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The Trial

The Trial is a novel written by Franz Kafka between 1914 and 1915 and published posthumously in 1925. One of his best-known works, it tells the story of Josef K. a man arrested and prosecuted by a remote, inaccessible authority, with the nature of his crime revealed neither to him nor to the reader. Influenced by Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, Kafka went so far as to call Dostoyevsky a blood relative. Like Kafka's other novels, The Trial was never completed, although it does include a chapter which appears to bring the story to an intentionally abrupt ending. After Kafka's death in 1924 his friend and literary executor Max Brod edited the text for publication by Verlag Die Schmiede; the original manuscript is held at the Museum of Modern Literature, Marbach am Germany. The first English language translation, by Willa and Edwin Muir, was published in 1937. In 1999, the book was listed in Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century and as No. 2 of the Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century.

On the morning of his thirtieth birthday, Josef K. the chief cashier of a bank, is unexpectedly arrested by two unidentified agents from an unspecified agency for an unspecified crime. Josef is not imprisoned, but left "free" and told to await instructions from the Committee of Affairs. Josef's landlady, Frau Grubach, tries to console Josef about the trial, but insinuates that the procedure may be related to an immoral relationship with his neighbor Fräulein Bürstner. Josef visits Bürstner to vent his worries, kisses her. A few days Josef finds that Fräulein Montag, a lodger from another room, has moved in with Fräulein Bürstner, he suspects. Josef is ordered to appear at the court's address the coming Sunday, without being told the exact time or room. After a period of exploration, Josef finds the court in the attic. Josef is reproached for his tardiness, he arouses the assembly's hostility after a passionate plea about the absurdity of the trial and the emptiness of the accusation. Josef tries to confront the presiding judge over his case, but only finds an attendant's wife.

The woman gives him information about the process and attempts to seduce him before a law student bursts into the room and takes the woman away, claiming her to be his mistress. The woman's husband takes K. on a tour of the court offices, which ends after he becomes weak in the presence of other court officials and accused. One evening, in a storage room at his own bank, Josef discovers the two agents who arrested him being whipped by a flogger for asking K. for bribes and as a result of complaints K. made at court. K. tries to argue with the flogger, saying that the men need not be whipped, but the flogger cannot be swayed. The next day he returns to the storage room and is shocked to find everything as he had found it the day before, including the whipper and the two agents. Josef is visited by a traveling countryman. Worried by the rumors about his nephew, the uncle introduces K. to Herr Huld, a sickly and bedridden lawyer tended to by Leni, a young nurse who shows an immediate attraction to Josef.

During the conversation, Leni calls Josef away and takes him to the next room for a sexual encounter. Afterward, Josef meets his angry uncle outside, who claims that Josef's lack of respect for the process has hurt his case. During subsequent visits to Huld, Josef realizes that he is a capricious character who will not be much help to him. At the bank, one of Josef's clients recommends him to seek the advice of Titorelli, the court's official painter. Titorelli has no real influence within the court, but his deep experience of the process is painfully illuminating to Josef, he can only suggest complex and unpleasant hypothetical options, as no definitive acquittal has been managed. Josef decides to dismiss Huld and take control of matters himself. Upon arriving at Huld's office, Josef meets a downtrodden individual, Rudi Block, a client who offers Josef some insight from a client's perspective. Block's case has continued for five years and he has gone from being a successful businessman to being bankrupt and is enslaved by his dependence on the lawyer and Leni, with whom he appears to be sexually involved.

The lawyer mocks Block in front of Josef for his dog-like subservience. This experience further poisons Josef's opinion of his lawyer. Josef is put in charge of accompanying an important Italian client to the city's cathedral. While inside the cathedral, a priest calls Josef by name and tells him a fable, meant to explain his situation; the priest tells Josef that the parable is an ancient text of the court, many generations of court officials have interpreted it differently. Two days before Josef's thirty-first birthday, two men arrive at his apartment to execute him, they lead him to a small quarry outside the city, murder him with a butcher's knife without any sense of formality. Josef summarizes his situation with his last words: "Like a dog!" Josef K. – The tale's protagonist. Fräulein Bürstner – A boarder in the same house as Josef K, she lets him kiss her one night, but rebuffs his advances. K. catches sight of her, or someone who looks similar to her, in the final pages of the novel. Fräulein Montag – Friend of Fräulein Bürstner, she talks to K. about ending his relationship with Fräulein Bürstner after his arrest.

