The Firefly (operetta)
The Firefly was the first operetta written by composer Rudolf Friml, with a libretto by Otto Harbach. The story concerns a young Italian girl, a street singer in New York, she serves as a cabin boy on a ship to Bermuda, where she falls in love. Complications arise, she becomes a grand opera diva. After tryouts at the Empire Theatre in Syracuse, New York beginning in October 1912, the operetta premiered on Broadway on December 2, 1912 at the Lyric Theatre, transferring after Christmas to the Casino Theatre, it ran for an encouraging 120 performances. The piece became one of the more revived Friml works but was not given a complete recording until 2006. A 1937 MGM film version used most of the songs but had a new plot set in Spain during the time of Napoleon, it starred Allan Jones. One of the most popular theatrical forms in the early decades of the 20th century in America was the operetta, its most famous composer was Irish-born Victor Herbert, it was announced in 1912 that Italian-born operetta diva Emma Trentini would be starring on Broadway in a new operetta by Herbert with lyricist Otto Harbach entitled The Firefly.
Shortly before the writing of the operetta, Trentini appeared in a special performance of Herbert's Naughty Marietta conducted by Herbert himself. When Trentini refused to sing "Italian Street Song" for the encore, an enraged Herbert stormed out of the orchestra pit refusing any further work with Trentini. Arthur Hammerstein, the operetta's sponsor, frantically began to search for another composer. Not finding anyone who could compose as well as Herbert, Hammerstein settled on the unknown Friml because of his classical training. After a month of work, Friml produced the score for; the Firefly was followed by 32 more Friml operettas. After tryouts at the Empire Theatre in Syracuse, New York beginning on October 14, 1912, The Firefly opened at the Lyric Theatre on December 2, 1912 to a warm reception by both the audience and the critics; the production moved to the Casino Theatre on December 30, where it ran until March 15, 1913. All told. Directed by Frederick G. Latham and conducted by Gaetano Merola, the operetta starred Trentini as Nina, Craig Campbell as Jack Travers, Irene Cassini as Antonio Columbo, Vera De Rosa as Sybil Vandare, Sammy Lee |Sammy Lee as Pietro, Audrey Maple as Geraldine Vandare, Ruby Norton as Suzette, Katherine Stewart as Mrs. Oglesby Vandare, Melville Stewart as John Thurston, Henry Vogel as Herr Franz, George Williams as Correlli.
The 1937 MGM film version of the show, starring Jeanette MacDonald, added the song "The Donkey Serenade". After the film's release, this song has been added to revivals. In 1943 at the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera, Francia White starred as Nina. One of the more revived Friml works, the first complete recording of the operetta was made by the Ohio Light Opera and released by Albany Records in 2006. Act IAt a Hudson River pier in New York City around 1909, snobby Geraldine Van Dare appears, quarreling with her fiancé, Jack Travers, her uncle's yacht is preparing to sail for Bermuda. Geraldine accuses Jack of flirting with a little Italian street singer, they board, the young woman in question, Nina Corelli and recognizes her old friend Suzette, Geraldine's maid. Nina did wink at Jack, she wants to escape from her drunken guardian, learning that Bermuda is farther away than Coney Island, she begs Suzette to take her along, but in vain. Nina puts on her brother's clothes. Back at the ship, she tells Suzette her new identity: a known pickpocket.
