The Tower of Babel (Bruegel)
The Tower of Babel was the subject of three paintings by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The first, a miniature painted on ivory, was painted while Bruegel is now lost; the two surviving paintings distinguished by the prefix "Great" and "Little", are in the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam respectively. Both are oil paintings on wood panels; the Rotterdam painting is about half the size of the Vienna one. In broad terms they have the same composition, but at a detailed level everything is different, whether in the architecture of the tower or in the sky and the landscape around the tower; the Vienna version has a group in the foreground, with the main figure Nimrod, believed to have ordered the construction of the tower, although the Bible does not say this. In Vienna the tower rises at the edge of a large city, but the Rotterdam tower is in open countryside; the paintings depict the construction of the Tower of Babel, according to the Book of Genesis in the Bible, was built by a unified, monolingual humanity as a mark of their achievement and to prevent them from scattering: "Then they said,'Come, let us build ourselves a city, a tower with its top in the heavens, let us make a name for ourselves.
Bruegel's depiction of the architecture of the tower, with its numerous arches and other examples of Roman engineering, is deliberately reminiscent of the Roman Colosseum, which Christians of the time saw as a symbol of both hubris and persecution. Bruegel had visited Rome in 1552–1553. Back in Antwerp, he may have refreshed his memory of Rome with a series of engravings of the principal landmarks of the city made by the publisher of his own prints, Hieronymous Cock, for he incorporated details of Cock's engravings of Roman views in both surviving versions of the Tower of Babel; the parallel of Rome and Babylon had a particular significance for Bruegel's contemporaries: Rome was the Eternal City, intended by the Caesars to last forever, its decay and ruin were taken to symbolize the vanity and transience of earthly efforts. The Tower was symbolic of the religious turmoil between the Catholic church and the polyglot Protestant religion, popular in the Netherlands; the subject may have had a specific topicality, as the famous Polyglot Bible in six languages, a landmark in Biblical scholarship, was published in Antwerp in 1566.
Although at first glance the tower appears to be a stable series of concentric pillars, upon closer examination it is apparent that none of the layers lies at a true horizontal. Rather the tower is built as an ascending spiral; the workers in the painting have built the arches perpendicular to the slanted ground, thereby making them unstable, a few arches can be seen crumbling. The foundation and bottom layers of the tower had not been completed before the higher layers were constructed. Lucas van Valckenborch, a contemporary of Bruegel's painted the Tower of Babel in the 1560s and in his career after seeing Bruegel's depiction. Both were part of a larger tradition of painting the tower during the 17th centuries; the story of the Tower of Babel was interpreted as an example of pride punished, and, no doubt what Bruegel intended his painting to illustrate. Moreover, the hectic activity of the engineers and workmen points to a second moral: the futility of much human endeavour. Nimrod's doomed building was used to illustrate this meaning in Sebastian Brant's Ship of Fools.
Bruegel's knowledge of building procedures and techniques is correct in detail. The skill with which he has shown these activities recalls that his last commission, left unfinished at his death, was for a series of documentary paintings recording the digging of a canal linking Brussels and Antwerp. Both towers are shown partly-built with stone facings over a massive brick framework, a typical technique in Roman architecture, used in the Colosseum and other huge Roman buildings. Grand and formal architecture of this sort is not a usual interest of Bruegel in either paintings or drawings, although it was typical subject matter for many of his contemporaries. Nadine Orenstein, in discussing his only known drawing of buildings in Rome, concludes from the details taken from the Colosseum in both Tower paintings that he "must" have recorded them in drawings on his visit ten years before, but given the easy availability of prints this does not seem conclusive. There are no surviving drawings that are any other of Bruegel's paintings.
