating.

Schottky transistors prevent the stored base charge. A Schottky transistor places a Schottky diode between the collector of the transistor; as the transistor comes close to saturating, the Schottky diode conducts and shunts any excess base drive to the collector. The resulting transistors, which do not saturate, are Schottky transistors; the Schottky TTL logic families use Schottky transistors in critical places. When forward biased, a Schottky diode's voltage drop is much less than a standard silicon diode's, 0.25 V versus 0.6 V. In a standard saturated transistor, the base-to-collector voltage is 0.6 V. In a Schottky transistor, the Schottky diode shunts current from the base into the collector before the transistor goes into saturation; the input current which drives the transistor's base sees two paths, one path into the base and the other path through the Schottky diode and into the collector. When the transistor conducts, there will be about 0.6 V across its base–emitter junction. The collector voltage will be higher than the base voltage, the Schottky diode will be reverse biased.

If the input current is increased the collector voltage falls below the base voltage, the Schottky diode starts to conduct and shunt some of the base drive current into the collector. The transistor is designed so that its collector saturation voltage is less than the base–emitter voltage VBE minus the Schottky diode's forward voltage drop; the excess input current is shunted away from the base and the transistor never goes into saturation. In 1956, Richard Baker described some discrete diode clamp circuits to keep transistors from saturating; the circuits are now known as Baker clamps. One of those clamp circuits used a single germanium diode to clamp a silicon transistor in a circuit configuration, the same as the Schottky transistor; the circuit relied on the germanium diode having a lower forward voltage drop than a silicon diode would have. In 1964, James R. Biard filed a patent for the Schottky transistor. In his patent the Schottky diode prevented the transistor from saturating by minimizing the forward bias on the collector-base transistor junction, thus reducing the minority carrier injection to a negligible amount.

The diode could be integrated on the same die, it had a compact layout, it had no minority carrier charge storage, it was faster than a conventional junction diode. His patent showed how the Schottky transistor could be used in DTL circuits and improve the switching speed of saturated logic designs, such as the Schottky-TTL, at a low cost. Schottky barrier US 3463975, James R. "Unitary Semiconductor High Speed Switching Device Utilizing a Barrier Diode", published December 31, 1964, issued August 26, 1969 Baker, R. H. "Maximum Efficiency Switching Circuits", MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report TR-110


Akana is a provider of computer software products for application programming interface management. The company was founded as Digital Evolution and was known as SOA Software. In November 2016, Akana was acquired by Rogue Wave Software. In January 2019, Rogue Wave was acquired by Minneapolis-based application software developer Perforce. Akana was founded in 2001 as Digital Evolution. In September 2004, the company acquired enterprise SOA company Flamenco Networks. In March 2005, the company changed its name to SOA Software. In December, the company bought an internal mainframe web services product called X4ML from Merrill Lynch; the product was renamed SOLA. In May 2006, the company acquired a web services networking company. In May 2008, the company acquired an SOA Repository and Governance vendor. In March 2015, the company changed its name to Akana, as the company expanded its product line away from its SOA and web services roots and into API management. In November 2016, Kentucky-based software development company Rogue Wave Software acquired Akana.

In January 2019, Rogue Wave was acquired by Minneapolis-based application software developer Perforce. Akana's products allow companies to create and manage APIs across multiple platforms, including with legacy mainframe applications, to collaborate with external developer teams. API Analytics - Akana's API Analytics platform is used to collect and analyze metadata related to API usage. API Gateway – Akana's API Gateway allows the development and management of APIs across platforms, such as adding support for Microsoft services. API Management - Akana's end-to-end API management platform is used to create, secure manage and monitor APIs. Developer Portal - Akana's Developer Portal allows internal and external API developer teams to work as a community with features such as role based access control. Lifecycle Manager – Akana's API Lifecycle Manager product helps enterprises better integrate APIs with IT policies and business activities and processes. SOLA - SOLA is Akana's software for integrating mainframe applications with APIs.

Application programming interface Akana website

Tony Trischka

Anthony Cattel Trischka is an American five-string banjo player. A native of Syracuse, New York, Trischka's interest in banjo was sparked by the Kingston Trio's version of "Charlie and the MTA" in 1963. Two years he joined the Down City Ramblers, where he remained through 1971; that year, he made his recording debut on 15 Bluegrass Instrumentals with the band Country Cooking. In 1973, he began a three-year stint with Breakfast Special. Between 1974 and 1975, he recorded Bluegrass Light and Heartlands. After one more solo album in 1976, Banjoland, he went on to become musical leader for the Broadway show The Robber Bridegroom. Trischka toured with the show in 1978, the year he played with the Monroe Doctrine. In 1978, Trischka recorded with Peter Rowan and Richard Greene. In the early 1980s, he began recording with his group Skyline, which released its first album in 1983. Albums included Robot Plane Flies over Arkansas, Stranded in the Moonlight and Hill Country. In 1984, he performed in Foxfire.

Three years he worked on the pre-recorded music for the off-Broadway production of Driving Miss Daisy that featured Jessica Tandy and Morgan Freeman. Trischka produced the Belgian group Gold Rush's No More Angels in 1988; the following year, Skyline recorded Fire of Grace. He recorded the theme song for Books on the Air, a popular National Public Radio show, continued his affiliation with the network by appearing on Garrison Keillor's Prairie Home Companion, Mountain Stage, From Our Front Porch, other radio shows. Trischka continued his recording career with 1993's World Turning, 1995's Glory Shone Around: A Christmas Collection and 1999's Bend. New Deal followed in 2003. Double Banjo Bluegrass Spectacular, featuring appearances by Steve Martin, Earl Scruggs, Béla Fleck, Tony Rice and many other luminaries, came out four years later. For this recording Trischka reinvigorated the double banjo tradition. In October 2007, he was given an IBMA award for Banjo Player of the Year 2007. Double Banjo Bluegrass Spectacular received IBMA awards for Recorded Event of the Year, Instrumental Album of the Year and a Grammy Nomination.

He has written over a series of DVDs. In July 2009 he launched the groundbreaking Online Banjo School with Tony Trischka, an interactive, online learning school that teaches students around the world how to play banjo with ArtistWorks. Trischka is associated with "newgrass," which features several innovations to traditional bluegrass, including jazzy arrangements, non-traditional chordal structures, frequent covers of non-bluegrass songs. Trischka is one of the major innovators of the "chromatic" banjo style, which features sinewy, snaky melodic runs not played out of chord positions. 2011 saw Give Me the Banjo aired on PBS stations nationwide with Trischka as the musical director and co-producer of the documentary. It was released on DVD, he produced Steve Martin's Grammy-nominated Rare Bird Alert, which features performances by Paul McCartney, the Dixie Chicks and the Steep Canyon Rangers. In December 2012, Trischka was awarded the United States Artists Friends Fellow in recognition of the excellence of his work.

Bluegrass Light Heartlands Banjoland Fiddle Tunes for Banjo with Bill Keith and Béla Fleck A Robot Plane Flies over Arkansas Hill Country Alone & Together with Beppe Gambetta Solo Banjo Works with Béla Fleck World Turning Glory Shone Around: A Christmas Collection Double Banjo Bluegrass Spectacular Territory Great Big World With the Big Dogs Live at the Birchmere With Psychograss Psychograss Like Minds Now Hear This With Skyline Late to Work Stranded in the Moonlight Skyline Drive Fire of Grace With the Wayfaring Strangers Shifting Sands of Time This Train Merv Griffin Show, 1976 Nashville Network's Fire on the Mountain, 1984, 1986 Ralph Emery's "Frets" Awards Show, The Nashville Network, 1987 CBS Hallmark Hall of Fame production of Foxfire with Jessica Tandy, Hume Cronyn and John Denver, 1987 British television production of Echoes of America: History of the Five String Banjo, 1989 Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, 1992 CBS Sunday Morning with Charles Osgood – feature story, 1995 ABC World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, Summer, 1996 ABC Views, with Béla Fleck, Summer 1997 Live at the Quick, with Bela Fleck, 2004–2006 The Ellen DeGeneres Show, with Steve Martin, Brittany Haas, Michael Daves, April 2007 Late Show with David Letterman, with Steve Martin, Bela Fleck, Brittany Haas, Michael Daves, April 2007 CBS Television Network's Elton John: I'm Still Standing - A Grammy Salute, with Miley Cyrus, April 2018 Melodic Banjo, Oak Publications, 1976 Banjo Song Book, Oak Publications, 1977 Masters of the 5-String Banjo, Oak Publications, 1988 Official site Online Banjo School with Tony Trischka ArtistWorks Academy of Bluegrass