Musician Franz, boarding the yacht, decides. He asks; as the gangplank is raised, Nina runs aboard. Act II"Antonio" is popular in Bermuda at the Van Dares' estate, but the boy reminds sulky Geraldine of the street singer. Meanwhile, Nina has now fallen in love with Jack, who has offered her a job as a valet. John Thurston, Jack's uncle, comforts Geraldine; the police are seeking a thief, Antonio Columbo, regarding a robbery on the island, so Nina reveals her true identity. Franz adopts Nina, the two leave together. Act IIIThree years Jack's romance with Geraldine has subsided. Just as Franz arrives at the Van Dare's home in New York, with Nina, Jack visits on a courtesy call. Under Franz's skillful teaching, Nina has now become the great prima donna "Giannina". Jack realises that he loves her, Nina reveals that she has always loved him. Act IA Trip to Bermuda – Sybil Van Dare, Suzette and Chorus He Says Yes, She Says No! – Geraldine Van Dare, Jack Travers and Chorus Call Me Uncle – John Thurston and Chorus Love Is Like a Firefly – Nina Something – Suzette and Jenkins Giannina – NinaAct II Sapphire Seas – Sybil and Ensemble Tommy Atkins – Nina and Ensemble Sympathy – Geraldine and John A Woman's Smile – Jack De Trop – Jenkins, Pietro and Chorus We're Going to Make a Man of You – Nina, Herr Franz, Jack and Jenkins The Beautiful Ship from Toyland – Franz and Male Chorus When a Maid Comes Knocking at Your Heart – Nina and FranzAct IIIAn American Beauty Rose – John and Ensemble The Latest Thing from Paris – Pietro and Suzette Kiss Me and'Tis Day – Nina The Firefly at the Internet Broadway Database The Firefly vocal score The Firefly at the Guide to Musical Theatre
Charles Rudolf Friml was a Czech-born composer of operettas, musicals and piano pieces, as well as a pianist. After musical training and a brief performing career in his native Prague, Friml moved to the United States, where he became a composer, his best-known works are Rose-Marie and The Vagabond King, each of which enjoyed success on Broadway and in London and were adapted for film. Born in Prague, Czech Republic Friml showed aptitude for music at an early age, he entered the Prague Conservatory in 1895, where he studied the piano and composition with Antonín Dvořák. Friml was expelled from the conservatory in 1901 for performing without permission. In Prague and in America he composed and published songs, piano pieces and other music, including the prize-winning set of songs, Pisne Zavisovy; the last of these, Za tichych noci became the basis for a famous film in Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia in 1941. After the conservatory, Friml took a position as accompanist to the violinist Jan Kubelík.
He toured with Kubelik twice in the United States and moved there permanently in 1906 with the support of the Czech singer Emmy Destinn. His first post in New York was as a repetiteur at the Metropolitan Opera, he had made his American piano debut at Carnegie Hall in 1904, premiered his Piano Concerto in B major in 1906 with the New York Philharmonic under the baton of Walter Damrosch. He settled for a brief time in Los Angeles, they had Charles Rudolf and Marie Lucille. His second marriage was to Blanch Betters, an actress who had appeared in the chorus of Friml's musical Katinka; the first three marriages ended in divorce. One of the most popular theatrical forms in the early decades of the 20th century in America was the operetta, its most famous composer was Irish-born Victor Herbert, it was announced in 1912 that operetta diva Emma Trentini would be starring in a new operetta on Broadway by Herbert with lyricist Otto Harbach entitled The Firefly. Shortly before the writing of the operetta, Trentini appeared in a special performance of Herbert's Naughty Marietta conducted by Herbert himself.
When Trentini refused to sing "Italian Street Song" for the encore, an enraged Herbert stormed out of the orchestra pit refusing any further work with Trentini. Arthur Hammerstein, the operetta's sponsor, frantically began to search for another composer. Not finding any other theatre composer who could compose as well as Herbert, Hammerstein settled on the unknown Friml because of his classical training. After a month of work, Friml produced the score for. After tryouts in Syracuse, New York, The Firefly opened at the Lyric Theatre on December 2, 1912 to a warm reception by both the audience and the critics; the production moved to the Casino Theatre after Christmas, where it ran until March 15, 1913, for a total of 120 performances. After The Firefly, Friml produced three more operettas that each had longer runs than The Firefly, although they are not as enduringly successful; these were High Jinks and You're in Love. He contributed songs to a musical in 1915 entitled The Peasant Girl. Trentini was named as a co-respondent in Friml's divorce from his first wife in 1915, evidence was introduced that they were having an affair.
Another show, written with Rida Johnson Young and starring Ed Wynn and Mae West, ran well on Broadway in 1918–1919. Friml wrote his most famous operettas in the 1920s. In 1924, he wrote Rose-Marie; this operetta, on which Friml collaborated with lyricists Oscar Hammerstein II and Otto Harbach and co-composer Herbert Stothart, was a hit worldwide, a few of the songs from it became hits including "The Mounties" and "Indian Love Call". The use of murder as part of the plot was ground-breaking among operettas and musical theatre pieces at the time. After Rose-Marie's success came two other hit operettas, The Vagabond King in 1925, with lyrics by Brian Hooker and William H. Post, The Three Musketeers in 1928, with lyrics by P. G. Wodehouse and Clifford Grey, based on Alexandre Dumas's famous swashbuckling novel. In addition, Friml contributed to the Ziegfeld Follies of 1921 and 1923. Friml wrote music for many films during the 1930s songs adapted from previous work; the Vagabond King, Rose-Marie and The Firefly were all made into films and included at least some of Friml's music.