This is despite indications. Both Tower versions are full of the type of details which are to have been worked out in sketches first. Except for a lack of mountains, the paintings contain the main ingredients of the world landscape, a type of composition followed in many of Bruegel's earlier landscapes; the Vienna tower is built around a steep small mountain, which can be seen protruding from the architecture at the centre near the ground and to the right higher up. The Vienna painting is dated "Brvegel. FE. M. CCCCC. LXIII ", on the stone block directly in front of the king, it was painted in 1563 for the Antwerp banker Nicolaes Jonghelinck, one of Bruegel's best patrons, who owned no fewer than 16 of his paintings. The painting appears as the main element on one box art design of the video game Civilization III, they are mentioned in Shadowman, where Jaunty explains that Bruegel was shocked at how The Asylum resemb
The Fall of the Rebel Angels (Bruegel)
The Fall of the Rebel Angels is an oil-on-panel by the Netherlandish Renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder, painted in 1562. It is held and exhibited at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels. Painted in 1562, Bruegel's depiction of this subject is taken from a passage from the Book of Revelation and reveals the artist's profound debt to Hieronymous Bosch in the grotesque figures of the fallen angels, shown as half-human, half-animal monsters. Together with Dulle Griet and The Triumph of Death, which have similar dimensions, it was painted for the same collector and destined to become part of a series; the composition with a central figure placed among many smaller figures was favoured by Bruegel at this time, not only in other paintings such as Dulle Griet, but in the series of engravings of the Vices and the Virtues which he had just completed for the Antwerp publisher Hieronymous Cock. The archangel Michael and his angels are shown by Bruegel in the act of driving the rebel angels from Heaven.
Pride was the sin which caused the fall of Lucifer and his companions, the conflict of good and evil and virtue, is a theme which recurs in Bruegel's work. Details The Fall at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. Its history can be traced back nearly 5,000 years to archeological discoveries in the Middle East in Iran, it is a two player game where each player has fifteen pieces which move between twenty-four triangles according to the roll of two dice. The objective of the game is to be first to bear off, i.e. move all fifteen checkers off the board. Backgammon is a member of one of the oldest classes of board games. Backgammon involves a combination of luck. While the dice may determine the outcome of a single game, the better player will accumulate the better record over series of many games, somewhat like poker. With each roll of the dice, players must choose from numerous options for moving their checkers and anticipate possible counter-moves by the opponent; the optional use of a doubling cube allows players to raise the stakes during the game. Like chess, backgammon has been studied with great interest by computer scientists. Owing to this research, backgammon software has been developed, capable of beating world-class human players.
Backgammon playing pieces may be termed checkers, stones, counters, discs, chips, or nips. The objective is for players to remove all their checkers from the board before their opponent can do the same. In the most often-played variants the checkers are scattered at first; as the playing time for each individual game is short, it is played in matches where victory is awarded to the first player to reach a certain number of points. Each side of the board has a track of called points; the points form a continuous track in the shape of a horseshoe, are numbered from 1 to 24. In the most used setup, each player begins with fifteen chips, two are placed on their 24-point, three on their 8-point, five each on their 13-point and their 6-point; the two players move their chips from the 24-point towards the 1-point. Points 1 through 6 are called the home board or inner board, points 7 through 12 are called the outer board; the 7-point is referred to as the bar point, the 13-point as the midpoint. To start the game, each player rolls one die, the player with the higher number moves first using the numbers shown on both dice.
If the players roll the same number, they must roll again. Both dice must land flat on the right-hand side of the gameboard; the players take alternate turns, rolling two dice at the beginning of each turn. After rolling the dice, players must, if possible, move their checkers according to the number shown on each die. For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3, the player must move one checker six points forward, another or the same checker three points forward; the same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: six and three, or three and six. If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice. For example, a roll of 5-5 allows the player to make four moves of five spaces each. On any roll, a player must move according to the numbers on both dice if it is at all possible to do so. If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and his or her turn ends. If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used.
If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory. In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point, unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers, it may land on a point occupied by one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface. A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. There is no limit to the number of checkers. Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made. A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the 24-point, a roll of 2 on the 23-point, so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the 19-point. Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on points occupied by a single opposing checker. More than one checker can be on the bar at a time.
A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board. If a player has checkers on the bar, but rolls a combination that does not allow any of those checkers to re-enter, the player does not move. If the opponent's home board is "closed", there is no roll that will allow a player to enter a checker from the bar, that player stops rolling and playing until at least one point becomes open due to the opponent's moves; when all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them. A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player may use that die to bear
Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery (Bruegel)
Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery is a small panel painting in grisaille by the Netherlandish Renaissance printmaker and painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder. It is signed and dated 1565. Jesus and the woman taken in adultery is a biblical episode from John 7:53-8:11 where Jesus encounters an adulteress brought before Pharisees and scribes, depicted by many artists; such a crime was punishable by death by stoning, however, in the scene, Jesus stoops to write "he, without sin among you, let him first cast the stone at her" on the ground before her feet. A number of the unthrown stones lay on the floor to the left of the woman. Bruegel depicts the woman as one of the few graceful figures in the scene, she is rendered as atypical of Brugel's usual earthy and homely female figures. Apart from an smaller Three Soldiers in the Frick Collection, Bruegel's only other surviving grisaille painting is the Death of the Virgin at Upton House, an unusually conventional treatment of a religious subject by Bruegel's standards.
