Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside is a British-Italian architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture. Rogers is best known for his work on the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, the Senedd in Cardiff, the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, he is a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal and Pritzker Prize. He is a Senior Partner at Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Richard Rogers was born in Florence in 1933 into an Anglo-Italian family, his father, William Nino Rogers, was the cousin of Italian architect Ernesto Nathan Rogers. His ancestors moved from Sunderland to Venice in about 1800 settling in Trieste and Florence. In 1939 William Nino Rogers decided to come back to England. Upon moving to England, Richard Rogers went to Leatherhead. Rogers did not excel academically, which made him believe that he was "stupid because he could not read or memorize his school work" and as a consequence he stated that he became "very depressed".
He wasn't able to read until the age of 11, it was not until after he had his first child that he realised that he was dyslexic. After leaving St Johns School, he undertook a foundation course at Epsom School of Art before going into National Service between 1951 and 1953, he attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, where he gained the Architectural Association's Diploma from 1954 until 1959, subsequently graduating with a master's degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962 on a Fulbright Scholarship. While studying at Yale, Rogers met fellow architecture student Norman Foster and planning student Su Brumwell. After leaving Yale he joined Owings & Merrill in New York. On returning to England in 1963, he, Norman Foster and Brumwell set up architectural practice as Team 4 with Wendy Cheeseman. Rogers and Foster earned a reputation for what was termed by the media high-tech architecture. By 1967, Team 4 had split up, but Rogers continued to collaborate with Su Rogers, along with John Young and Laurie Abbott.
In early 1968 he was commissioned to design a house and studio for Humphrey Spender near Maldon, Essex, a glass cube framed with I-beams. He continued to develop his ideas of prefabrication and structural simplicity to design a Wimbledon house for his parents; this was based on ideas from his conceptual Zip-Up House, such as the use of standardized components based on refrigerator panels to make energy-efficient buildings. Rogers subsequently joined forces with Italian architect Renzo Piano, a partnership, to prove fruitful, his career leapt forward when he, Piano and Gianfranco Franchini won the design competition for the Pompidou Centre in July 1971, alongside a team from Ove Arup that included Irish engineer Peter Rice. This building established Rogers's trademark of exposing most of the building's services on the exterior, leaving the internal spaces uncluttered and open for visitors to the centre's art exhibitions; this style, dubbed "Bowellism" by some critics, was not universally popular at the time the centre opened in 1977, but today the Pompidou Centre is a admired Parisian landmark.
Rogers revisited this inside-out style with his design for London's Lloyd's building, completed in 1986 – another controversial design which has since become a famous and distinctive landmark in its own right. After working with Piano, Rogers established the Richard Rogers Partnership along with Marco Goldschmied, Mike Davies and John Young in 1977; this became Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in 2007. The firm maintains offices in London and Sydney. Rogers has devoted much of his career to wider issues surrounding architecture, urbanism and the ways in which cities are used. One early illustration of his thinking was an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1986, entitled "London As It Could Be", which featured the work of James Stirling and Rogers' former partner Norman Foster; this exhibition made public a series of proposals for transforming a large area of central London, subsequently dismissed as impractical by the city's authorities. In 1995, he became the first architect to deliver the BBC's annual Reith Lectures.
This series of five talks, titled Sustainable City, were adapted into the book Cities for a Small Planet. The BBC made these lectures available to the public for download in July 2011. In 1998, he set up the Urban Task Force at the invitation of the British government, to help identify causes of urban decline and establish a vision of safety and beauty for Britain's cities; this work resulted in a white paper, Towards an Urban Renaissance, outlining more than 100 recommendations for future city designers. Rogers served for several years as chair of the Greater London Authority panel for Architecture and Urbanism, he has been chair of the board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. From 2001 to 2008 he was chief advisor on architecture and urbanism to Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, he stood down from the post in October 2009. Rogers has served as an advisor to two mayors of Barcelona on urban strategies. Amidst this extra-curricular activity, Rogers has continued to create controversial and iconic works.
