Intermediate-range ballistic missile
An intermediate-range ballistic missile is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km, between a medium-range ballistic missile and an intercontinental ballistic missile. Classifying ballistic missiles by range is done for convenience; the range definition used here is used within the U. S. Missile Defense Agency; some other sources include an additional category, the long-range ballistic missile, to describe missiles with a range between IRBMs and true ICBMs. The more modern term theater ballistic missile encompasses MRBMs and SRBMs, including any ballistic missile with a range under 3,500 km. IRBMs are operated by the People's Republic of China, India and North Korea; the United States, USSR, United Kingdom, France were former operators. There is no agreed-upon distinction between an intermediate-range and a medium range missiles. Different sources will classify missiles in different ways, they are both distinct from ICBMs in that they have a range, less than intercontinental, hence must be based close to the target.
An IRBM, in general, is intended as a strategic weapon, while a MRBM, in general, is intended as a theatre ballistic missile. *D All dates approximate The progenitor for the IRBM was the A4b rocket winged for increased range and based on the famous V-2 rocket designed by Wernher von Braun used by Nazi Germany at the end of World War II to bomb English and Belgian cities. The A4b was the prototype for the upper stage of the A9/A10 rocket; the goal of the program was to build a missile capable of bombarding New York when launched in France or Spain. A4b rockets were tested a few times in December 1944 and January and February 1945. All of these rockets used liquid propellant; the A4b used an inertial guidance system. They started from a non-mobile launch pad. Following World War II von Braun and other lead Nazi scientists were secretly transferred to the United States to work directly for the U. S. Army through Operation Paperclip developing the V-2 into the weapon for the United States. Intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM List of ICBMs Short-range ballistic missile Medium-range ballistic missile Submarine-launched ballistic missile Anti-ship ballistic missile Hypersonic cruise missile Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Stephen Vincent Benét
Stephen Vincent Benét was an American poet, short story writer, novelist. He is best known for his book-length narrative poem of the American Civil War John Brown's Body, for which he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1929, for the short stories "The Devil and Daniel Webster" and "By the Waters of Babylon". In 2009, The Library of America selected his story "The King of the Cats" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American Fantastic Tales edited by Peter Straub. Benét was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to James Walker Benét, a colonel in the United States Army, his grandfather and namesake led the Army Ordnance Corps from 1874 to 1891 as a brigadier general and served in the Civil War. His paternal uncle Laurence Vincent Benét was an ensign in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War and manufactured the French-Hotchkiss machine gun. At about age ten, Benét was sent to the Hitchcock Military Academy, he graduated from Summerville Academy in Augusta, GA and from Yale University, where he was "the power behind the Yale Lit", according to Thornton Wilder, a fellow member of the Elizabethan Club.
He edited and contributed light verse to the campus humor magazine The Yale Record. He published his first book at age 17 and was awarded an M. A. in English upon submission of his third volume of poetry in lieu of a thesis. He was a part-time contributor to the early Time magazine. In 1920-21, Benét went to France on a Yale traveling fellowship. Carr was a writer and poet, they collaborated on some works. Benét helped solidify the place of the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition and the Yale University Press during his decade-long judgeship of the competition, he published the first volumes of James Agee, Muriel Rukeyser, Jeremy Ingalls, Margaret Walker. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1931. Benét's fantasy short story "The Daniel Webster" won an O. Henry Award, he furnished the material for a one-act opera by Douglas Moore. The story was filmed in 1941 and shown under the title All That Money Can Buy, he wrote the sequel "Daniel Webster and the Sea Serpent", in which Daniel Webster encounters Leviathan.
Benét died of a heart attack in New York City on March 13, 1943 at age 44. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Stonington, where he had owned the historic Amos Palmer House. On April 17, 1943, NBC broadcast a special tribute to his life and works which included a performance by Helen Hayes, he was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for Western Star, an unfinished narrative poem on the settling of the United States. Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee takes its title from the final phrase of Benét's poem "American Names"; the full quotation appears at the beginning of Brown's book: Benét adapted the Roman myth of the rape of the Sabine Women into the story "The Sobbin' Women". It was adapted as the movie musical Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, his play John Brown's Body was staged on Broadway in 1953 in a three-person dramatic reading featuring Tyrone Power, Judith Anderson, Raymond Massey, directed by Charles Laughton. The book was included in Life Magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–44.
