The Uses of Enchantment
The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales is a 1976 book by Austrian-born American author Bruno Bettelheim, in which the author analyzes fairy tales in terms of Freudian psychoanalysis. A 1991 article in the Journal of American Folklore presented a case that Bettelheim had engaged in plagiarism from Julius Heuscher's A Psychiatric Study of Myths and Fairy Tales: Their Origin and Usefulness; the book is divided into two main sections. The first, "A Pocketful of Magic," outlines Bettelheim's thoughts on the value of fairy tales for children; the second part, "In Fairy Land," presents psychoanalytical readings of several popular fairy tales, specifically: "Hansel and Gretel" "Little Red Riding Hood" "Jack and the Beanstalk" "Snow White" "Goldilocks and the Three Bears" "The Sleeping Beauty" "Cinderella" The "animal groom" cycle of fairy tales, including "Beauty and the Beast", "The Frog Prince" and "Bluebeard". Bettelheim presents a case that fairy tales help children solve certain existential problems such separation anxiety, oedipal conflict, sibling rivalries.
The extreme violence and ugly emotions of many fairy tales serve to deflect what may well be going on in the child's mind anyway. A child's unrealistic fears require unrealistic hopes, and furthermore, "The Frog King" may be superior to modern sex education in that it acknowledges that a child may find sex disgusting, this may serve a protective function for the child. In his introduction, Bettelheim stated that he was writing the book as “an educator and therapist of disturbed children.” However, after his death his credentials in those fields were found to be faked, Bettelheim had only taken three introductory classes in psychology. In the U. S. Bettelheim and The Uses of Enchantment won the 1976 National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism and the 1977 National Book Award in category Contemporary Thought. Robert A. Segal writes, "It is the disjunction between Bettelheim's up-to-date approach to fairy tales and his old-fashioned approach to myths, striking."The Uses of Enchantment has been cited as an influence in many subsequent works that utilise fairy tales in adult terms, including the 2011 Catherine Hardwicke film Red Riding Hood and the 2014 fantasy horror film Red Kingdom Rising.
It was claimed by Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine as the inspiration for their 1986 musical Into the Woods. In the Winter 1991 edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of American Folklore, Alan Dundes a 28-year veteran in the anthropology department at the University of California, presented a case that Bettelheim had copied key passages from A Psychiatric Study of Myths and Fairy Tales: Their Origin and Usefulness by Julius Heuscher without giving appropriate credit, as well as unacknowledged borrowing from other sources. Dundes states that Bettelheim engaged in "wholesale borrowing" of both "random passages" and "key ideas," from Heuscher's book, but from other sources. Heuscher himself stated that he was not bothered by the disclosures. Robert A. Georges, a professor of folklore at UCLA, states "it is clear he didn't do his homework."Julius Heuscher himself did not consider it a big deal. He said, "We all plagiarize. I plagiarize. Many times, I am not sure whether it came out of my own brain or if it came from somewhere else....
I'm only happy. I did not always agree with him, but that does not matter. Poor Bruno Bettelheim. I would not want to disturb his eternal sleep with this." Dundes states that his own 1967 article on Cinderella was borrowed by Bettelheim without acknowledgement. Jacquelyn Sanders, the director of the Orthogenic School at the University of Chicago in 1991, said she did not believe many people would agree with Dundes's accusations, she stated, "I would not call that plagiarism. I think the article is a reasonable scholarly endeavor, calling it scholarly etiquette is appropriate, it is appropriate that this man deserved to be acknowledged and Bettelheim didn't.... But I would not fail a student for doing that, I don't know anybody who would."In reviewing a biography of Bettelheim in 1997, Sarah Boxer of the New York Times wrote, "Mr. Pollak gives a damning passage-for-passage comparison of the two."
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
Concert dance is dance performed for an audience. It is performed in a theatre setting, though this is not a requirement, it is choreographed and performed to set music. By contrast, social dance and participation dance may be performed without an audience and these dance forms are neither choreographed nor danced to set music, though there are exceptions. For example, some ceremonial dances and baroque dances blend concert dance with participation dance by having participants assume the role of performer or audience at different moments. Many dance styles are principally performed in a concert dance context, including these: Ballet originated as courtroom dance in Italy flourished in France and Russia before spreading across Europe and abroad. Over time, it became an academic discipline taught in institutions. Amateur and professional troupes formed, bringing ballet from the courts to the theater and making it one of the most performed concert dance styles today. Acrobatic dance emerged in the United States and Canada in the early 1900s as one of the types of acts performed in vaudeville.