The most famous of these, the Millennium Dome, was designed by the Rogers
The Lloyd's building is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd's of London. It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street, in London's main financial district, the City of London; the building is a leading example of radical Bowellism architecture in which the services for the building, such as ducts and lifts, are located on the exterior to maximise space in the interior. Twenty-five years after completion in 1986, the building received Grade I listing in 2011, it is said by Historic England to be "universally recognised as one of the key buildings of the modern epoch". The first Lloyd's building had been built on this site in 1928. In 1958, due to expansion of the market, a new building was constructed across the road at 51 Lime Street. Lloyd's now occupied the Cooper Building. By the 1970s Lloyd's had again outgrown these two buildings and proposed to extend the Cooper Building. In 1978, the corporation ran an architectural competition which attracted designs from practices such as Foster Associates, Arup and I.
M. Pei. Lloyd's commissioned Richard Rogers to redevelop the site, the original 1928 building on the western corner of Lime and Leadenhall Streets was demolished to make way for the present one, opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 18 November 1986; the 1928 building's entrance at 12 Leadenhall Street was preserved and forms a rather incongruous attachment to the 1986 structure. Demolition of the 1958 building commenced in 2004 to make way for the 26-storey Willis Building; the current Lloyd's building was designed by the architect company Richard Rogers and Partners and built between 1978 and 1986. Bovis was the management contractor. Like the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the building was innovative in having its services such as staircases, ductwork, electrical power conduits and water pipes on the outside, leaving an uncluttered space inside; the 12 glass lifts were the first of their kind in the United Kingdom. Like the Pompidou Centre, the building was influenced by the work of Archigram in the 1950s and 1960s.
The building consists of three main towers and three service towers around a central, rectangular space. Its core is the large Underwriting Room on the ground floor, which houses the Lutine Bell within the Rostrum. On the first floor is loss book which for 300 years has had entries of significant losses entered by quill; the Underwriting Room is overlooked by galleries, forming a 60 metres high atrium lit through a huge barrel-vaulted glass roof. The first four galleries open onto the atrium space, are connected by escalators through the middle of the structure; the higher floors can only be reached via the exterior lifts. The 11th floor houses the Committee Room, an 18th-century dining room designed for the 2nd Earl of Shelburne by Robert Adam in 1763; the Lloyd's building is 88 metres to the roof, with 14 floors. On top of each service core stand the cleaning cranes, increasing the overall height to 95.10 metres. Modular in plan, each floor can be altered by removal of partitions and walls. In 2008 the Twentieth Century Society called for the building to be Grade I listed and in 2011 it was granted this status.
The building was owned by Dublin-based real estate firm Shelbourne Development Group, who purchased it in 2004 from a German investment bank. In July 2013 it was sold to the Chinese company Ping An Insurance in a £260 million deal. Use in feature films and record album coversIt is seen on the cover of British pop group Five Star's 1986 album Silk and Steel. Use as a location in filmsGuardians of the Galaxy The Anomaly Climbing Great Buildings The Ghost Writer Mamma Mia! A Good Year Code 46 Spy Game Proof of Life Fred Dibnah's Magnificent Monuments, TV series Entrapment The Avengers Different for Girls Hackers Search Out Science "Search Out Space" High Hopes Trainspotting in a montage comparing thriving eighties London with the Edinburgh drug scene in the rest of the movie. Willis Building, opposite at 51 Lime Street, on the site of a former Lloyd's building 30 St Mary Axe – Norman Foster's gherkin-shaped skyscraper nearby 122 Leadenhall Street – a skyscraper opposite on the northern side of Leadenhall Street 52–54 Lime Street – a skyscraper proposed for construction opposite List of tallest buildings and structures in London Galinsky: Lloyd's building Lloyd's official website 0lll Architecture Gallery: Lloyd's building
Red telephone box
The red telephone box, a telephone kiosk for a public telephone designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, is a familiar sight on the streets of the United Kingdom, Malta and Gibraltar. Despite a reduction in their numbers in recent years, the traditional British red telephone kiosk can still be seen in many places throughout the UK, in current or former British colonies around the world; the colour red was chosen to make them easy to spot. From 1926 onwards, the fascias of the kiosks were emblazoned with a prominent crown, representing the British government; the red phone box is seen as a British cultural icon throughout the world. In 2006 the K2 telephone box was voted one of Britain's top 10 design icons, which included the Mini, Supermarine Spitfire, London tube map, World Wide Web and the AEC Routemaster bus. Although production of the traditional boxes ended with the advent of the KX series in 1985, many still stand in Britain; the first standard public telephone kiosk introduced by the United Kingdom Post Office was produced in concrete in 1920 and was designated K1.
