South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Northern Vietnam is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam. Of the three geographical regions, the oldest is Northern Vietnam, where the Vietnamese culture originated over 2,000 years ago in the Red River Delta, though Vietnamese people spread south into the Mekong Delta. Northern Vietnam includes 3 administrative regions. ^† Municipality Of all 25 First Tier units, 2 are municipalities and 23 are provinces. Central Vietnam Southern Vietnam
Overseas Vietnamese refers to Vietnamese people living outside Vietnam in a diaspora, by far the largest community of which live in the United States. Of the about 4.5 million Overseas Vietnamese, a majority left Vietnam as economic and political refugees after the 1975 capture of Saigon and the North Vietnamese takeover of the pro-U. S. South Vietnam; the term "Việt Kiều" is used by people in Vietnam to refer to ethnic Vietnamese living outside the country. It is not the Overseas Vietnamese's term of self-identification. Overseas Vietnamese can be divided into four distinct categories that interact with each other: The first category consists of people who have been living in territories outside of Vietnam prior to 1975. During the French colonial era, many Vietnamese migrated to France as students or workers; these people are not considered "Việt Kiều" by people residing in Vietnam. The second category, consisting of the vast majority of overseas Vietnamese, are Vietnamese who fled Vietnam as refugees, after the end of the Vietnam War, along with their descendants.
They reside in industrialized countries such as those in North America, the European Union, Hong Kong, the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, Australia. The third category consists of Vietnamese working and studying in the former Soviet bloc who opted to stay there after the Soviet collapse; this group is found in the European Union and the Russian Federation. The last category consists of recent economic migrants who work in regional Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan, they include Vietnamese brides who married men from Taiwan and South Korea through marriage agencies. These brides follow their husbands to live in those countries. In Taiwan, Vietnamese economic migrants constitute most of the overseas Vietnamese there. There is much social tensions and criticism about the latter group in Vietnam, saying they were "blinded by money" by their foreign husbands, many are beaten. A 2014 report says that "women make up at least two-thirds of workers who leave the country," and sometimes leave fathers behind to care for children.
It asserted that "The total amount of remittances sent back from all Vietnamese workers overseas now exceeds $2 billion a year."Recently a new group of Vietnamese have been emerging. These born Vietnamese who attended high school and college overseas, are called by natives as "du học sinh". In 2016 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the Vietnamese American population to be 2,067,527, they tend to live in metropolitan areas in the West in California and Texas. Significant areas where they are well represented include Orange County, San Jose, Houston and Seattle, Washington; as all of them left Vietnam after 1975 to escape the communist Vietnamese government, they are antagonistic towards the current government of Vietnam. In 2015, 30 % of Vietnamese Americans had attained higher. 21% of Vietnamese Americans had attained a bachelor's degree and 8.9% had attained a Postgraduate degree compared to 19% Bachelor's degree attainment and 11% Postgraduate degree attainment among the American population in general.
Vietnamese constitute about 5% of the population of Cambodia, making them the largest ethnic minority. Vietnamese people began migrating to Cambodia as early as the 17th century. In 1863, when Cambodia became a French colony, many Vietnamese were brought to Cambodia by the French to work on plantations and occupy civil servant positions. During the Lon Nol Regime and Pol Pot regime, many of the Vietnamese living in Cambodia were killed. Others were either escaped to Vietnam or Thailand. During the ten-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia from 1979 until 1989 many of the Vietnamese who had lived in Cambodia returned. Along with them came relatives. Many former South Vietnamese soldiers came to Cambodia fleeing persecution from the communist government. Many living in Cambodia speak Vietnamese as their first language and have introduced the Cao Dai religion with 2 temples built in Cambodia. Many Cambodians learned Vietnamese as a result, they are concentrated in the Kratie and Takeo provinces of Cambodia, where there are villages predominate of ethnic Vietnamese.
Vietnamese people are the top tourist in Cambodia, with 130,831, up 19 percent as of 2011. The number of ethnic Vietnamese living in France is estimated to be over 300,000 as of 2014. Unlike other overseas Vietnamese communities outside eastern Asia, the Vietnamese population in France had been well-established before the end of the Vietnam War and diaspora that resulted from it. France had by far the largest overseas Vietnamese population outside Asia until the 1980s, when a high number of Vietnam War refugees resettled in the United States. France was the first Western country to where Vietna
Hà Đông is the former capital city of Hà Tây Province in Vietnam, now an urban district of Hanoi. As of 2018, it had a population of 352,002, the second highest of all districts in Hanoi, after Hoàng Mai. Biên Giang Dương Nội Đồng Mai Hà Cầu Kiến Hưng Mộ Lao Nguyễn Trãi Phú La Phú Lãm Phú Lương Phúc La Quang Trung Trần Phú Vạn Phúc Văn Quán Yên Nghĩa Yết Kiêu Hồ Đắc Điềm, past governor Hà Tây Province, historic province
80th Academy Awards
The 80th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 2007 and took place on February 24, 2008, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, produced by Gil Cates and directed by Louis J, Horvitz. Actor Jon Stewart hosted the show for the second time, having presided over the 78th ceremony held in 2006. Two weeks earlier in a gala at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 9, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Jessica Alba. No Country for Old Men won the most awards of the ceremony with four including Best Picture. Other winners included The Bourne Ultimatum with three awards, La Vie en Rose and There Will Be Blood with two awards, Atonement, The Counterfeiters, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, The Golden Compass, Michael Clayton, The Mozart of Pickpockets, Once and the Wolf, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, Taxi to the Dark Side with one.