Acro dance has evolved since with dance movements now founded in ballet technique. From its inception, acro dance has been a concert dance form. Classical Indian dance originated in temples in India. After the Indian independence movement, dance became a university subject, dance schools appeared for the first time, classical Indian dance became a concert dance form performed in theaters. Classical Persian dance was elevated to an art form during the Qajar dynasty, it was performed in the royal court of the Shah and it remained there and among the elite and bourgeois families until the 20th century. Since it has evolved into its modern-day form and become a performed concert dance style. OthersBelly dance Bharatanatyam Contemporary dance Eurythmy Hip hop dance Jazz dance Modern dance Tap dance In the United Kingdom, theatre dance is a common term used to indicate a range of performance dance disciplines, used in reference to the teaching of dance; the UK has a number of dance training and examination boards, with the majority having a separate branch dedicated to theatre dance, with codified syllabi in each technique.
Many dance teachers and schools worldwide, prepare their pupils for dance examinations and qualifications with a UK-based organisation, with notable examples including the Royal Academy of Dance, the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing and the International Dance Teachers Association. All UK theatre dance organisations are consistent in offering classical ballet and modern or jazz as their core theatre branch subjects. Many offer'theatre craft' or'stage dance', devised to reflect the choreography seen in musical theatre. List of dance style categories Adams, D. Making the Connection: A Comparison of Dance in the Concert Versus Worship Setting. Sharing NYC. ISBN 0-941500-51-9 Carter, A; the Routledge Dance Studies Reader. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16447-8
The Angel (fairy tale)
"The Angel" is a literary fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about an angel and a dead child gathering flowers to carry to Heaven. The tale was first published with three others in New Fairy Tales by C. A. Reitzel in November 1843; the four tales were received by the Danish critics with great acclaim. A print depicting the angel and child became popular; when the tale opens, a child has died, an angel is escorting him to Heaven. They wander over the Earth for a while. Along the way they gather flowers to transplant into the gardens of Heaven; the angel takes the child to a poverty-stricken area. The angel salvages the flower explaining; the angel reveals he was the boy, the boy continued his journey. Jens Andersen, author of Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life, describes God as "one of Andersen's most beloved ghosts" and notes that God in "The Angel" is a "pleasant and helpful traveling companion There are few figures in his works to whom he returns more or examines from so many different childish angles".
The poet had an unshakable faith that a whole new existence awaited him once his spirit left his earthly frame at the appropriate time. When Andersen was assailed with doubts regarding the soul's immortality, he reverted to his child faith and could not bring himself to suggest that the human being is dispersed as gases and other substances to fertilize the earth at death as the scientific Niels Bryde does in Andersen's 1857 novel To Be or Not to Be. Andersen regarded God as a release for a new chance for those who have failed. God was an promising beginning for Andersen; the tale is Andersen's invention, may have been motivated by the death of the eldest daughter of his friends and Jette Collins. The theme of a child transformed into an angel had possessed Andersen since the completion of his poem "The Dying Child". According to Gustav Hetsch, the story is one of three Andersen stories to have been inspired by Jenny Lind. "The Angel" was first published in Copenhagen on 11 November 1843 by C. A. Reitzel in the first volume of the first collection of New Fairy Tales.
For the first time, the phrase "told for children" was not part of the title—an omission Andersen scholar and biographer Jackie Wullschlager believes exhibited a new confidence on Andersen's part: "These were the most mature and constructed tales he had written, though some of them at once became, have remained favorites of children, Andersen here melds together the childlike and the profound with exceptional artistry." The first edition of 850 was sold out by December 18, Reitzel planned publication of another 850."The Angel" was the first tale in the volume that included "The Nightingale", "The Sweethearts. The tale was republished 18 December 1849 in Fairy Tales and again on 15 December 1862 in Fairy Tales and Stories. Wullschlager describes "The Angel" as a "sentimental genre picture that suited the taste of the times." A print made from an illustration of the tale by the German artist Wilhelm von Kaulbach was popular and sold briskly. Andersen once found the print in Portugal, a country in which he was unknown.
