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The Wachowskis

Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski are American film and television directors and producers. The sisters are both trans women. Collectively known as the Wachowskis, they have worked as a writing and directing team through most of their professional film careers, they made their directing debut in 1996 with Bound, achieved fame with their second film The Matrix, a major box office success for which they won the Saturn Award for Best Director. They wrote and directed its two sequels: The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, were involved in the writing and production of other works in that franchise. Following the commercial success of The Matrix series, they wrote and produced the 2005 film V for Vendetta, in 2008 released the film Speed Racer, a live-action adaptation of the Japanese anime series, their next film, Cloud Atlas, based on the novel by David Mitchell and co-written and co-directed by Tom Tykwer, was released in 2012. Their film Jupiter Ascending and the Netflix series Sense8, which they co-created with J. Michael Straczynski, both debuted in 2015.

Since the series finale of Sense8, the Wachowskis have been working separately in different projects: Lilly is writing and executive-producing Showtime's Work in Progress with creators Abby McEnany and Tim Mason, while Lana is filming a fourth Matrix film planned for 2021, which she wrote with David Mitchell and Aleksander Hemon. Lana was born Laurence Wachowski in Chicago in 1965, their mother, was a nurse and painter. Their father, Ron Wachowski, was a businessman of Polish descent, their uncle is Primetime Emmy Award-winning producer Laurence Luckinbill. They have two other sisters: Laura. Julie was credited as assistant coordinator in the film Bound; the Wachowskis attended the Kellogg Elementary School in Chicago's Beverly area, graduated from Whitney Young High School, known for its performing arts and science curriculum, in 1983 and 1985, respectively. Former classmates recall them playing Dungeons & Dragons and working in the school's theater and TV program. Lana went to Bard College in New York and Lilly attended Emerson College in Boston.

Each dropped out before graduating, they ran a house painting and construction business in Chicago. Beginning in 1993 they wrote several issues of Ectokid for Marvel Comics' Razorline imprint, which were credited to Lana, they wrote for the series Clive Barker's Hellraiser and Clive Barker's Nightbreed for Marvel's Epic Comics imprint. In the mid-1990s they went into film writing, including the script for Assassins in 1994, directed by Richard Donner and released in 1995. Warner Bros. included two more pictures in the contract. Donner had their script "totally rewritten" by Brian Helgeland and the Wachowskis tried unsuccessfully to remove their names from the film, they say the experience gave them the perspective that they should become directors or " never survive as writers in this town". Their next project was the 1996 neo-noir thriller Bound, for which they wrote the script and made their debut as directors; the film was well received for its style and craft, was noted as one of the first mainstream films to feature a same-sex relationship without it being central to the plot.

Taking advantage of the positive buzz, the Wachowskis asked to direct their next picture, The Matrix. They completed The Matrix, a science fiction action film, in 1999; the movie stars Keanu Reeves as Neo, a hacker recruited by a rebellion to aid them in the fight against machines who have taken over the world and placed humanity inside a simulated reality called "the Matrix". Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving and Joe Pantoliano star; the movie was a commercial hit for Warner Bros.. It won four Academy Awards, including for "Best Visual Effects" for popularizing the bullet time visual effect; the Matrix came to be a major influence for action movies and has appeared in several "greatest science fiction films" lists. In 2012, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally and aesthetically significant."After its success, the Wachowskis directed two sequels back-to-back, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, both released in 2003.