However, the earliest documented work by Bruegel was grisaille wings for an altarpiece in 1550/51, as he finished his apprenticeship. This was in Mechelen, where he is documented between September 1550 and October 1551 assisting Peeter Baltens on an altarpiece, painting the wings; the painting was not sold by the artist, seems to be the only one inherited by his son Jan Brueghel the Elder. An engraving was published in 1579 by Paul Perret, lent the painting for the purpose, since there are regular pricks along the edges to enable a grid to be made. There are a number of other copies, some attributed to the artist's sons made after the engraving, the painting was lent to Cardinal Federico Borromeo for copying. A version attributed to Breuegel's son Pieter Brueghel the Younger of c. 1600 is in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The work was sold by the family in the 17th century by Jan Brueghel the Younger, was in England by the 18th century, being sold at Christie's in 1834 and again in 1952 when it was bought by Count Antoine Seilern, whose collection was bequeathed to the Courtauld in 1978.
The work was stolen from the Courtauld Gallery on 2 February 1982. Because of its value and fame, it proved unsaleable on the open market, did not resurface again until 1992 when it was recovered by British police. During that interim, it acted as collateral for the criminals. Braham Helen, The Princes Gate Collection, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London 1981, ISBN 0-904563-04-9 Hagen, Rose-Marie & Hagen, Rainer. Bruegel. Peasants and Demons. Taschen, 2000. ISBN 3-8228-5991-5 Sutton, Peter. Dutch and Flemish Paintings: The Collection of Willem, Baron Van Dedem. Frances Lincoln, 2002. ISBN 0-7112-2010-7 Media related to Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery by Pieter Bruegel at Wikimedia Commons
The breaking wheel or execution wheel known as the Catherine wheel or the Wheel, was a torture method used for public execution in Europe from antiquity through Middle Ages into the early modern period by breaking a criminal's bones and/or bludgeoning them to death. The practice was abolished in Bavaria in 1813 and in the Electorate of Hesse in 1836: the last known execution by the "Wheel" took place in Prussia in 1841. In the Holy Roman Empire, it was a "mirror punishment" for highwaymen and street thieves but was set out in the Sachsenspiegel for murder and arson; those convicted as murderers and/or robbers to be executed by the wheel, sometimes termed to be "wheeled" or "broken by the wheel", would be taken to a public stage scaffold site and tied to the floor. The execution wheel was a large wooden spoked wheel, the same as was used on wooden transport carts and carriages, sometimes purposely modified with a rectangular iron thrust attached and extending blade-like from part of the rim.
The primary goal of the first act was the agonizing mutilation of the body, not death. Therefore, the most common form would start with breaking the leg bones. To this end, the executioner dropped the execution wheel on the shinbones of the convicted person and worked his way up to the arms. Here and number of beatings were prescribed in each case, sometimes the number of spokes on the wheel. To increase its effect sharp-edged timbers were placed under the convict's joints. There were devices in which the convicted person could be "harnessed". Although not commonplace, the executioner could be instructed to execute the convicted person at the end of the first act, by aiming for the neck or heart in a "coup de grace". Less this occurred from the start. In the second act, the body was braided into another wooden spoked wheel, possible through the broken limbs, or tied to the wheel; the wheel was erected on a mast or pole, like a crucifixion. After this, the executioner was permitted to garrotte the convicted if need be.