The telecast garnered 31 million viewers, making it the least watched Oscar broadcast since 1974, when Nielsen began keeping records of viewership. The nominations were announced on January 22, 2008, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California by Sid Ganis, president of the Academy, actress Kathy Bates. No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood tied for the most nominations with eight each; the winners were announced during the award ceremony of February 24, 2008. Best Director winners Joel and Ethan Coen became the second pair of directors to win the award for the same film. Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise first accomplished this feat for co-directing 1961's West Side Story; this was the second time in Oscar history that none of the four acting winners was American. Daniel Day-Lewis became the eighth person to win Best Actor twice. Best Actress winner Marion Cotillard was the fifth person to win for a non-English speaking performance and the second person to do so in the aforementioned category, after Sophia Loren who won for 1961's Two Women.
Cate Blanchett became the eleventh performer to receive double acting nominations in the same year. By virtue of her nomination for her role as the title character in Elizabeth: The Golden Age, she was the first actress and fifth performer overall to be nominated for portraying the same character in two different films. At age 82, Best Supporting Actor nominee Hal Holbrook was the oldest male acting nominee in Oscar history. Robert F. Boyle became the oldest recipient of the Academy Honorary award at the age of 98. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger. Robert F. Boyle — In recognition of one of cinema's great careers in art direction; the following individuals performed musical numbers. In September 2007, the Academy hired Gil Cates to oversee production of the telecast for a record 14th time. Ganis explained his decision to hire Cates as producer stating, "He's so talented...so creative and inventive, so enormously passionate about the Oscars. All of that will again translate into a night that people can't wait to experience."
Cates selected actor and talk-show host Jon Stewart as host of the 2008 ceremony. "Jon was a terrific host for the 78th Awards," Cates said about Stewart in a press release. "He is smart, funny, loves movies and is a great guy. What else could one ask for?"Furthermore, the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike affected the telecast and its surrounding events. Over a month after the labor dispute began, the striking Writers Guild of America denied a waiver requested by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in connection with film clips and excerpts from previous award ceremonies to be shown at the 2008 awards; the material could have been used, as the denial only affected the conditions under which the clips are shown. The 60th ceremony held in 1988 occurred 37 days after that year's writers strike began. At the time, material was completed in anticipation for the strike, actors were in full attendance of the ceremony. In anticipation that the strike would continue through Oscar night, AMPAS developed a Plan B show that would not have included actors accepting their awards.
It would have included the musical numbers, but would have relied on historic film clips, emphasizing the 80th anniversary of the awards. However, both the WGA and Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers reached an agreement ending the strike on February 12, 2008, the ceremony proceeded under its normal format. Continuing a trend in recent years, the field of major nominees favored independent, low-budget films over blockbusters; the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees when the Oscars were announced was $217 million. None of the five Best Picture nominees was among the top ten releases in box office during the nominations; when the nominations were announced on January 22, Juno was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $87.1 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by No Country for Old Men, Michael Clayton and There Will Be Blood. Out of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 29 nominations went to 12 films on the list. Only Ratatouille
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. It was founded by Sime Silverman in New York in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles. Variety.com features breaking entertainment news, box office results, cover stories, photo galleries and more, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as editor. In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror.
The original cover design, similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment; the front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne known as Skigie, claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. In 1922, Sime acquired The New York Clipper, reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years merging some of its features into Variety. In 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor, it replaced Variety Bulletin, issued in Hollywood on Fridays.
Daily Variety was published every day other than Sunday but on Monday to Friday. Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld and Thomas M. Pryor, succeeded by his son Pete; the Daily and the Weekly were run as independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U. S. and International coverage. Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931. Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications. Following his death from tuberculosis in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc. until 1956. After that date Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million, he remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman.
Syd became chairman of both publications. In 1953, Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations and births; the column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front; the old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime and Syd. For twenty years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times.
In April 2009, Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. In March 2013, Variety owner Jay Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; the decision was made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety A
Hanoi is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 105 km west of Haiphong. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam, it was eclipsed by the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty. In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina; the French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, public buildings, luxury villas, but they destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as most of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese empire. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; the Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city; the Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 6.5 km ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion. On July 16, 1999, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization presented the title “City for Peace” to Hanoi. Hanoi had many unofficial names throughout history. During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên Tống Bình and Long Đỗ. Long Biên gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during French colonial times, more to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature long, linked to the curved formation of the Red River around the city, symbolized as a dragon. In 866, it was named Đại La.. This gave it the nickname La Thành. Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi; when Lý Thái Tổ established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long.
Thăng Long became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport, the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed. During the Hồ dynasty, it was called Đông Đô. During the Minh dynasty, it was called Đông Quan. During the Lê dynasty, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh; this gave the name to Gulf of Tonkin. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization. After the end of the Tây Sơn had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành. Minh Mạng renamed the city Hà Nội in 1831; this has remained its official name until modern times. Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ, Tràng An, Hà Thành, Thủ Đô. Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC; the Cổ Loa Citadel in Dong Anh district served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Thục emigrant Thục Phán after his 258 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang.
In 197 BC, Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song Dynasty set up a new district called Songping, which became a commandery, including two districts Yihuai and Suining in the south of the Red River with a metropolis in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty changed the region's name into Annan, with Songping as its capital. In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi, a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng. In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further called Jincheng. In 866, Gao Pian, the Chinese Jiedushi and named it Daluocheng, the largest citadel of ancient Hanoi at the time. In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long – a name still used poetically to this day.
Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa known as Tây Đô, the "Western Capital". Thăng Long became Đông Đô, the "Eastern Capital." In 1408, the Chinese Minh Dynasty attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to Dongguan, or Đông Quan in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi, who founded the Lê Dynasty and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh or Tonkin. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城