She claims because she is an objective third party. Willem and Franz – Officers who arrest K. one morning but refuse to disclose the crime he is said to have committed. Inspector – Man who conducts a proceeding

CIA Tibetan program

Tibetan program was a nearly two decades long covert operation consisting of "political action, propaganda and intelligence operations" based on U. S. Government arrangements made with brothers of the Dalai Lama, who himself was not aware of them; the goal of the program was "to keep the political concept of an autonomous Tibet alive within Tibet and among several foreign nations". Although it was formally assigned to the CIA alone, it was closely coordinated with several other U. S. government agencies such as the Department of State and the Department of Defense. Previous operations had aimed to strengthen various isolated Tibetan resistance groups, which led to the creation of a paramilitary force on the Nepalese border consisting of 2,000 men. By February 1964, the projected annual cost for all CIA Tibetan operations had exceeded US$1.7 million. The program ended after President Nixon visited China to establish closer relations in 1972; the Dalai Lama criticized this decision, saying it proved wholeheartedly that the US never did it to help the people of Tibet.

In the fields of political action and propaganda, the CIA's Tibetan program was aimed at lessening the influence and territorial scope of the Chinese regime. The United States feared communist involvement in the region. A 1957 report on logistical issues indicated increasing trepidation that the Chinese would escalate their communist presence in Tibet; the spread of communism in the international community was a huge concern for the United States. The CIA considered China's interest in Tibet to be a threat for multiple reasons. A 1950 memorandum noted that some of the reasons stemmed from a notion of bolstered sovereignty and a motivation to forge "a bulwark against possible invasion by western powers via India." However, they believed that China would "use a base for attacks against India and the Middle East in the third world war." Therefore, intelligence officials declared action as a preventative measure should their worst-case scenario unfold. The approval and subsequent endorsement of the program was carried out by the Special Group of the United States National Security Council.

The program consisted of several clandestine operations bearing the following code names: ST CIRCUS—Cover name for the training of Tibetan guerillas on the island of Saipan, at Camp Hale in Colorado ST BARNUM—Cover name for the airlifting of CIA agents, military supplies, support equipment into Tibet. ST BAILEY—Cover name for a classified propaganda campaignChinese-Indian relations played an important role in framing the CIA's operations. Due to Tibet's geographic location between the two countries, it was strategically important; the CIA released numerous reports assessing relations. The CIA monitored the relations between China and India in various ways, including media such as newspapers and radio broadcasts that reported on the changing relations between India and China. In October 1954, for example, a report was filed by CIA analysts concerning Indian Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru's visit to China, it assessed what the two countries might not agree to from a diplomatic standpoint.

Following the month-long Sino-Indian War of 1962, the CIA developed a close relationship with Indian foreign intelligence services in both training and supplying agents in Tibet. The CIA worked to strengthen the Tibetans against the Chinese communist efforts. To do so, the United States planned to issue asylum to his supporters; some resistance fighters took their own lives. The Tibetan resistance was promised weaponry and resources from the West to continue their resistance against the Chinese. Knowing resistance was unlikely to succeed the resistance accepted Chinese annexation; the Chinese army launched the invasion of the Tibetan capital of Lhasa, codenamed Operation Chamdo, in October 1950 thus crystallizing the origin of the tension between China and Tibet. With this tension came Tibetan resistance towards China and the United States' interest in helping them fight the Chinese communist forces. In a memorandum from July 1958, the CIA described the growing resistance to the Chinese in Tibet.

The memo noted, "During the past two and one half years, resistance has hardened and grown despite Chinese countermeasures that include military force as well as partial withdrawal of Chinese cadres and postponement of'reforms' and other programs leading toward socialization" In the early 1950s, the CIA inserted paramilitary teams from the Special Activities Division to train and lead Tibetan resistance fighters against the People's Liberation Army of China. The Tibetans were willing to fight against the Chinese for they and the CIA had a mutual interest in stymying the spread of Communism from China into Tibet; the Tibetan people started to form anti-Chinese protests under the influence of the Dalai Lama. However, the government of Tibet did not encourage such anti-Chinese protest; the reasons behind the Tibetan people's motivation for the coup was because they perceived the Communist party the Chinese, to be a threat to their religion: Buddhism the religion of Tibet is a form of Buddhism known as Lamaism.