Alternatively, fire was kindled under the wheel, or the "wheeled" convict was thrown into a fire. A small gallows was set up on the wheel, for example, if there were a guilty verdict for theft in addition to murder. Since the body remained on the wheel after execution, left to scavenging animals and decay, this form of punishment, like the ancient crucifixion, had a sacral function beyond death: according to the belief at that time, this would hinder transition from death to resurrection. If the convict fell from the wheel still alive or the execution failed in some other way, it was interpreted as God's intervention. There exist votive images of saved victims of the wheel, there is literature on how best to treat such sustained injuries; the survival time after being "wheeled" or "broken" could be extensive. Accounts exist of a 14th-century murderer who remained conscious for three days after undergoing the punishment. In 1348, during the time of the Black Death, a Jewish man named; the authorities stated he remained conscious for nights afterwards.
In 1581, the fictitious German serial killer Christman Genipperteinga remained conscious for nine days on the breaking wheel before expiring, having been deliberately kept alive with "strong drink". Alternatively, the condemned were spreadeagled and broken on a saltire, a cross consisting of two wooden beams nailed in an "X" shape, after which the victim's mangled body might be displayed on the wheel. Pieter Spierenburg mentions a reference in sixth-century author Gregory of Tours as a possible origin for the punishment of breaking someone on the wheel. In Gregory's time, a criminal could be placed in a deep track, a laden wagon was driven over him. Thus, the latter practice could be seen as a symbolic re-enactment of the previous penalty in which people were driven over by a wagon. In France, the condemned were placed on a cartwheel with their limbs stretched out along the spokes over two sturdy wooden beams; the wheel was made to revolve and a large hammer or an iron bar was applied to the limb over the gap between the beams, breaking the bones.
This process was repeated several times per limb. Sometimes it was "mercifully" ordered that the executioner should strike the condemned on the chest and abdomen, blows known as coups de grâce, which caused fatal injuries. Without those, the broken man could last hours and days, during which birds could peck at the helpless victim. Shock and dehydration caused death. In France, a special grace, the retentum, could be granted, by which the condemned was strangled after the second or third blow, or in special cases before the breaking began. In the Holy Roman Empire, the wheel was punishment reserved for men convicted of aggravated murder. Less severe offenders would be cudgelled "top down", with a lethal first blow to the neck. More heinous criminals were punished "bottom up", starting with the legs, sometimes being beaten for hours; the number and sequence of blows was specified in the court's sentence. Corpses were left for carrion-eaters, the criminals' heads placed on a spike; the "Zürcher Blutgerichtsordnung" dates from the 15th century and contains a detailed description of how the breaking on the wheel shall occur: Firstly, the del
The Campo Santo known as Camposanto Monumentale or Camposanto Vecchio, is a historical edifice at the northern edge of the Cathedral Square in Pisa, Italy. "Campo Santo" can be translated as "holy field", because it is said to have been built around a shipload of sacred soil from Golgotha, brought back to Pisa from the Third Crusade by Ubaldo Lanfranchi, archbishop of Pisa in the 12th century. A legend claims; the burial ground lies over the ruins of the old baptistery of the church of Santa Reparata, the church that once stood where the cathedral now stands. The term "monumental" serves to differentiate it from the later-established urban cemetery in Pisa; the building was the last one to be raised in the Cathedral Square. It dates from a century after the bringing of the soil from Golgotha, was erected over the earlier burial ground; the construction of this huge, oblong Gothic cloister was begun in 1278 by the architect Giovanni di Simone. He died in 1284; the cemetery was only completed in 1464.
It seems that the building was not meant to be a real cemetery, but a church called Santissima Trinità, but the project changed during the construction. However we know that the original part was the western one, all the eastern part was the last to be built closing the structure; the outer wall is composed of 43 blind arches. There are two doorways; the one on the right is crowned by a gracious Gothic tabernacle. It contains the Virgin Mary with Child, surrounded by four saints, it is the work from the second half of the 14th century by a follower of Giovanni Pisano. This was the original entrance door. Most of the tombs are under the arcades; the inner court is surrounded by elaborate round arches with slender mullions and plurilobed tracery. The cemetery has three chapels; the oldest ones are the chapel Ammannati and takes its name from the tomb of Ligo Ammannati, a teacher in the University of Pisa. In the Aulla chapel we can see the original incense lamp that Galileo Galilei used for calculation of pendular movements.