This design was not of the same family as the familiar red telephone boxes. As of 2017, there are six K1 boxes in existence, all of which have been listed at Grade II by Historic England, with two still located on British streets; the first is situated in Trinity Market in Kingston-upon-Hull, the other in Bembridge High Street, Isle of Wight. The red telephone box was the result of a competition in 1924 to design a kiosk that would be acceptable to the London Metropolitan Boroughs which had hitherto resisted the Post Office's effort to erect K1 kiosks on their streets; the Royal Fine Art Commission was instrumental in the choice of the British standard kiosk. Because of widespread dissatisfaction with the GPO's design, the Metropolitan Boroughs Joint Standing Committee organised a competition for a superior one in 1923, but the results were disappointing; the Birmingham Civic Society produced a design of its own—in reinforced concrete—but it was informed by the Director of Telephones that the design produced by the Office of the Engineer-in-Chief was preferred.
The Birmingham Civic Society did not give up and, with additional pressure from the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Town Planning Institute and the Royal Academy, the Postmaster General was forced to think again. The organisers invited entries from three respected architects and, along with the designs from the Post Office and from The Birmingham Civic Society, the Fine Arts Commission judged the competition and selected the design submitted by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott; the invitation had come at the time when Scott had been made a trustee of Sir John Soane's Museum: his design for the competition was in the classical style, but topped with a dome reminiscent of Soane's self-designed mausoleums in St Pancras' Old Churchyard and Dulwich Picture Gallery, London. The original wooden prototypes of the entries were put into public service at under-cover sites around London; that of Scott's design is the only one known to survive and is still where it was placed, in the left entrance arch to the Royal Academy.
The Post Office chose to make Scott's winning design in cast iron and to paint it red and, with other minor changes of detail, it was brought into service as the Kiosk No.2 or K2. From 1926 K2 was deployed in and around London and the K1 continued to be erected elsewhere. K3, introduced in 1929, again by Giles Gilbert Scott, was similar to K2 but was constructed from concrete and intended for nationwide use. Cheaper than the K2, it was still more costly than the K1 and so that remained the choice for low-revenue sites; the standard colour scheme for both the K1 and the K3 was cream, with red glazing bars. A rare surviving K3 kiosk can be seen beside the Penguin Beach exhibit at ZSL London Zoo, where it has been protected from the weather by the projecting eaves and restored to its original colour scheme. There is another in use at Rhynd in Perthshire. K4 incorporated a post box and machines for buying postage stamps on the exterior. Only a single batch of 50 K4 kiosks were built; some contemporary reports said the noise of the stamp-machines in operation disturbed phone-users, the rolls of stamps in the machines became damp and stuck together in wet weather.
This has been repeated but Johannessen chose not to, having found no evidence to support the story. Ten survive with four in public use at Frodsham, Whitley Bay and near Tunstall, East Riding of Yorkshire. A fine example of a K4 may be found outside the station building at Bewdley on the Severn Valley Railway. K5 was a metal-faced plywood construction introduced in 1934 and designed to be assembled and dismantled and used at exhibitions, it is not known how many were produced, there is little evidence they reached more than prototype stage. A detailed replica can be seen at The Avoncroft Museum, as part of the National Telephone Kiosk Collection. In 1935 the K6 was designed to commemorate the silver jubilee of King George V, it was sometimes known as the "Jubilee" kiosk. It went into production in 1936; the K6 was the first red telephone kiosk to be extensively used outside London, many thousands were deployed in every town and city, replacing most of th
Firestone Tyre Factory
The Firestone Tyre Factory on the Great West Road in Brentford in the London Borough of Hounslow was an example of Art Deco architecture. It was designed by Wallis and Partners for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. Built on a 26-acre site, it opened in October 1928, it was the first factory to open on the Great West Road. The company announced in November 1979. After its purchase by Trafalgar House PLC, the building was demolished during the August 1980 bank holiday weekend in anticipation of its becoming listed; the Twentieth Century Society call the structure their "first serious case" and say that its destruction " focused public attention on the necessity for greater protection for 20th century buildings and led directly to the listing of 150 examples of inter-war architecture by the government". The gates and railings fencing the site received a Grade II listing in 2001. India Tyre Factory Fort Dunlop Michelin House Hoover Building Globalnet.co.uk: Firestone Factory Britainfromabove.org: Firestone tyre factory Brentford and Chiswicklhs.org: Firestone Factory Disused-stations.org: Brentford
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Golden Mile (Brentford)
The Golden Mile is the name given to a stretch of the Great West Road north of Brentford running west from the western boundary of Chiswick in London, United Kingdom. It was so called due to the concentration of industry along this short stretch of road; this section of the Great West Road was opened in 1925 in order to bypass the notoriously congested Brentford High Street and several factories of architectural merit were built along the road to take advantage of both the good communications it provided, the easy availability of land for new buildings. Many examples of the Art Deco architecture remain. However, no commercial buildings could be built further west along the Great West Road after Syon Lane as the land was owned by the Church Commissioners. Syon Lane railway station was built for the workers at these various factories. Land for the Great West Road was compulsorily purchased, it seems that housing was dictated by the 1923 Housing Acts which gave house builders incentives to build houses.