It is considered unorthodox within the Buddhist community due to its belief in animism. The most significant facet obstructing Chinese Communists from infiltrating Tibet was its strong societal structure. Lamaism was the governing political party in addition to being the most practiced religion at the time. Tibetan polity was known as a theocracy. Monasteries tried to create peace and understanding between the people who gave them the power of mass ideological guidance. Gyalo Thondup, the Dalai Lama's br

Computer Misuse Act 1990

The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, introduced in response to the decision in R v Gold & Schifreen 1 AC 1063. Critics of the bill was poorly thought out. Intention, they said, was difficult to prove, that the bill inadequately differentiated "joyriding" hackers like Gold and Schifreen from serious computer criminals; the Act has nonetheless become a model from which several other countries, including Canada and the Republic of Ireland, have drawn inspiration when subsequently drafting their own information security laws, as it is seen "as a robust and flexible piece of legislation in terms of dealing with cybercrime”. Several amendments have been passed to keep the Act up to date. Robert Schifreen and Stephen Gold, using conventional home computers and modems in late 1984 and early 1985, gained unauthorised access to British Telecom's Prestel interactive viewdata service. While at a trade show, Schifreen, by doing what latterly became known as shoulder surfing, had observed the password of a Prestel engineer.

The engineer's username was 22222222 and the password used was 1234. This gave rise to accusations that British Telecom had not taken security seriously. Armed with this information, the pair explored the system gaining access to the personal message box of Prince Philip. Prestel installed monitors on the suspect accounts and passed information thus obtained to the police; the pair were charged under section 1 of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 with defrauding BT by manufacturing a "false instrument", namely the internal condition of BT's equipment after it had processed Gold's eavesdropped password. Tried at Southwark Crown Court, they were convicted on specimen charges and fined £750 and £600. Although the fines imposed were modest, they elected to appeal to the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, their counsel cited the lack of evidence showing the two had attempted to obtain material gain from their exploits, claimed that the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act had been misapplied to their conduct.

They were acquitted by the Lord Justice Lane. In 1988, the Lords upheld the acquittal. Lord Justice Brandon said: We have accordingly come to the conclusion that the language of the Act was not intended to apply to the situation, shown to exist in this case; the submissions at the close of the prosecution case should have succeeded. It is a conclusion; the Procrustean attempt to force these facts into the language of an Act not designed to fit them produced grave difficulties for both judge and jury which we would not wish to see repeated. The appellants' conduct amounted in essence, as stated, to dishonestly gaining access to the relevant Prestel data bank by a trick; that is not a criminal offence. If it is thought desirable to make it so, a matter for the legislature rather than the courts; the Law Lords' ruling led many legal scholars to believe that hacking was not unlawful as the law stood. The English Law Commission and its counterpart in Scotland both considered the matter; the Scottish Law Commission concluded that intrusion was adequately covered in Scotland under the common law related to deception, but the English Law Commission believed a new law was necessary.

Since the case, both defendants have written extensively about IT matters. Gold, who detailed the entire case at some length in The Hacker's Handbook, has presented at conferences alongside the arresting officers in the case. Based on the ELC's recommendations, a private member's bill was introduced by Conservative MP Michael Colvin; the bill, supported by the government, came into effect in 1990. Sections 1-3 of the Act introduced three criminal offences: unauthorised access to computer material, punishable by twelve months' imprisonment and/or a fine "not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale"; the basic section 1 offence is to attempt or achieve access to a computer or the data it stores, by inducing a computer to perform any function with intent to secure access. Hackers who program their computers to search through password permutations are therefore liable if their attempts to log on are rejected by the target computer; the only precondition to liability is that the hacker should be aware that the access attempted is unauthorised.

Thus, using another person's username or identifier and password without proper authority to access data or a program, or to alter, copy or move a program or data, or to output a program or data to a screen or printer, or to impersonate that other person using e-mail, online chat, web or other services, constitute the offence. If the initial access is authorised, subsequent exploration, if there is a hierarchy of privileges in the system, may lead to entry to parts of the system for which the requisite privileges are lacking and the offence will be committed. Looking over a user's shoulder or using sophisticated electronic equipment

Prostitution in Ukraine

Prostitution in Ukraine is illegal but widespread and ignored by the government. In recent times, Ukraine has become a popular sex trafficking destination. Ukrainian women and children are subjected to forced sexual services and sex trafficking within the country and to other European, Central Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Ukraine's dissolution from the Soviet Union, saw the nation attempt to transition from a planned economy to a market economy; the transition process inflicted economic hardship in the nation, with nearly 80% of the population forced into poverty in the decade that followed its independence. Unemployment in Ukraine was growing at an increasing rate, with female unemployment rising to 64% by 1997; the economic decline in Ukraine made the nation vulnerable and forced many to depend on prostitution and trafficking as a source of income. Sex tourism rose. According to the Ukrainian Institute of Social Studies in 2011 there were 50,000 women working as prostitutes with every sixth prostitute being a minor.