New Fairy Tales was a break-through for Andersen who, until its publication, had received vigorous condemnation from the Danish critics for his venture into the fairy tale genre. Reviews for the collection however were ecstatic. Andersen, Jens. Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life. New York and London: Overlook Duckworth. Pp. 330, 537ff. "The Angel". Hans Christian Andersen Center. Retrieved 2009-05-18. Wullschlager, Jackie. Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-91747-4. Engelen. Original Danish text "The Angel". English translation by Jean Hersholt
The Nightingale (fairy tale)
"The Nightingale" is a literary fairy tale written by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen about an emperor who prefers the tinkling of a bejeweled mechanical bird to the song of a real nightingale. When the Emperor is near death, the nightingale's song restores his health. Well received upon its publication in Copenhagen in 1843 in New Fairy Tales, the tale is believed to have been inspired by the author's unrequited love for opera singer Jenny Lind, the "Swedish nightingale"; the story has been adapted to opera, musical play, television drama and animated film. The Emperor of China learns that one of the most beautiful things in his empire is the song of the nightingale; when he orders the nightingale brought to him, a kitchen maid leads the court to a nearby forest, where the nightingale agrees to appear at court, where it remains as the Emperor's favorite. When the Emperor is given a bejeweled mechanical bird he loses interest in the real nightingale, who returns to the forest; the mechanical bird breaks down.
The real nightingale learns of the Emperor's condition and returns to the palace. According to Andersen's date book for 1843, "The Nightingale" was composed on 11 and 12 October 1843, "began in Tivoli", an amusement park and pleasure garden with Chinese motifs in Copenhagen that opened in the summer of 1843; the tale was first published by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen on 11 November 1843 in the first volume of the first collection of New Fairy Tales; the volume included "The Angel", "The Sweethearts. The tale was critically well received, furthered Andersen's success and popularity, it was reprinted on 18 December 1849 in Fairy Tales and again, on 15 December 1862 in the first volume of Fairy Tales and Stories. Andersen met Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind in 1840, experienced an unrequited love for the singer. Lind preferred a platonic relationship with Andersen, wrote to him in 1844, "God bless and protect my brother is the sincere wish of his affectionate sister". Jenny was the illegitimate daughter of a schoolmistress, established herself at the age of eighteen as a world class singer with her powerful soprano.
Andersen's "The Nightingale" is considered a tribute to her. Andersen wrote in The True Story of My Life, published in 1847, "Through Jenny Lind I first became sensible of the holiness of Art. Through her I learned. No books, no men, have had a more ennobling influence upon me as a poet than Jenny Lind". "The Nightingale" made Jenny Lind known as The Swedish Nightingale well before she became an international superstar and wealthy philanthropist in Europe and the United States. Strangely enough, the nightingale story became a reality for Jenny Lind in 1848–1849, when she fell in love with the Polish composer Fryderyk Chopin, his letters reveal that he felt "better" when she sang for him, Jenny Lind arranged a concert in London to raise funds for a tuberculosis hospital. With the knowledge of Queen Victoria, Jenny Lind attempted unsuccessfully to marry Chopin in Paris in May 1849. Soon after, she had to flee the cholera epidemic, but returned to Paris shortly before he died of tuberculosis on 17 October 1849.
Jenny Lind devoted the rest of her life to enshrining Chopin's legacy. Lind never recovered, she wrote to Andersen on 23 November 1871 from Florence: "I would have been happy to die for this my first and last, purest love."Andersen, whose own father died of tuberculosis, may have been inspired by "Ode to a Nightingale", a poem John Keats wrote in anguish over his brother Tom's death of tuberculosis. Keats evokes an emperor: "Thou was not born for death, immortal Bird! / No hungry generations tread thee down / The Voice I hear this passing night was heard / In ancient days by emperor and clown". Keats died of tuberculosis in 1821, is buried in Rome, a city that continued to fascinate Andersen long after his first visit in 1833. Lars Bo Jensen has criticized the Hans Christian Andersen/Jenny Lind theory: "...to judge Andersen from a biographical point of view only is to reduce great and challenging literature to casebook notes. Thus it is a pity to regard "The Nightingale" as the story of Andersen's passion for the singer Jenny Lind, when it is important to focus on what the tale says about art, nature, being and death, or on the uniquely beautiful and original way in which these issues are treated.
Andersen's works are great. It has been and still is the task of interpreters of Hans Christian Andersen's life and work to adjust this picture and to try to show him as a thinking poet."Jeffrey and Diane Crone Frank have noted that the fairy tale "was no doubt inspired by Andersen's crush on Jenny Lind, about to become famous throughout Europe and the United States as the Swedish Nightingale. He had seen her that fall. Copenhagen's celebrated Tivoli Gardens opened that season, its Asian fantasy motif was more pronounced than it is today. Andersen had returned for a second visit in October. In his diary that night he wrote:'At Tivoli Gardens. Started the Chinese fairy tale.' He finished it in two days."Heidi Anne Heiner of SurLaLune Fairy Tales has observed, "The tale's theme of'real' vs.'mechanical/artificial' has become more pertinent since 1844 as the Industrial Revolution has led to more and more artificial intelligences and other technol
Garri Yakovlevich Bardin is a Soviet and Russian animation director, producer and voice actor best known for his experimental musical and stop motion films. He was awarded the 1988 Short Film Palme d'Or for the Fioritures cartoon and the Order of Honour in 2011. Garri Bardin was born as Garri Yakovlevich Bardenstein in Chkalov where his pregnant mother Rozalia Abramovna Bardenshtein had been evacuated from Kiev with the start of the Great Patriotic War; the family was Jewish. His father Yakov Lvovich Bardenshtein was a naval officer who joined marines in 1941 and took part in the Battle of Stalingrad. After the war the family moved to Liepāja, Latvian SSR. Garri spent three years in the Soviet Army and in 1968 he finished the Actor's Faculty at the Moscow Art Theatre School and joined the N. V. Gogol Moscow Drama Theatre where he served till 1973; the director asked him to shorten his surname, too long for theatre posters, he adapted the Bardin stage name. Upon leaving the theatre he spent some time writing plays and TV screenplays.
He had been voicing cartoons since 1967. Around the same time he sent a screenplay to Soyuzmultfilm and was suggested to direct the cartoon by himself despite the lack of education. From on he worked as an animation director. Among his first shorts was A Tincan segment from the Happy Merry-Go-Round No. 8 anthology series. In 1979 he directed A Flying Ship, a traditionally animated musical film loosely based on the old Russian fairy tale The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship; the film and the songs by Yuri Entin in particular gained popularity. Bardin worked on several other hand-drawn films along with Entin. In 1983 he directed his first experimental stop motion cartoon for adults — Conflict, a cold war allegory where two groups of matches enter a conflict which leads to a war, it was followed by several claymation comedy films, including Break!, a parody on a boxing match for which Bardin received a Golden Dove award at the 1986 Dok Leipzig. In 1987 he released two films: Marriage made of ropes and Fioritures made of aluminium wire for which he was awarded the 1988 Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
In 1990 he directed his last Soyuzmultiflm cartoon — Grey Wolf and Little Red Riding Hood, a claymation musical film that satirized last days of the USSR. It was awarded a number of awards, including Grand Prix for the best short film at the 1991 Annecy International Animated Film Festival and the 1992 Nika Award for the best animated film. After that Bardin founded and headed the Stayer animation studio where he continued directing claymation and stop motion films, as well as TV commercials. After six years in production he released his first feature animated musical The Ugly Duckling loosely based on the Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale of the same name, with a heavy influence of George Orwell's Animal Farm, it received mixed reviews from critics and failed at the box office, while central Russian TV channels refused to show it according to Bardin. At the same time it gained a number of awards, including the 2011 Nika Award. Bardin was married three times, his son from the third marriage Pavel Bardin is a Russian film director.
History of Russian animation Garry Bardin at animator.ru Garri Bardin on IMDb Studio Stayer's Homepage Channel on YouTube
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we