Oddly enough, his operetta version of The Three Musketeers was never filmed, despite the fact that the novel itself has been filmed many times. In 1930, he wrote a new operetta score for The Lottery Bride. Like his contemporary, Ivor Novello, Friml was sometimes ridiculed for the sentimental and insubstantial nature of his compositions and was called trite. Friml was criticized for the old-fashioned, Old World sentiments found in his works. Friml's last stage musical was Music Hath Charms in 1934. During the 1930s, Friml's music fell out of fashion in Hollywood. Rather than trying to adapt to popular taste, Friml decided to focus on playing the piano in concert and composing art music, which he did into his nineties, he composed the music for the 1947 film Northwest Outpost, starring Nelson Eddy and Ilona Massey. A few of Friml's works have seen revivals on Broadway. "The Donkey Serenade" from the film version of The Firefly, "The Mounties" and "Indian Love Call" are
Justin Huntly McCarthy
Justin Huntly McCarthy was an Irish author and nationalist politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1884 to 1892, taking his seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, he was the son of Justin McCarthy. Since both father and son were authors and Members of Parliament, they are sometimes confused in lists and compilations. McCarthy was first elected to Parliament at a by-election on 12 June 1884, when he was returned unopposed as the Home Rule League member for Athlone, following the death of the Liberal MP Sir John James Ennis. Athlone lost its status as a parliamentary borough under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, at the 1885 general election McCarthy stood instead in the borough of Newry in County Down, where he was returned unopposed for the Irish Parliamentary Party, he was re-elected in 1886, with a comfortable majority over the Liberal Unionist Reginald Saunders, but did contest the 1892 election. McCarthy wrote various novels, poetical pieces and short histories, he was married to the actress Cissie Loftus.
They married in Edinburgh in 1894, though they divorced in 1899, she originated the role of Katherine de Vaucelles, the heroine in If I Were King in 1901. Among other works, he wrote biographies of Sir Robert Peel, Pope Leo XIII and William Ewart Gladstone. In 1889 he published prose translations of 466 quatrains of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, he wrote: In 1893, he translated some Gazels from Divan of Hafiz, the 14th century Persian poet, published in a 152-page volume by David Nutt. 1000 copies were made, 200 for America. Serapion and Other Poems Outline of Irish History England under Gladstone, 1880-1885, 2nd ed. Doom Our Sensation Novel Hafiz in London Lady Burton's Edition of Her Husband's Arabian Nights Translated Literally from the Arabic; the Case for Home Rule Camiola, a Girl with a Fortune An outline of Irish history: from the earliest times to the present day Lily Lass The Fate of Fenella: A Novel, co-written in 1892. Divan of Hafiz, translated by J H McCarthy London: D. Nutt Modern England Michel de Montaigne, Essayes of Montaigne Justin Huntly McCarthy Editor Cissie Loftus: An Appreciation The French Revolution, Reminiscences A Short History of the United States A Woman of Impulse was made into a film in 1918 Woman of Impulse A History of the Four Georges with Justin McCarthy If I Were King Garden Theatre, St James's Theatre ), named "Best Play of the 1901–02 Broadway Season", was adapted into the 1925 operetta The Vagabond King, its 1930 film version, its 1956 film version, the 1938 film If I Were King.
The Reign of Queen Anne Marjorie The Proud Prince, the play opened at The Lyceum, Broadway, NY on 2 Nov 1903. The lady of Loyalty house The Dryad The flower of France The illustrious O'Hagan Needles and Pins The Duke's Motto: A Melodrama Seraphica: A Romance The god of love The gorgeous Borgia: a romance The O'Flynn: A Novel The king over the water: or, The marriage of Mr. Melancholy A health unto His Majesty Calling the Tune it was made into a musical film in 1936, Calling the Tune. Fool of April The Glorious Rascal Nurse Benson Henry Elizabeth The Golden Shoe see internet catalogue for details: Justin Huntly McCarthy McCarthy married musical artist Cecilia Loftus in 1893 in Edinburgh, but the marriage did not last long and was dissolved in 1899, he married again in 1908 to Loullie Killick. McCarthy died at his home in Putney on 20 March 1936. Secondary SourcesWalker, Brian M.. Parliamentary election results in Ireland 1801–1922. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0-901714-12-7. Mantle, Burns; the Best Plays of 1899-1909.
Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company. Khayyam, Omar. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. London: D. Nutt. McCarthy, Justin H.. "Review: The Duke's Motto". The Athenaeum: 380. "Justin Huntly McCarthy". The Times. London, England: The Times Digital Archive: 1. 23 March 1936. Repository for Rubaiyat of Omar Khaiyyam: Trinity College Dublin Library Works by Justin Huntly McCarthy at Project Gutenberg Works by Justin Huntly McCarthy at LibriVox Works by or about Justin Huntly McCarthy at Internet Archive Justin Huntly McCarthy at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Justin Huntly McCarthy Justin H. McCarthy at Library of Congress Authorities, with 89 catalogue records
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. Operettas have similarities to both operas and musicals, the boundaries between the genres are sometimes blurred. For instance, American composer Scott Joplin insisted that his serious but ragtime-influenced work Treemonisha was an opera, but some reference works characterize it as an operetta; some of Leonard Bernstein's works he designated as operas are categorized as operettas, his operetta Candide is sometimes considered a musical. Operettas are shorter than operas, are of a light and amusing character. Operettas are considered less "serious" than operas. While an opera's story is believable and more relatable to its audience, an operetta aims to amuse. Topical satire is a feature common to many operettas. However, satire is used in some "serious" operas as well: Formerly, in countries such as France, operas expressed politics in code – for example, the circumstances of the title character in the opera Robert le diable referred, at its first performance, to the French king's parental conflict and its resolution.
Some of the libretto of an operetta is spoken rather than sung. Instead of moving from one musical number to another, the musical segments – e.g. aria, chorus – are interspersed with periods of dialogue. There is no musical accompaniment to the dialogue, although sometimes some musical themes are played under it. Short passages of recitative are, sometimes used in operetta as an introduction to a song; the operetta is a precursor of the modern musical theatre or the "musical". In the early decades of the 20th century, the operetta continued to exist alongside the newer musical, with each influencing the other; the main difference between the two genres is that most operettas can be described as light operas with acting, whereas most musicals are plays with singing and dancing. This can be seen in the performers chosen in the two forms. An operetta's cast will consist of classically trained opera singers. A musical may use actors who are not operatically trained, the principals are called upon to dance.
These distinctions can be blurred: Ezio Pinza, Paulo Szot, Renée Fleming and other opera singers have appeared on Broadway and Broadway musicals have been remounted in opera houses. There are features of Hammerstein's Show Boat, among others; the characters in a musical may be more complex than those in an operetta, given the larger amount of dialogue. For example, the characters in Lerner and Loewe's musical My Fair Lady – based on George Bernard Shaw's 1914 play Pygmalion – are unchanged from those in Shaw's stage work, because the musical version is quite faithful to the original to the point of retaining most of Shaw's dialogue. Man of la Mancha, adapted by Dale Wasserman from his own ninety-minute television play I, Don Quixote, retains much of the dialogue in that play, cutting only enough to make room for the musical numbers which were added when the play was converted into a stage musical. Operetta grew out of the French opéra comique around the middle of the 19th century, to satisfy a need for short, light works in contrast to the full-length entertainment of the serious opéra comique.
By this time, the "comique" part of the genre name had become misleading: Georges Bizet's Carmen is an example of an opéra comique with a tragic plot. The definition of "comique" meant something closer to "humanistic," meant to portray "real life" in a more realistic way, representing tragedy and comedy next to each other, as Shakespeare had done centuries earlier. With this new connotation, opéra comique had dominated the French operatic stage since the decline of tragédie lyrique. Most researchers acknowledge that the credit for creating the operetta form should go to Hervé, a singer, librettist and scene painter. In 1842 he wrote the little opérette, L'Ours et le pacha, based on the popular vaudeville by Eugène Scribe and X. B. Saintine. In 1848, Hervé made his first notable appearance on the Parisian stage, with Don Quichotte et Sancho Pança, which can be considered the starting point for the new French musical theatre tradition. Hervé's most famous works are the Gounod-parody Le petit Mam ` zelle Nitouche.
Jacques Offenbach further developed and popularized operetta, giving it its enormous vogue during the Second Empire and afterwards. Offenbach's earliest one-act pieces included Les deux aveugles, Le violoneux and Ba-ta-clan, his first full-length operetta success was Orphée aux enfers; these led to the so-called "Offenbachiade": works including Geneviève de Brabant 1859, Le pont des soupirs 1861, La belle Hélène 1864, Barbe-bleue and La Vie parisienne both 1866, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein 1867, La Périchole 1868 and Les brigands 1869. Offenbach's tradition was carried on by Emmanuel Chabrier, Robert Planquette, André Messager, others. What characterizes Offenbach's operettas is both the grotesque way they portray life, the frivolous way this is done bordering on the pornographic. Émile Zola describes the back-stage and on-stage situation in the Théâtre des Variétés during the Second Empire in his novel Nana, which takes place in late 1860s and describes the career of operetta diva/courtesan Nana.