This lamp is the one Galileo saw inside the cathedral, now replaced by a larger more elaborate one. The last chapel was Dal Pozzo, commissioned by archbishop of Pisa Carlo Antonio Dal Pozzo in 1594. In this chapel in 2009 were translated the relics of the Cathedral: the relics include among the others eleven of the twelve Apostles, two fragments of the True Cross, a thorn from the Crown of Thorns of Christ and a small piece of the dress of the Virgin Mary. In the Dal Pozzo chapel sometimes a Mass is celebrated; the Campo Santo contained a huge collection of Roman sarcophagi, but there are only 84 left together with a collection of Roman and Etruscan sculptures and urns, now in the Museum of the vestry board. The sarcophagi were all around the cathedral attached to the building itself; that until the cemetery was built they were collected in the middle all over the meadow. Carlo Lasinio, in the years he was the curator of the Campo Santo, collected many other ancient relics that were spread in Pisa to make a sort of archeological museum inside the cemetery.
Nowadays the sarcophagi are near the walls. The walls were once covered in frescoes; the first was the Crucifixion by Francesco Traini, in the south western side. Continuing to right, in the southern side, the Last Judgement, The Hell, The Triumph of Death and the Anacoreti nella Tebaide attributed to Buonamico Buffalmacco; the cycle of frescoes continues with the Stories of the Old Testament by Benozzo Gozzoli that were situated in the north gallery, while in the south arcade were the Stories of Pisan Saints, by Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano and Spinello Aretino, the Stories of Job, by Taddeo Gaddi. In the same time, in the north gallery were the Stories of the Genesis by Piero di Puccio. On 27 July 1944, a bomb fragment from an Allied raid started a fire. Due to all the water tanks being controlled, the fire could not be put out in time, it burnt the wooden rafters and melted the lead of the roof; the destruction of the roof damaged everything inside the cemetery, destroying most of the sculptures and sarcophagi and compromising all the frescoes.
An initial effort to rescue the frescoes was organized by Deane Keller of the U. S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, Archives program. Pieces of the frescoes were salvaged and a temporary roof was erected to prevent further damage. After World War II, restoration work began; the roof was restored as as possible to its pre-war appearance and the frescoes were separated from the walls to be restored and displayed elsewhere. Once the frescoes had been removed, the preliminary drawings, called sinopie were removed; these under-drawings were separated using the same technique used on the frescoes and now they are in the Museum of the Sinopie, on the opposite side of the Square. The restored frescoes that still exist are being transferred to their original locations in the cemetery, to restore the Campo Santo's pre-war appearance. Tobino, Mario. Pisa la Piazza dei Miracoli. De Agostini
A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, photography, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh and London; the motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama. A panoramic view is purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories; this so-called "cognitive panorama" is a panoramic view over, a combination of, cognitive spaces used to capture the larger scale. The device of the panorama existed in painting in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found as a means of generating an immersive ` panoptic' experience of a vista. Cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction; this novel perspective was conveyed to America by Benjamin Franklin, present for the first manned balloon flight by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783, by American born physician, John Jeffries who had joined French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard on flights over England and the first aerial crossing of the English Channel in 1785.
In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views and historical events. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment; the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 11, 1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle, referring to this visual spectacle. Barker created a painting, shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, giving viewers a vantage point encompassing the entire circle of the horizon, rendering the original scene with high fidelity; the inaugural exhibition, a "View of Edinburgh", was first shown in that city in 1788 transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863.
Inventor Sir Francis Ronalds developed a machine to remove errors in perspective that were created when a sequence of planar sketches was combined into a cylinder. It projected the cylindrical drawing onto the wall of the rotunda at much larger scale to enable its accurate painting; the apparatus was exhibited at the Royal Polytechnic Institution in the early 1840s. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape; the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters. In the same year of 1881, the Dutch marine painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag created and established the Panorama Mesdag of The Hague, Netherlands, a cylindrical painting more than 14 metres high and 40 meters in diameter. In the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta, it was first displayed in 1887, is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference.
On a gigantic scale, still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to these historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times. Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image. In the late 19th century, flexible film enabled the construction of panoramic cameras using curved film holders and clockwork drives to rotate the lens in an arc and thus scan an image encompassing 180 degrees. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images. A popular design is the "oatmeal box", a vertical cylindrical container in which the pinhole is made in one side and the film or photographic paper is wrapped around the inside wall opposite, extending right to the edge of, the pinhole; this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view.