The Matrix Reloaded received positive critical reception. It became a major box office hit, retaining the spot of the highest-grossing R-rated film for over a decade; the Matrix Revolutions received a mixed critical reception and performed lukewarmly in the box office. While it was profitable, it made less money than the original film. During production of the first film, the Wachowskis and Spencer Lamm, who ran the film's official website, developed comics based on the setting of the film, which were published free of charge on the website; these and a few short stories were released in three series from 1999 to 2003, with several of them collected in two print volumes in 2003 and 2004. The Wachowskis themselves contributed "Bits and Pieces", a prequel to the movie that explains the origins of the Matrix, featuring illustrations by Geof Darrow, the movie's conceptual designer. Other writers and artists that contributed to the series include Neil Gaiman, Dave Gibbons, Paul Chadwick, Ted McKeever, Poppy Z. Brite, Steve Skroc

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator

The Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, supports the Gene Technology Regulator, is a part of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The Office was established under the Commonwealth Gene Technology Act 2000; this legislation sets forth a nationally consistent regulatory system for gene technology in Australia. In Australia, all dealings with live and viable genetically modified organisms, including import, are illegal unless authorised under the Act; the OGTR has developed a range of documents to provide organisations and interested parties with guidance on monitoring and compliance activities under the Act. Under the act, the regulator may issue technical and procedural guidelines in relation to GMOs, in relation to certification of facilities to specified containment levels and in relation to accreditation of organisations; the Act, the Gene Technology Regulations 2001 or instruments issued by the Regulator can require compliance with these guidelines in conducting dealings with GMOs or in obtaining and maintaining certification or accreditation.

To ensure the necessary approvals or authorisations are obtained prior to importation, the OGTR is working with the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service in relation to GM seeds/grains. The regulator is an independent statutory office holder responsible for administering the Gene Technology Act 2000 and corresponding state and territory laws; the regulator is appointed by the governor-general only with the agreement of the majority of all jurisdictions. She is responsible for administering the national regulatory system for gene technology as set out in the Act; the OGTR staff are part of the Department of Health. Dr Raj Bhula is the current Gene Technology Regulator, appointed for a period of five years commencing 18 July 2016. Bhula has over 20 years experience in regulation of pesticides in Australia, she was Executive Director of Scientific Assessment and Chemical Review at the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority and Program Manager Pesticides for 10 years. Bhula represented Australia at international expert committees including as the Codex Committee for Pesticide Residues and contributed to technical groups of the OECD Working Group on Pesticides.

Much of this work has included the development of technical policy and risk assessment methodologies. In administering the gene technology regulatory system the Regulator has specific responsibility to protect the health and safety of people, to protect the environment, by identifying risk posed by or as a result of gene technology, by managing those risks through regulating certain dealings with GMOs. Section 27 of the act sets out the functions of the regulator to: perform functions in relation to GMO licences as set out in the act, which outlines the licensing system under which a person can apply to the Regulator for a licence authorising dealings with GMOs develop draft policy principles and policy guidelines, as requested by the LGFGT codes of practice issue technical and procedural guidelines in relation to GMOs provide information and advice to other regulatory agencies, about GMOs and GM products the public, about the regulation of GMOs the Legislative Governance Forum on Gene Technology about the operations of the Regulator and the Gene Technology Technical Advisory Committee effectiveness of the legislative framework for the regulation of GMOs, including in relation to possible amendments of relevant legislation undertake or commission research in relation to risk assessment and the biosafety of GMOs promote the harmonisation by regulatory agencies of risk assessments relating to GMOs and GM products monitor international practice in relation to the regulation of GMOs maintain links with international organisations that deal with the regulation of gene technology and with agencies that regulate GMOs in countries outside Australia conduct other functions conferred by the Act, the Regulations or any other law, such as monitoring and enforcing the legislation reporting quarterly to the minister and Federal Parliament.

The Act and Regulations and corresponding state and territory laws provide a nationally consistent system to regulate development and use of gene technology in Australia. The legislation establishes the Regulator as an independent statutory office holder to administer the national scheme. Under the intergovernmental Gene Technology Agreement, the states and territories have committed to maintaining corresponding legislation with the Commonwealth; the Regulator is charged with performing functions and exercising powers under the Act and corresponding legislation. While the Regulator must consider risks to human health and safety and the environment relating to dealings with GMOs, other agencies have responsibility for regulating GMOs or genetically modified products as part of a broader or different mandate. During development of the gene technology legislation, it was determined that the Regulator's activities should form part of an integrated legislative framework that includes a number of other regulatory authorities with complementary responsibilities and expertise.