The character was modeled after Offenbach's female star Hortense Schneider, Offenbach's librettist Ludovic Halévy gave Émile Zola the details. Considering how Zola's Nana describes an Offenbach-style operetta performance in Paris, it is not surprising that the male, upper-class audience crowded the various the
The Vagabond King (1956 film)
The Vagabond King is a 1956 Paramount Pictures musical film directed by Michael Curtiz and Kathryn Grayson, Oreste Kirkop, Rita Moreno, Sir Cedric Hardwicke, Walter Hampden, Leslie Nielsen. It is an adaptation of the 1925 operetta The Vagabond King by Rudolf Friml. Hampden plays King Louis XI. Mary Grant designed the film's costumes. In fifteenth century France, King Louis XI is besieged in Paris by Charles, Duke of Burgundy, his allies. Within the city, Louis' reign is disputed; the irreverent, persuasive beggar poet François Villon commands the loyalty of the commoners. Louis goes in disguise to a tavern to see what sort of a man. Villon reveals. Afterward, Louis sees Thibault, his provost marshal, meeting in that place with Rene, an agent of the Duke of Burgundy. Thibault shows Rene a list of those in Paris. However, who has a grudge against Thibault, engages his enemy in a sword fight, during which the incriminating document falls on the floor and is picked up by Louis; the duel is stopped by the city guard.
Louis has Villon and his companions thrown into the dungeon. Thibault, gets away. Villon is brought to the king in his unusual garden. Louis proposes to let him live, as the new provost marshal, until the Duke of Burgundy is driven away; when Villon turns him down, the king sweetens his offer by including time with Catherine de Vaucelles, a beautiful noblewoman Villon has fallen in love with and the lives of his friends. Villon accepts, is introduced to Catherine as "Count François de Montcorbier" from Savoy. Rumor reaches her through her maid, that she is to marry the count, she is puzzled at first becomes furious when she realizes who her betrothed is. When she berates Villon for playing a horrible joke on her, he cannot convince her that his love is sincere, while she cannot persuade him that the king is a great man. Louis' military commander, Antoine de Chabannes, conducts Villon to the dungeon, where he claims the leader of the secret traitors is being held; the turncoat turns out to be de Chabannes himself.
Villon is captured, but rescued when Louis is warned in time by Huguette, who loves Villon. Huguette warns them that Jehan, a Burgundian agent, is rousing the rabble against Louis in Villon's name. Villon uses the Duke of Burgundy's own scheme against him; when traitors open the city gates to the enemy army, they march in, only to have the gates shut behind them, trapping them inside to be overwhelmed by the commoners under the leadership of Villon. In the fighting, Huguette is killed when she jumps in front of Villon to save him from an archer's arrow. Villon kills both the Duke of Thibault. Afterward, Villon willingly goes to the gallows to be hanged to fulfill the bargain; when the mob becomes outraged, Louis offers to spare Villon. At the last moment, Catherine offers herself. Louis cites a law that spares any man who weds a noblewoman and sets Villon free, confiscating Catherine's wealth to pay for the costs of the war. Kathryn Grayson as Catherine de Vaucelles Oreste Kirkop as François Villon Rita Moreno as Huguette Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Tristan L'Hermite Walter Hampden as King Louis XI Leslie Nielsen as Thibault William Prince as Rene Jack Lord as Ferrebouc Billy Vine as Jacques Vincent Price as the narrator Music composed by Rudolf Friml, lyrics by Johnny Burke unless otherwise indicated.
"Bon Jour" - Sung by Oreste Kirkop "Vive La You" - Performed by Rita Moreno and Vagabonds "Some Day" - lyrics by Brian Hooker - Sung by Kathryn Grayson "Comparisons" - Sung by Kirkop and Vagabonds "Huguette Waltz" - lyrics by Brian Hooker, Sung by Rita Moreno "Only A Rose" - lyrics by Brian Hooker, presented by Kirkop and Grayson "This Same Heart" - sung by Kirkop "Watch Out For The Devil" - sung by Kirkop and chorus,danced by ballet dancers at the King's Court "Song of the Vagabonds" - from the original operetta, performed by Kirkop and Vagabonds List of American films of 1956 The Beloved Rogue, 1927 film If I Were King, 1938 film Jack Lord filmography The Vagabond King at the TCM Movie Database The Vagabond King on IMDb The Vagabond King at AllMovie