Five Men and Pompey, a series of dramatic portraits, Poetry, 1915 The Drug-Shop, or, Endymion in Edmonstoun, 1917 Young Adventure: A book of Poems, 1918 Heavens and Earth, 1920 The Beginnings of Wisdom: A Novel, 1921 Young People's Pride: A Novel, 1922 Jean Huguenot: A Novel, 1923 The Ballad of William Sycamore: A Poem, 1923 King David: A two-hundred-line ballad in six parts, 1923 Nerves, 1924 That Awful Mrs. Eaton, 1924 Tiger Joy: A Book of Poems, 1925 The Mountain Whippoorwill: How Hill-Billy Jim Won the Great Fiddler's Prize: A Poem. 1925 Spanish Bayonet, 1926 John Brown's Body, 1928 The Barefoot Saint: A Short Story, 1929 The Litter of Rose Leaves: A Short Story, 1930 Abraham Lincoln, 1930 Ballads and Poems, 1915–1930, 1931 A Book of Americans, 1933 James Shore's Daughter: A Novel, 1934 The Burning City, 1936 The Magic of Poetry and the Poet's Art, 1936 The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1936 By the Waters of Babylon, 1937 The Headless Horseman: one-act play, 1937 Thirteen O'Clock, 1937 We Aren't Superstitious, 1937 Johnny Pye and the Fool Killer: A Short Story, 1938 Tales Before Midnight: Collection of Short Stories, 1939 The Ballad of the Duke's Mercy, 1939 Elementals, 1940–41 Freedom's Hard-Bought Thing, 1941 Listen to the People, 1941 A Summons to the Free, 1941 Cheers for Miss Bishop, 1941 The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1941 Selected Works, 1942 Short Stories, 1942 Nightmare at Noon: Short Poem, 1942 A Child is Born, 1942 They Burned the Books, 1942 They Burned the Books, 1942 These works were published posthumously: Western Star, 1943 Twenty Five Short Stories, 1943 America, 1944 O'Halloran's Luck and Other Short Stories, 1944 We Stand United, 1945 The Bishop's Beggar, 1946 The Last Circle, 1946 Selected Stories, 1947 From the Earth to the Moon, 1958 Bleiler, Everett.
The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. Pp. 46–47. Fenton, Charles A.. Stephen Vincent Benét: The Life and Times of an American Man of Letters, 1898–1943. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-20200-1. Works by Stephen Vinc
Tactical nuclear weapon
A tactical nuclear weapon or non-strategic nuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon, designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations with friendly forces in proximity and even on contested friendly territory. Smaller in explosive power, they are defined in contrast to strategic nuclear weapons: which are designed to be targeted in the enemy interior away from the war front against military bases, towns, arms industries, other hardened or larger-area targets to damage the enemy's ability to wage war. Tactical nuclear weapons include gravity bombs, short-range missiles, artillery shells, land mines, depth charges, torpedoes which are equipped with nuclear warheads. In this category are nuclear armed ground-based or shipborne surface-to-air missiles and air-to-air missiles. Small, two-man portable, or truck-portable, tactical weapons, such as the Special Atomic Demolition Munition and the Davy Crockett recoilless rifle, have been developed, although the difficulty of combining sufficient yield with portability could limit their military utility.
In wartime, such explosives could be used for demolishing "choke-points" to enemy offensives, such as at tunnels, narrow mountain passes, long viaducts. There is no precise definition of the "tactical" category, neither considering range nor yield of the nuclear weapon; the yield of tactical nuclear weapons is lower than that of strategic nuclear weapons, but larger ones are still powerful, some variable-yield warheads serve in both roles, for example the W89 200 kiloton warhead was intended to arm both the tactical Sea Lance anti-submarine rocket propelled depth charge and the strategic bomber launched SRAM II stand off missile. Modern tactical nuclear warheads have yields up to the tens of kilotons, or hundreds, several times that of the weapons used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On the Korean peninsula with a nuclear armed North Korea facing off against a NPT compliant South Korea there have been calls to request a return of US owned and operated short range low yield nuclear weapons, nomenclatured as tactical by the US military, to provide a local strategic deterrent to the North's growing domestically produced nuclear arsenal and delivery systems.
Some tactical nuclear weapons have specific features meant to enhance their battlefield characteristics, such as variable yield which allow their explosive power to be varied over a wide range for different situations, or enhanced radiation weapons which are meant to maximize ionizing radiation exposure while minimizing blast effects. Strategic missiles and bombers are assigned preplanned targets including enemy airfields and surface to air defenses, not only counterforce strikes on hardened or wide area bomber and missile bases; this strategic mission is to eliminate the enemy nation's national defenses to enable following bombers and missiles to more realistically threaten the enemy nation's strategic forces and economy rather than targeting mobile military assets in near real time using tactical weapons optimized for time sensitive strike missions in close proximity to friendly forces. Tactical nuclear weapons were a large part of the peak nuclear weapons stockpile levels during the Cold War.