This arrangement both avoids duplication. The Gene Technology Act was accompanied by consequential amendments of the other relevant Acts relating to requirements for reciprocal request and provision of advice and exchange of information between the Regulator and other relevant regulatory agencies; these requirements include the following: the Regulator must consult Commonwealth regulatory agencies prescribed in the Regulations on all licence applications for dealings involving the intentional release of GMOs to the environment there a

David Barford

David Barford is a British medical researcher and structural biologist at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology Cambridge, UK. Barford studied Biochemistry at the University of Bristol and went on to earn a Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Oxford, supervised by Professor Dame Louise Johnson. Barford worked at the University of Dundee Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit with Professor Sir Philip Cohen FRS and Tricia Cohen, he was a Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Fellow at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA. From 1994 he was University Lecturer at the University of Oxford and Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. In 1999 he was appointed as Professor of Molecular Biology at the Institute of Cancer Research in London. In 2013 Barford was appointed as a group leader at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, he has been Co-Head of the Division of Structural Studies since Dec 2015. He was a member of the Faculty of 1000 from 2002 to 2004. 2017 Honorary DSc University of Bristol 2006 Fellow of the Royal Society 2006 Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences 2003 Member, European Molecular Biology Organisation 1998 Colworth Medal of the Biochemical Society

Letterboxing (hobby)

Letterboxing is an outdoor hobby that combines elements of orienteering and puzzle solving. Letterboxers hide small, weatherproof boxes in publicly accessible places and distribute clues to finding the box in printed catalogs, on one of several web sites, or by word of mouth. Individual letterboxes contain preferably hand carved or custom made. Finders make an imprint of the letterbox's stamp in their personal notebook, leave an impression of their personal signature stamp on the letterbox's "visitors' book" or "logbook" — as proof of having found the box and letting other letterboxers know who has visited. Many letterboxers keep careful track of their "find count"; the origin of letterboxing can be traced to Dartmoor, England in 1854. William Crossing in his Guide to Dartmoor states that a well known Dartmoor guide placed a bottle for visiting cards at Cranmere Pool on the northern moor in 1854. From this hikers on the moors began to leave a letter or postcard inside a box along the trail —hence the name "letterboxing".

The next person to discover the site would post them. In 1938 a plaque and letterbox in Crossing's memory were placed at Duck's Pool on southern Dartmoor; the first Dartmoor letterboxes were so remote and well-hidden that only the most determined walkers would find them, allowing weeks to pass before the letter made its way home. Until the 1970s there were no more than a dozen such sites around the moor in the most inaccessible locations. However, letterboxes have been located in accessible sites and today there are thousands of letterboxes, many within easy walking distance of the road; as a result, the tradition of leaving a letter or postcard in the box has been forgotten. Membership of the "100 Club" is open to anyone. Clues to the locations of letterboxes are published by the "100 Club" in an annual catalogue; some letterboxes however remain "word of mouth" and the clues to their location can only be obtained from the person who placed the box. Some clues may be found in other letterboxes or on the Internet, but this is more for letterboxes in places other than Dartmoor, where no "100 Club" or catalogue exist.

Letterboxing has become a popular sport, with thousands of walkers gathering for'box-hunts' and while in some areas of Dartmoor it is popular amongst children, some of the more difficult to find boxes and tougher terrain are better suited to more experienced adults. Letterboxes can be found in other areas of the United Kingdom including the North York Moors and have spread all over the world; the Scottish artist Alec Finlay has placed letterboxes with rubber stamp circle poems at locations around the world, including Yorkshire Sculpture Park. Interest in letterboxing in the U. S. is considered to have started with a feature article in the Smithsonian Magazine in April 1998. Much of the terminology below is associated with letterboxing in the US and would be unfamiliar to UK letterboxers; the growing popularity of the somewhat similar activity of geocaching during the 2000s has increased interest in letterboxing as well. Clues to American letterboxes are published on several different websites.

