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The Walt Disney Company

The Walt Disney Company known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923, by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, The Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Studios, Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main units and reporting segments are Disney Media Networks, Disney Parks and Products, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer & International.

Through these segments, Disney operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters and serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.

After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring a character named Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The series was distributed by Universal Pictures. Universal owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 27 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in March 1928, when Winkler head Charles Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company, it was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho.

Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club, which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst. On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings.

Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt Before Mickey, based on the book by Diane Disney Miller, featured these moments in the studio's history. Deciding to push the boundaries of animation further, Disney began production of his first feature-length animated film i

Linkage (linguistics)

In historical linguistics, a linkage is a group of related languages, formed when a proto-language breaks up into a network of dialects that differentiates into separate languages. The term was introduced by Malcolm Ross in his study of Western Oceanic languages, it is contrasted with a family, which arises when the proto-language speech community separates into groups that are isolated from each other, rather than forming a network. Linkages are formed when languages emerged from the diversification of an earlier dialect continuum, its members may have diverged despite sharing subsequent innovations, or such dialects may have come into contact and so converged. In any dialect continuum, innovations are shared between neighbouring dialects in intersecting patterns; the patterns of intersecting innovations continue to be evident as the dialect continuum turns into a linkage. According to the comparative method, a group of languages that shares a set of innovations constitutes a " subgroup". A linkage is thus characterised by the presence of intersecting subgroups.

The tree model does not allow for the existence of intersecting subgroups and so is ill-suited to represent linkages, which are better approached using the wave model. The cladistic approach underlying the tree model requires the common ancestor of each subgroup to be discontiguous from other related languages and unable to share any innovation with them after their "separation"; that assumption is absent from François's approach to linkages. Their genealogical subgroups have languages descended from a common ancestor, as defined by a set of exclusively-shared innovations), but whose common ancestor may not have been discretely separated from its neighbours. For example, a chain of dialects may undergo a number of linguistic innovations, some affecting, still others. Insofar as each set of dialects was mutually intelligible at the time of the innovations, all can be seen as forming separate languages. Among them, Proto-BCD will be the language ancestral to the subgroup BCD, Proto-CDE the language ancestral to CDE and so on.

As for the language descended from dialect D, it will belong to three "intersecting subgroups". In both the tree and the linkage approaches, genealogical subgroups are defined by their shared inheritance from a common ancestor. Although trees entail that all proto-languages must be discretely separated, the linkage model avoids that assumption. François claims that a tree can be considered a special case of a linkage in which all subgroups happen to be nested and temporally ordered from broadest to narrowest. An example of a linkage is the one formed the Central Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Banda Sea; the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages are divided into two branches, Central Malayo-Polynesian and Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, each having certain defining features that unify them and distinguish them from the other. However, whereas Proto-Eastern and Proto-Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian can be reconstructed, a Proto-Central Malayo-Polynesian language reconstruction, distinct from Proto-Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian does not seem feasible.

It may be that the branches of Central Malayo-Polynesian are each as old as Eastern Malayo-Polynesian but that they went on to exchange features that are now considered to define them as a family. The features common to Eastern Malayo-Polynesian can be assumed to have been present in a single ancestral language, but, not the case for Central Malayo-Polynesian; this scenario does not amount to a denial of a common ancestry of the Central Malayo-Polynesian languages. It is only a reinterpretation of the age of the relationship to be just as old as their relationship to Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. François suggests that most of the world's language families are linkages that are made up of intersecting, not nested, subgroups, he cites the Oceanic languages of northern Vanuatu as well as those of Fiji and of Polynesia and at least some sections of the Pama-Nyungan, Semitic and Indo-European families. Within Indo-European, Indo-Aryan, Western Romance and Germanic, in turn, form linkages of their own.

Areal feature Language contact François, Alexandre, "Trees and Linkages: Models of Language Diversification", in Bowern, Claire. Heggarty, Paul. "Splits or waves? Trees or webs? How divergence measures and network analysis can unravel language histories". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 365: 3829–3843. Doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0099. PMC 2981917. PMID 21041208. Lynch, John; the Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1128-4. OCLC 48929366. Ross, Malcolm D.. Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian languages of Western Melanesia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics

WHPH (New Jersey)

WHPH was a radio station on 90.5 FM in Whippany, New Jersey. It was operated by students in the Hanover Park Regional High School District at Hanover Park High School and Whippany Park High School; the station closed in 1986 amid budget cuts in the school district. WHPH went on air April 1966, from Hanover Park High School, it broadcast from a transmitter on the Hanover Township Municipal Building with 10 watts on 90.3 MHz, making it a Class D station. The station was the outgrowth of a radio club formed by two math teachers; when it signed on, WHPH broadcast for just over two hours a day on weekdays during the school year—from 7:30 a.m. to 8:15 a.m. and again between 4 p.m. and 5:30 p.m. The FCC approved an additional station on 90.3 in 1973. That station, WMSC at Montclair State College, would cause some interference in the outer portions of the WHPH coverage area; the school district analyzed making several improvements to the facility, relocating the transmitter, changing frequencies, though no FCC application would be filed for any improvements.

Hanover Park fought with Montclair State over the viability of a new co-channel station. A previous 1971 application for facility improvements was returned due to interference concerns with several stations. However, once WMSC began broadcasting in December 1974, interference concerns did manifest, with reports of WMSC being heard on the same block as WHPH's transmitter site. In 1970, Whippany Park High School began originating programming for WHPH from a studio on its campus, with the two schools in the district sharing time. By 1977, the station was on the air on school days between 7 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. and for coverage of the schools' home football and hockey games outside of that time, it expressed interest in broadcasting East Hanover Township committee sessions. WHPH had to contend with a new adjacent-channel station in the 1970s, 90.5 WJSV, belonging to the Morris School District in Morristown. The stations began a hookup in 1972 for coverage of high school athletic events between Morristown and the Hanover Park schools, as well as a joint broadcast of New Jersey election returns.

The late 1970s heralded new challenges for WHPH. In 1978, the FCC announced it would cease licensing new Class D stations and encouraged as many as possible to upgrade to "full-service" Class A operation, with an effective radiated power of at least 100 watts. However, there was no room for WHPH to upgrade without entering into an agreement with WJSV, not only for technical reasons but because of minimum programming requirements of full-service radio stations that would have required WHPH to broadcast for 60 hours a week; as part of the time-share agreement, the two Class D stations filed together to relocate their transmitter to Morris Plains, New Jersey and broadcast with 100 watts. WHPH's air time shifted to 7 a.m. to 2:45 p.m. WHPH shifted its programming away from rock music, its music format, to include more public service programs; the time-share agreement reduced the output from each of the Hanover Park schools considerably. Prior to moving to 90.5, the two schools each broadcast for eight hours daily two days a week and on alternate Fridays, while by early 1986, each school broadcast for four hours within WHPH's allotted airtime.

A further—and decisive—threat for WHPH came from budget cuts by the school board. The Hanover Park Regional Board of Education first considered closing the station down in March 1981. While no action was taken in 1981, it would be in 1986, when the school district slated WHPH for closure amidst budget cuts and a 4.5 percent decline in enrollment, while the district had to spend more on liability insurance and asbestos abatement at Hanover Park High School. Despite warnings that closing WHPH would be an irrevocable act because of the unavailability of FM station space in the region, proposals from parents to raise funds, the board of education voted against allocating $26,000 for an adviser's salary in June and WHPH was signed off for good on June 13, 1986. Tony Russomano, reporter, KGO-TV and KPIX-TV FCC History Cards for WHPH