Because of the risk that use of tactical nuclear weapons could unexpectedly lead to a rapid escalation of a war to full use of strategic weapons, proposals have been made within NATO and other organizations to place limitations on the stockpiling and use of these tactical weapons. B57 nuclear bomb B61 nuclear bomb Mod-3,Mod-4,Mod -10 Blue Peacock W25 W33 W85 Category:Nuclear mines M-28 & M-29 Davy Crocketts with W54 nuclear warhead Medium Atomic Demolition Munition Nasr Red Beard Special Atomic Demolition Munition Use of tactical nuclear weapons against similarly-armed opponents may carry a significant danger of escalating the conflict beyond anticipated boundaries, from the tactical to the strategic; the existence and deployment of small, low-yield tactical nuclear warheads could be a dangerous encouragement to forward-basing and pre-emptive nuclear warfare, as nuclear weapons with destructive yields of 10 tons of TNT might be used more willingly at times of crisis than warheads with yields of 100 kilotons.
For example, firing a low-yield nuclear artillery shell similar to the W48 at the enemy invites retaliation. It may provoke the enemy into responding with several nuclear artillery shells similar to the W79, which had a 1 kiloton yield; the response to these 1 kiloton nuclear artillery shells may be to retaliate by firing a tactical nuclear missile similar to a French Pluton, Russian OTR-21 Tochka or the American MGM-52 Lance, fitted with a W70 variable yield warhead ranging between 1 and 100 kilotons. By using tactical nuclear weapons there is a high risk of escalating the conflict until it reaches a tipping point which provokes the use of strategic nuclear weapons such as ICBMs. Additionally, the tactical nuclear weapons most to be used first have been under less stringent political control at times of military combat crises than strategic weapons. Early Permissive Action Links could be as simple as a mechanical combination lock. If a junior officer in control of a small tactical nuclear weapon were in imminent danger of being overwhelmed by enemy forces, he could request permission to fire
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system. It is most a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires and wildfires. Although the term has been used to describe certain large fires, the phenomenon's determining characteristic is a fire with its own storm-force winds from every point of the compass; the Black Saturday bushfires and the Great Peshtigo Fire are possible examples of forest fires with some portion of combustion due to a firestorm, as is the Great Hinckley Fire. Firestorms have occurred in cities as a deliberate effect of targeted explosives, such as occurred as a result of the aerial firebombings of Hamburg, firebombing of Tokyo and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. A firestorm is created as a result of the stack effect as the heat of the original fire draws in more and more of the surrounding air; this draft can be increased if a low-level jet stream exists over or near the fire. As the updraft mushrooms, strong inwardly-directed gusty winds develop around the fire, supplying it with additional air.
This would seem to prevent the firestorm from spreading on the wind, but the tremendous turbulence created may cause the strong surface inflow winds to change direction erratically. Firestorms resulting from the bombardment of urban areas in the Second World War were confined to the areas seeded with incendiary devices, the firestorm did not appreciably spread outward. A firestorm may develop into a mesocyclone and induce true tornadoes/fire whirls; this occurred with the 2002 Durango fire, with the much greater Peshtigo Fire. The greater draft of a firestorm draws in greater quantities of oxygen, which increases combustion, thereby substantially increasing the production of heat; the intense heat of a firestorm manifests as radiated heat, which may ignite flammable material at a distance ahead of the fire itself. This serves to expand the area and the intensity of the firestorm. Violent, erratic wind drafts suck movables into the fire and as is observed with all intense conflagrations, radiated heat from the fire can melt asphalt, some metals, glass, turn street tarmac into flammable hot liquid.
The high temperatures ignite anything that might burn, until the firestorm runs low on fuel. A firestorm does not appreciably ignite material at a distance ahead of itself. During the formation of a firestorm many fires merge to form a single convective column of hot gases rising from the burning area and strong, fire-induced, radial winds are associated with the convective column, thus the fire front is stationary and the outward spread of fire is prevented by the in-rushing wind. A firestorm is characterized by strong to gale-force winds blowing toward the fire, everywhere around the fire perimeter, an effect, caused by the buoyancy of the rising column of hot gases over the intense mass fire, drawing in cool air from the periphery; these winds from the perimeter blow the fire brands into the burning area and tend to cool the unignited fuel outside the fire area so that ignition of material outside the periphery by radiated heat and fire embers is more difficult, thus limiting fire spread.
