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Eupleridae

Eupleridae is a family of carnivorans endemic to Madagascar and comprising 10 known living species in seven genera known as euplerids, Malagasy mongooses or Malagasy carnivorans. The best known species is the fossa, in the subfamily Euplerinae. All species of Euplerinae were classified as viverrids, while all species in the subfamily Galidiinae were classified as herpestids. Recent molecular studies indicate that the 10 living species of Madagascar carnivorans evolved from one ancestor, thought to have rafted over from mainland Africa 18–24 million years ago; this makes. They are allied with the true herpestid mongooses, their closest living relatives; the fossa and the Malagasy civet are each evolutionarily quite distinct from each other and from the rest of the clade. All Eupleridae are considered threatened species due to habitat destruction, as well as predation and competition from non-native species; the relationships of the Madagascar carnivorans have been contentious, but molecular evidence suggests that they form a single clade, now recognized as the family Eupleridae.

The hyena family, Hyaenidae, is a sister taxon of the euplerid and herpestid clade, when grouped together with the viverrids and felids, as well as some smaller groups, forms the feliform clade. The evolutionary divergence between the herpestids and the euplerids dates back to the Oligocene. At that time, feliforms shared many similarities between the cats and the viverrids. Palaeoprionodon, found in Europe and Asia from the late Eocene or early Oligocene, looked similar to the modern fossa, while Proailurus, an extinct form of cat, exhibited many viverrid-like characteristics. Despite these similarities in the fossil record, the modern Malagasy carnivores are distinctly different, with the Euplerinae and Galidiinae subfamilies bearing similarities with civets and mongooses, respectively. Species in Euplerinae have auditory regions similar to those of viverrids, while those in Galidiinae have auditory regions similar to those of herpestids. Based on this trait, Robert M. Hunt Jr. proposed in 1996 that Madagascar was colonized twice, once by viverrids and once by herpestids.

However, the genetic studies by Yoder and colleagues in 2003 suggested that a single colonization event occurred by a primitive herpestid ancestor, followed by adaptive radiation. The common ancestor arrived from Africa by rafting, during the late Oligocene or early Miocene, though Philippe Gaubert and Veron estimated a divergence date of 19.4 Mya. The phylogenetic relationships of Malagasy carnivorans are shown in the following cladogram: List of mammals of Madagascar

For the Bible Tells Me So

For the Bible Tells Me So is a 2007 American documentary film directed by Daniel G. Karslake about homosexuality and its perceived conflict with Christianity, as well as various interpretations of what the Bible says about same-sex sexuality, it includes lengthy interview segments with several sets of religious parents regarding their personal experiences raising homosexual children, interviews with those children. The film features an animated segment, "Is Homosexuality a Choice?", in which a summary of the then-current scientific theories about sexual orientation is given. It is directed by Powerhouse Animation Studios and narrated by Don LaFontaine in one of his last non-trailer narration roles; the film premiered at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival. Gene Robinson Jake Reitan Chrissy Gephardt Tonia Poteat Mary Lou Wallner The film received positive reviews from critics; the review aggregator, Rotten Tomatoes reported that the film received 98% positive reviews, based on 43 reviews. Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 73 based on 11 reviews.

Following its premiere in competition at the Sundance Film Festival, For the Bible Tells Me So went on to win a number of prestigious festival awards including the Katherine Bryan Edwards Human Rights Prize at the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival, the Best Documentary Audience Awards at the Seattle International Film Festival, the Provincetown International Film Festival, Outfest: The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, the Milwaukee International Film Festival, a number of others. On November 19, 2007, For the Bible Tells Me So was named by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as one of 15 films on its documentary feature Oscar shortlist. However, it did not make the final list of five nominated films as announced on January 22, 2008. Official website For the Bible Tells Me So at First Run Features For the Bible Tells Me So on IMDb For the Bible Tells Me So at AllMovie For the Bible Tells Me So at Box Office Mojo For the Bible Tells Me So at Rotten Tomatoes For the Bible Tells Me So at Metacritic