These factories included: Smith's Potato Crisps Ltd opened in 1927. Factory expanded in 1930 with colonnaded frontage; the Firestone Tyre Company. Built 1928, designed by Wallis and Partners, it was the first overseas factory built by the Firestone company of America. The building frontage was demolished during a public holiday in August 1980 shortly before a preservation order was due to be served on it to retain the Art Deco architecture; the Art Deco gatehouse was demolished in 2004 to make way for increased parking facilities. The remaining gates and piers are in a Jazz Modern style and are Grade II listed; the Trico Products Windscreen Wiper factory, No. 980, opened in 1928. The Trico business relocated to Pontypool, South Wales in 1992 and the building was demolished; the site, together with the adjacent site, Maclean's toothpaste factory to its east, was to be used for the UK headquarters of Samsung. The 1997 Asian financial crisis prevented this, the site now houses the headquarters building of GlaxoSmithKline known as "GSK".
Leonard Williams Ltd.. No. 971, in 1929 Jantzen Knitting Mills Factory, opened in 1931 Sperry Gyroscope Company Limited Factory, opened in 1931 Coty Cosmetics Factory, No. 941, designed by Wallis and Partners opened in 1932. The building now operates as BMI Syon Clinic; the Macleans Factory opened in 1932. Macleans was founded in 1919 by Alex C Maclean to produce'own-brand' products for chemists. "Did you Maclean your teeth today?" The Gillette Factory, designed by Sir Banister Flight Fletcher in 1936–1937. Gillette stopped moving production to Poland; the building is as of 2013 undergoing conversion into a mixed use complex with a hotel and residential apartments. The Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company, No. 981, built between 1929 and 1930, designed by Gilbert & Partners. Wallis House, built between 1936 and 1942 for Simmonds Aerocessories, designed by Wallis and Partners. Named after the architect, Thomas Wallis. Latterly used by Beecham Pharmaceuticals as Beecham House. Assael Architecture was commissioned by the Barratt Group to convert and restore the Listed building and redevelopment took place between 2005–2008 into apartments, retaining the basic fascia, although with a new glass entrance enclosure, reglazed windows replacing the Crittall originals.
The Currys Factory and head office, No. 991, built in 1936, now Grade II listed, front office building now restored by Foster & Partners between 1997 and 2000 for JCDecaux Henly's Car Showroom with a distinctive tower – on the east side of the Smith's Crisps factory – opened in 1937 and became a warehouse for Martini, following redevelopment after a fire in 1989 retaining the tower, an office for Data General EMC Corporation Harvey's Wines, who had their own railway line to deliver goods from Bristol. MacFarlane Biscuit Factory, behind the Gillette building (Demolished in the 1980s and now a Tesco Supermarket and the HQ of Sky; this stretch of road included an illuminated, advertising sign known to many drivers coming into London on the M4 motorway. The sign, showing a bottle of Lucozade emptying into a glass, was on the wall of what was the Lucozade factory, which opened in 1953 and was demolished in late 2004; the sign was removed to Gunnersbury Park Museum in September 2004 after a brief campaign to preserve it in situ.
A replica was subsequently installed controversially removed at the end of 2015 and replaced with a digital billboard. Another memorable animated signage was of a female diver advertising Jantzen swimwear. One of the most beautiful single-storey deco buildings belonged to the Firestone Tyre Factory – painted in white –, controversially demolished one Sunday just a day before a preservation order was to be placed on it. Only the white railings at the front remain, it is now the site of the West Cross Business Centre. Syon Lane railway station The Archive Photographs Series, Tempus Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-7524-0627-2
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important