At Hiroshima, this inrushing to feed the fire is said to have prevented the firestorm perimeter from expanding, thus the firestorm was confined to the area of the city damaged by the blast. Large wildfire conflagrations are distinct from firestorms if they have moving fire fronts which are driven by the ambient wind and do not develop their own wind system like true firestorms. Furthermore, non-firestorm conflagrations can develop from a single ignition, whereas firestorms have only been observed where large numbers of fires are burning over a large area, with the important caveat that the density of burning fires needs to be above a critical threshold for a firestorm to form; the high temperatures within the firestorm zone ignite most everything that might burn, until a tipping point is reached, that is, upon running low on fuel, which occurs after the firestorm has consumed so much of the available fuel within the firestorm zone that the necessary fuel density required to keep the firestorm's wind system active drops below the threshold level, at which time the firestorm breaks up into isolated conflagrations.
In Australia, the prevalence of eucalyptus trees that have oil in their leaves results in forest fires that are noted for their tall and intense flame front. Hence the bush fires appear more as a firestorm than a simple forest fire. Sometimes, emission of combustible gases from swamps has a similar effect. For instance, methane explosions enforced the Peshtigo Fire. Firestorms will produce hot buoyant smoke clouds of water vapor that will form condensation clouds as it enters the cooler upper atmosphere, generating what is known as pyrocumulus clouds or, if large enough, pyrocumulonimbus clouds. For example, the black rain that began to fall 20 minutes after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima produced in total 5–10
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The "ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules of energy are released; this convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of traditional explosive materials, of which TNT is a typical example, although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy. The "kiloton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules. The "megaton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules. The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon; the TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, has been used to characterize the energy released in such other destructive events as an asteroid impact.
Alternative values for TNT equivalency can be calculated according to which property is being compared and when in the two detonation processes the values are measured. Where for example the comparison is by energy yield, an explosive's energy is expressed for chemical purposes as the thermodynamic work produced by its detonation. For TNT this has been measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, theoretically calculated to be 4853 J/g, but on this basis, comparing the actual energy yields of a large nuclear device and an explosion of TNT can be inaccurate. Small TNT explosions in the open, don't tend to burn the carbon-particle and hydrocarbon products of the explosion. Gas-expansion and pressure-change effects tend to "freeze" the burn rapidly. A large open explosion of TNT may maintain fireball temperatures high enough so that some of those products do burn up with atmospheric oxygen; such differences can be substantial. For safety purposes a range as wide as 2673–6702 J has been stated for a gram of TNT upon explosion.
So, one can state. These complications have been sidestepped by convention; the energy liberated by one gram of TNT was arbitrarily defined as a matter of convention to be 4184 J, one kilocalorie. A kiloton of TNT can be visualized as a cube of TNT 8.46 metres on a side. 1 ton TNT equivalent is approximately: 1.0×109 calories 4.184×109 joules 3.96831×106 British thermal units 3.08802×109 foot pounds 1.162×103 kilowatt hours The relative effectiveness factor relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg. The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive; this enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for a charge of 1 kg of TNT based on octanitrocubane's RE factor of 2.38, it would take only 1.0/2.38 kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT.
With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require 1.0 / 1.0 / 0.42 kg, respectively. Calculating a single RE factor for a explosive is, impossible, it depends on the specific case of use. Given a pair of explosives, one can produce 2× the shockwave output but the difference in direct metal cutting ability maybe 4× higher for one type of metal and 7× higher for another type of metal; the relative differences between two explosives in shaped charges will be greater. The table below should be taken as an example and not as a precise source of data. *: TBX or EBX, in a small, confined space, may have over twice the power of destruction. The total power of aluminized mixtures depends on the condition of explosions. Brisance Net explosive quantity Nuclear weapon yield Orders of magnitude Relative effectiveness factor Table of explosive detonation velocities Ton Tonne Tonne of oil equivalent, a unit of energy exactly 10 tonnes of TNT Thompson, A.. N.. Guide for the Use of the International System of Units.
NIST Special Publication. 811. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Version 3.2. Nuclear Weapons FAQ Part 1.3 Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7761-4. Cooper, Paul W. Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978-0-471-18636-6 HQ Department of the Army, Field Manual 5-25: Explosives and Demolitions, Washington, D. C.: Pentagon Publishing, pp. 83–84, ISBN 978-0-9759009-5-6 Explosives - Compositions, Alexandria, VA: GlobalSecurity.org, retrieved September 1, 2010 Urbański, Tadeusz and Technology of Explosives, Volumes I–IV, Oxford: Pergamon Mathieu, Jörg. Thermobaric Explosives, Advanced Energetic Materials, 2004; the National Academies Press, nap.edu, 2004