The organisation claimed the largest number of prostitutes were found in Kiev in the Odessa area, about 3,000 could be found in Dnipropetrovsk and in Donetsk, in Kharkiv 2,500 and 2,000 were said to have worked in Crimea. Research by the State Institute for Family and Youth Issues indicates that, for many women, sex work has become the only adequate source of income: more than 50% of them support their children and parents. 10% of adolescents living on the streets were suspected to have provided sex to other men for food and clothing. In regards to trafficking, Ukrainian citizens make up 80% of traffickers with 60% being women. Sexual trafficking victims tend to be girls between the ages of seventeen and twenty-six. Ukraine is now known to have a greater number of trafficking victims than any other Eastern European nation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 1998, the Ukrainian Ministry of Interior estimated that 400,000 Ukrainian women were trafficked during the previous decade. According to the International Organization for Migration over 500,000 Ukrainian women have been exploited with trafficking to the West since its independence in 1991 up to 1998.

Ukrainian women have been exported to countries across the world, such as Turkey, Cyprus, Spain, United Arab Emirates, Syria etc. According to multiple reports the Ukrainian sex-workers are the largest group of foreign women in Turkey involved into prostitution and the second largest group of foreign women involved into prostitution outside the US military bases in Republic of Korea. Of trafficking victims, 80% were unemployed prior to leaving Ukraine. Traffickers use this economic vulnerability to recruit women into prostitution. Many victims were convinced to leave Ukraine with the promise of profit by traffickers; the traffickers say they will work as in-store clerks. Victims are exported with legal documents such as travel visas. Ukrainian police say 70% of trafficked women travel with genuine documents obtained from corrupt officials; the majority of women cross the border with these genuine documents as opposed to being smuggled. Once they arrive in their destination country, they are trapped by pimps taking away their visas, or by owing the pimps money to be paid off with prostitution.

If they succeed in paying off their debt, some become recruiters, going back to Ukraine and telling friends and family they made a significant amount of money by going abroad. 60% of traffickers are Ukrainian women. While a IOM survey in 2011 says that 92% of Ukrainians were aware of sexual trafficking, trafficking continued to increase since then. Ukrainians working irregularly abroad increased from 28% to 41% from 2011 to 2015. In Ukraine, children are the victims of forced labor and other kind of sexual exploitations; the group most prone to prostitution are ones belonging to poor families, homeless children and orphans. Ukraine experiences between 8000 cases of sexual children exploitation per year. According to the IOM data, 10% of the 1355 Ukrainian victims of trafficking, were adolescents. Although child prostitution in Ukraine is illegal, a retrospective inquiry of adults shows that 20% of women and a 10% of men have experienced a sexual abuse by the age of 18. HIV and AIDS are prominent in Ukraine with 1% of people aged 15–49 having HIV as of 2003.

This gives Ukraine the highest rate of infection in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. HIV is contracted more in people who do not use condoms during sex. In a study conducted in 2005, female sex workers knew sex without condoms increased the risk of HIV, but said they didn't always use condoms. Close to half of these workers said they would not use condoms if the client refused, if they were offered more money, if the client was a frequent customer. Female sex workers have less access to medical services which makes prevention and treatment more difficult to acquire; the social stigma and poverty that accompany sex work make it difficult to get prevention measures and treatment. By law prostitution is illegal in Ukraine. While individual prostitution is not classified as a criminal offense, engagement in prostitution is an administrative offence in Ukraine as of 12 June 1987, when it was forbidden by Supreme Court of Ukraine and individuals are susceptible to a fine of 255 Hryvnia.

However, there are other laws in place that aim to control pimping and the organization and operation of b

Sunrise Ford Racing

Sunrise Ford Racing, sometimes referred to as Bob Bruncati Racing, is an American professional stock car racing team that competes full-time in the ARCA Menards Series West. It is a subsidiary of the Sunrise Ford dealership network based in North Hollywood and Fontana, California; the team fields the No. 6 Ford Fusion for Trevor Huddleston and the No. 9 Ford for Blaine Perkins. The team was formed by Bob Bruncati in 2000 to allow his sons to race at the Irwindale Event Center. SFR moved to the West Series in 2006 and has remained there since. Over the course of their fifteen years in the series, the team has won three series championships, first with Jason Bowles in 2009 and two with Derek Thorn in 2013 and 2018. Both of Thorn's titles came in separate stints with the team. All three of Sunrise Ford's titles came with their No. 6 car. In 2020, the team formed a driver development program with Stewart-Haas Racing. Official website

Gbeľany

Gbeľany is a village and municipality in Žilina District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1362; the municipality lies at an altitude of 375 metres and covers an area of 7.134 km². It has a population of about 1244 people. Ján Franek, former boxer who represented Czechoslovakia and winner of the 1980 Summer Olympics bronze medal; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bytca, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1686-1896 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia https://web.archive.org/web/20080111223415/http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html Surnames of living people in Gbelany