Letterboxers organize events called meets or gatherings. The first letterbox meet was held on Dartmoor, they are now held twice yearly on "clock change days". Gatherings in the US are at parks or places with enough space for a large group of letterboxers to meet up and do exchanges, as well as talk and discuss box ideas. Gatherings in the US have a special, one-day "Event stamp." At some gatherings, boxes are created or donated to be planted nearby for the gathering attendees to find. The first gathering in North America was held in November, 1999, at The Inn at Long Trail in Killington, Vermont. There are now many different kinds of each with some specific distinction. While purists recognize only those letterboxes planted in the wild, many new variations exist; the kinds include: Traditional Box A normal letterbox and uses clue to find it. Mystery box These are traditional boxes, but these "mystery" boxes have either vague starting areas, no starting areas, no descriptions, no clue – any number of things to make the box hard to find.

Bonus Box The clues for these are found in a traditional box as an extra one to find. Planted in the same area as the traditional that hosts its clue. Clues can be distributed in any way. Word of Mouth Box The clue is given by word of mouth, or typed up, but a letterboxer can only receive the clue from the planter. Cuckoo clue A clue without a home; the clue is hidden in another letterbox, but the letterboxer that finds the clue is expected to move the clue to another nearby letterbox. The cuckoo clue contains directions to limit how far the clue should travel to find a new home. Hitchhiker A traveling letterbox, it is placed in a traditional letterbox for another letterboxer to find; when found, it is stamped just like a traditional letterbox, but is carried by the letterboxer to the next letterbox they find and left in that letterbox for the next finder. The hitchhiker's stamp should be recorded in the host letterbox's logbook, vice versa. Personal Traveler Much like a traditional box, but instead of being planted, the box is kept with the creator at all times.

If another letterboxer is met on the trail or at a meet it is attainable. In the US this box is only attainable if the ot

Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology

The Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology known as the Banff Foundation for Transplant Pathology is a nonprofit Swiss foundation which aims to "lead development and dissemination of the international Banff Classification of Allograft Pathology and to facilitate multidisciplinary, collaborative research to enhance its scientific basis and clinical utility to improve the care of transplant patients". Its predecessor group had organized transplant pathology meetings in every odd numbered year since 1991 and the Foundation has specific future meeting plans through 2025; the meetings establish and maintain the worldwide standards for tissue biopsy reporting and diagnosis of transplant rejection through consensus decision making. They thereby provide an essential service to the field of allotransplantation; the goals of the Banff foundation are to facilitate knowledge generation and translation in transplantation pathology with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes, maintaining the Banff meeting spirit of a multinational, multidisciplinary consensus group, raising funds for research and education in transplantation pathology, providing guidance and financial support for Working Group activities and Banff meetings activities.

Kim Solez is the Chair of the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. The 2015 Banff Conference for Allograft Pathology was held in conjunction with the Canadian Society of Transplantation in Vancouver, BC, included consideration of molecular pathology and tissue engineering pathology as well as traditional light microscopy, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy; the 2017 Banff Conference was held in Spain. The 2019 Banff Conference was held in Pittsburgh and the 2021 Banff Conference will be in Banff, Canada. Pathology Renal pathology

Cumberland Valley

The Cumberland Valley is a northern constituent valley of the Great Appalachian Valley, within the Atlantic Seaboard watershed in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Appalachian Trail crosses through the valley; the valley is bound to the west and north by the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, to the east and south by South Mountain, to the northeast by the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, to the south by the Potomac River. The portion of the valley residing in Maryland is sometimes referred to as the Hagerstown Valley; the Cumberland Valley Railroad, the Cumberland Valley AVA wine region, the Cumberland Valley School District are named for the region. Cities in the Cumberland Valley include Harrisburg and Hagerstown, Maryland. Pennsylvania boroughs include Camp Hill, Carlisle, Chambersburg and Greencastle. Great Appalachian Valley Stewart, Harriet Wylie. "History of the Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania". Cumberland Valley blog History of the Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania