The American frontier comprises the geography, history and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. A "frontier" is a zone of contact at the edge of a line of settlement; the leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner went deeper, arguing that the frontier was the defining process of American civilization: "The frontier," he asserted, "promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people." He theorized it was a process of development: "This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward...furnish the forces dominating American character." Turner's ideas since 1893 have inspired generations of historians to explore multiple individual American frontiers, but the popular folk frontier concentrates on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the West Coast.
In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the "Old West" or the "Wild West". Such media exaggerated the romance and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect; this inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into television shows and comic books, as well as children's toys and costumes. This era of massive migration and settlement was encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny"; as defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, the formation of states." They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America." Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes, political compromise, military conquest, establishment of law and order, the building of farms and towns, the marking of trails and digging of mines, the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
Turner, in his "Frontier Thesis", theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, violence. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch's view, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image: "No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America's creation of the West." The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved westward from the 1630s to the 1880s. Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile; the "West" was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered "western", have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states.
In the 21st century, the term "American West" is most used for the area west of the Great Plains. In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for politicians; the American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low; these areas remained in subsistence agriculture, as a result by the 1760s these societies were egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident; the class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day ma
Delbert Martin Mann Jr. was an American television and film director. He won the Academy Award for Best Director for the film Marty, adapted from a 1953 teleplay of the same name which he had directed. From 1967 to 1971, he was president of the Directors Guild of America. In 2002, he received the DGA's honorary life member award. Mann was credited to have "helped bring TV techniques to the film world." Delbert Martin Mann Jr. was born on January 30, 1920 in Lawrence, Kansas, to Delbert Mann Sr. and Ora Mann. His father taught sociology at the University of Kansas from 1920 to 1926. In 1926, the Manns left Lawrence and moved to Pennsylvania and Chicago before settling in Nashville in 1931. There, his father continued to teach sociology at the Scarritt College for Christian Workers, his mother was a schoolteacher. Mann was head of his high school drama club when he met Fred Coe, the future television producer and director, leading a church-sponsored acting society. Coe would figure prominently in Mann's career as a director.
Coe would serve as Mann's mentor. Mann studied political science in Vanderbilt University, he graduated there in 1941 with a bachelor's degree on political science. During World War II, Mann served with the Army Air Corps as a B-24 bomber pilot and as an intelligence officer with the 8th Air Force stationed in England. Mann attended the Yale School of Drama, where he earned a master's fine arts degree in directing. Mann took a directing job at a community playhouse in Columbia, South Carolina. Mann was affiliated with the Town Theatre from 1947 to 1949, before moving to New York to work with Coe in television. In 1949, at Coe's invitation, Mann joined him in New York, where he became a stage manager and assistant director at NBC. Within months, he became an alternating director of the anthology series, The Philco Television Playhouse. Between 1949 and 1955, Mann directed more than 100 live television dramas, but after turning to films, he returned to television and directed productions for Playhouse 90, Ford Star Jubilee and other dramatic television anthology series.
He directed more than two dozen films for television from the late 1960s to the early 1990s, including Heidi, David Copperfield, Jane Eyre and All Quiet on the Western Front. In addition to Marty, other films directed by Mann include The Bachelor Party, Desire Under the Elms, Separate Tables, Middle of the Night, The Dark at the Top of the Stairs, The Outsider, That Touch of Mink, A Gathering of Eagles, Dear Heart, Fitzwilly and Night Crossing. Mann was married to Ann Caroline Gillespie from 1942 until her death by Alzheimer's disease in 2001, they had four children: Fred, David and Susan. Susan died in a car accident in 1976. During the 1980s and 1990s, Mann served on the advisory board of the National Student Film Institute, he served as honorary chairman of the institute for a one-year term. On November 11, 2007, Mann died of pneumonia at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, he was 87. Delbert Mann on IMDb Hollywood Reporter: Director Delbert Mann dies at 87 Archive of American Television Interview With Delbert Mann
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
John Marcellus Huston was an American film director and actor. Huston was a citizen of the United States by birth but renounced U. S. citizenship to become an Irish resident. He returned to reside in the United States, he wrote the screenplays for most of the 37 feature films he directed, many of which are today considered classics: The Maltese Falcon, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, The Asphalt Jungle, The African Queen, The Misfits, Fat City and The Man Who Would Be King. During his 46-year career, Huston received 15 Oscar nominations, won twice, directed both his father, Walter Huston, daughter, Anjelica Huston, to Oscar wins in different films. Huston was known to direct with the vision of an artist, having studied and worked as a fine art painter in Paris in his early years, he continued to explore the visual aspects of his films throughout his career, sketching each scene on paper beforehand carefully framing his characters during the shooting. While most directors rely on post-production editing to shape their final work, Huston instead created his films while they were being shot, making them both more economical and cerebral, with little editing needed.
Some of Huston's films were adaptations of important novels depicting an "heroic quest," as in Moby Dick, or The Red Badge of Courage. In many films, different groups of people, while struggling toward a common goal, would become doomed, forming "destructive alliances," giving the films a dramatic and visual tension. Many of his films involved themes such as religion, truth, psychology and war. Huston has been referred to as "a titan", "a rebel", a "renaissance man" in the Hollywood film industry. Author Ian Freer describes him as "cinema's Ernest Hemingway"—a filmmaker, "never afraid to tackle tough issues head on." John Huston was born on August 1906, in Nevada, Missouri. He was the only child of Canadian-born Walter Huston, his father was an actor in vaudeville, in films. His mother worked as a sports editor for various publications, but gave it up after John was born, his father gave up his stage acting career for steady employment as a civil engineer, although he returned to stage acting within a few years.
He became successful on both Broadway and in motion pictures. He had Scottish, Scots-Irish and Welsh ancestry. Huston's parents divorced in 1913, when he was six, as a result much of his childhood was spent living in boarding schools. During summer vacations, he traveled with each of his parents separately — with his father on vaudeville tours, with his mother to horse races and other sports events. Young Huston benefited from seeing his father act on stage, as he was drawn to acting; some critics, such as Lawrence Grobel, surmise that his relationship with his mother may have caused his five marriages, why few of his relationships lasted. Grobel wrote, "When I interviewed some of the women who had loved him, they referred to his mother as the key to unlocking Huston's psyche." According to actress Olivia de Havilland, "she was the central character. I always felt, he seemed pursued by something destructive. If it wasn't his mother, it was his idea of his mother."As a child he was ill and was treated for an enlarged heart and kidney ailments.
He recovered after an extended bedridden stay in Arizona, moved with his mother to Los Angeles, where he attended Abraham Lincoln High School. He dropped out after two years to become a professional boxer, by age 15 was a top-ranking amateur lightweight boxer in California, he ended his brief boxing career after suffering a broken nose. He "plunged" himself into a multitude of interests, including abstract painting, ballet and French literature and horseback riding. Living in Los Angeles he became "infatuated" with the new film industry and motion pictures, but as a spectator only. To Huston, "Charlie Chaplin was a god."He moved back to New York to live with his father, acting in off-Broadway productions, John had a few small roles. He remembers, while watching his father rehearse, being fascinated with the mechanics of acting: What I learned there, during those weeks of rehearsal, would serve me for the rest of my life. After a short period acting on stage, having undergone surgery, he traveled on his own to Mexico.
During his two years there, among his other adventures, he got a position riding as an honorary member of the Mexican cavalry. He married a girlfriend from high school, Dorothy Harvey, their marriage lasted seven years. During his stay in Mexico, he wrote a play called "Frankie and Johnny", based on the ballad of the same title. After selling it he decided that writing would be a viable career, he focused on it, his self-esteem was enhanced when H. L. Mencken, editor of the popular magazine American Mercury, bought two of his stories, "Fool" and "Figures of Fighting Men." During subsequent years his stories and feature articles were published in Esquire, Theatre Arts, The New York Times. He worked for a period on the New York Graphic. In 1931, when he was 25, he moved back to Los Angeles with his hopes aimed at writing for the blossoming film industry, where the silent film industry had given way to "talkies", writers were in demand. In addition, his father had earlier moved there where he was successful in a number of films.
He received a script editing contract with Samuel Goldwyn Productions, but after six months of receiving no assignments, quit to work for Universal Studios, whe
Joseph Wiseman was a Canadian American theatre and film actor, well known for starring as the villain Julius No in the first James Bond film, Dr. No in 1962. Wiseman was known for his role as Manny Weisbord on the TV series Crime Story, his career on Broadway, he was once called "the spookiest actor in the American theatre." Born in Montreal, Canada, to Orthodox German Jewish parents and Pearl Rubin, Wiseman grew up in New York. At age 16, he began performing in summer stock and became professional, which displeased his parents. Wiseman was an alumnus of John Adams High School, New York, as was his Dr. No co-star, Jack Lord. Wiseman made his Broadway debut in 1938, playing a small part in Robert E. Sherwood's Abe Lincoln in Illinois. Among the many productions he appeared in during a long career in live theatre, were the title role in In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer on Broadway in 1968, the role of Father Massieu in the original Broadway production of Joan of Lorraine, the Maxwell Anderson play which became the film Joan of Arc.
Wiseman appeared in several films in the 1950s. He made his first major film appearance in 1951's Detective Story, where he recreated his performance from Broadway as an unstable small-time hood. Soon after, he played Marlon Brando's archenemy in Viva Zapata!. Wiseman's most famous role as the titular Dr. No in the first James Bond film by Eon Productions came from producer Harry Saltzman, who cast Wiseman in the role in December 1961, it was Wiseman's performance in Detective Story that won him the part. In 1967, he was cast as Billy Minsky's father in The Night They Raided Minsky's he appeared opposite Sir Laurence Olivier in The Betsy. Wiseman had roles in a wide variety of other films: The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, Seize the Day, Bye Bye Braverman, he had guest-starring and cameo roles in TV series including The Westerner, The Streets of San Francisco, The Untouchables, Crime Story, The Twilight Zone, Magnum, P. I. Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, Night Gallery, his last film was made in 1988, though he appeared in TV shows such as MacGyver, L.
A. Law, Law & Order after that time. Wiseman's last appearance on television was the supporting role of Seymour Bergreen on a 1996 episode of Law & Order titled "Family Business", his last Broadway appearance was in Judgment at Nuremberg in 2001. Following the death of Charles Gray in 2000, Wiseman was the last surviving main villain of the James Bond films which Sean Connery made for United Artists. Wiseman married Nell Kinard on August 28, 1943, but they divorced, he was married to dancer and choreographer Pearl Lang from 1964 until her death in February 2009. Wiseman died on October 19, 2009, at his home in Manhattan aged 91, having been in declining health for some time, he is survived by his daughter, Martha Graham Wiseman, his sister, Ruth Wiseman. Joseph Wiseman on IMDb Joseph Wiseman at the Internet Broadway Database Joseph Wiseman at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Joseph Wiseman at AllMovie The O'Neill Theater Center
Audie Leon Murphy was one of the most decorated American combat soldiers of World War II. He received every military combat award for valor available from the U. S. Army, as well as French and Belgian awards for heroism. Murphy received the Medal of Honor for valor that he demonstrated at the age of 19 for single-handedly holding off an entire company of German soldiers for an hour at the Colmar Pocket in France in January 1945 leading a successful counterattack while wounded and out of ammunition. Murphy was born into a large family of sharecroppers in Texas, his father abandoned them, his mother died when he was a teenager. Murphy left school in fifth grade to find other work to help support his family. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Murphy's older sister helped him to falsify documentation about his birthdate in order to meet the minimum-age requirement for enlisting in the military. Turned down by the Navy and the Marine Corps, he enlisted in the Army, he first saw action in the 1943 Allied invasion of Sicily.
Murphy fought at Montélimar and led his men on a successful assault at the L'Omet quarry near Cleurie in northeastern France in October. After the war, Murphy embarked on a 21-year acting career, he played himself in the 1955 autobiographical film To Hell and Back, based on his 1949 memoirs of the same name, but most of his roles were in westerns. He starred in the series Whispering Smith. Murphy was a accomplished songwriter, he bred quarter horses in California and Arizona, became a regular participant in horse racing. Suffering from what would today be described as post traumatic stress disorder, Murphy slept with a loaded handgun under his pillow, he looked for solace in addictive sleeping pills. In his last few years, he was plagued by money problems but refused offers to appear in alcohol and cigarette commercials because he did not want to set a bad example. Murphy died in a plane crash in Virginia in 1971, shortly before his 46th birthday, he was interred with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery, where his grave is one of the most visited.
Murphy was the seventh of twelve children born to Emmett Berry Murphy and his wife Josie Bell Killian in Kingston, Texas. The Murphys were sharecroppers of Irish descent; as a child, Murphy was a loner with an explosive temper. He grew up in Texas, around Farmersville and Celeste, where he attended elementary school, his father drifted in and out of the family's life and deserted them. Murphy dropped out of school in fifth grade and got a job picking cotton for a dollar a day to help support his family. After his mother died of endocarditis and pneumonia in 1941, he worked at a radio repair shop and at a combination general store and gas station in Greenville. Hunt County authorities placed his three youngest siblings in Boles Children's Home, a Christian orphanage in Quinlan. After the war, he bought a house in Farmersville for his eldest sister Corinne and her husband, Poland Burns, his other siblings shared the home. The loss of his mother stayed with Murphy throughout his life, he stated:She died when I was sixteen.
She had the most beautiful hair I've seen. It reached to the floor, she talked. What it was I don't know. We didn't discuss our feelings, but when she passed away, she took something of me with her. It seems I've been searching for it since. Murphy had always wanted to be a soldier. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, he tried to enlist, but the Army and Marine Corps all turned him down for being underweight and underage. After his sister provided an affidavit that falsified his birth date by a year, he was accepted by the U. S. Army on 30 June 1942. After basic training at Camp Wolters, he was sent to Fort Meade for advanced infantry training. During basic training, he earned the Marksman Badge with Rifle Component Bar and Expert Badge with Bayonet Component Bar. Murphy was shipped to Casablanca in French Morocco on 20 February 1943, he was assigned to Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, which trained under the command of Major General Lucian Truscott.
He participated as a platoon messenger with his division at Arzew in Algeria in rigorous training for the Allied assault landings in Sicily. He was promoted to private first class on 7 May and corporal on 15 July; when the 3rd Infantry landed at Licata, Sicily, on 10 July, Murphy was a division runner. On a scouting patrol, he killed two fleeing Italian officers near Canicattì. Sidelined with illness for a week when Company B arrived in Palermo on 20 July, he rejoined them when they were assigned to a hillside location protecting a machine-gun emplacement, while the rest of the 3rd Infantry Division fought at San Fratello en route to the Allied capture of the transit port of Messina. Murphy participated in the September 1943 mainland Salerno landing at Battipaglia. While on a scouting party along the Volturno River, he and two other soldiers were ambushed. Murphy and the other survivor responded by killing five Germans with hand grenades and machine gun fire. While taking part in the October Allied assault on the Volturno Line, near Mignano Monte Lungo Hill 193, he and his company repelled an attack by seven German soldiers, killing three and taking four prisoner.
Murphy was promoted to se