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The Who

The Who are an English rock band formed in London in 1964. Their classic line-up consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist John Entwistle and drummer Keith Moon, they are considered one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century, selling over 100 million records worldwide. The Who developed from an earlier group, the Detours, established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars and drums on stage, their first single as the Who, "I Can't Explain", reached the UK top ten, was followed by a string of singles including "My Generation", "Substitute" and "Happy Jack". In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single "I Can See for Miles", while touring extensively; the group's fourth album, 1969's rock opera Tommy, included the single "Pinball Wizard" and was a critical and commercial success. Live appearances at Woodstock and the Isle of Wight Festival, along with the live album Live at Leeds, cemented their reputation as a respected rock act.

With their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter Townshend, the follow-up to Tommy, was abandoned. Songs from the project made up 1971's Who's Next, which included the hit "Won't Get Fooled Again"; the group released the album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976; the release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after. Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia and the retrospective documentary The Kids Are Alright. After Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1983; the Who re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and a tour of Quadrophenia in 1996–1997. They resumed regular touring with drummer Zak Starkey. After Entwistle's death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed.

Townshend and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, continue to play live with Starkey, bassists Pino Palladino and Jon Button, guitarist Simon Townshend serving as touring players. A tour with a complete symphony orchestra, along with the release of a twelfth studio album, both occurred in 2019; the Who's major contributions to rock music include the development of the Marshall stack, large PA systems, use of the synthesizer and Moon's lead playing styles, Townshend's feedback and power chord guitar technique, the development of the rock opera. They are cited as an influence by hard rock, punk rock and mod bands, their songs still receive regular exposure; the founder members of the Who, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend and John Entwistle, grew up in Acton and went to Acton County Grammar School. Townshend's father, played saxophone and his mother, had sung in the entertainment division of the Royal Air Force during World War II, both supported their son's interest in rock and roll.

Townshend and Entwistle became friends in their second year of Acton County, formed a trad jazz group. Both were interested in rock, Townshend admired Cliff Richard's début single, "Move It". Entwistle moved to guitar, but struggled with it due to his large fingers, moved to bass on hearing the guitar work of Duane Eddy, he built one at home. After Acton County, Townshend attended Ealing Art College, a move he described as profoundly influential on the course of the Who. Daltrey, in the year above, had moved to Acton from Shepherd's Bush, a more working-class area, he had trouble fitting in at the school, discovered gangs and rock and roll. He found work on a building site. In 1959 he started the Detours, the band, to evolve into the Who; the band played professional gigs, such as corporate and wedding functions, Daltrey kept a close eye on the finances as well as the music. Daltrey spotted Entwistle by chance on the street carrying a bass and recruited him into the Detours. In mid-1961, Entwistle suggested Townshend as a guitarist, Daltrey on lead guitar, Entwistle on bass, Harry Wilson on drums, Colin Dawson on vocals.

The band played instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, a variety of pop and trad jazz covers. Daltrey was considered the leader and, according to Townshend, "ran things the way he wanted them". Wilson was fired in mid-1962 and replaced by Doug Sandom, though he was older than the rest of the band, a more proficient musician, having been playing semi-professionally for two years. Dawson left after arguing with Daltrey and after being replaced by Gabby Connolly, Daltrey moved to lead vocals. Townshend, with Entwistle's encouragement, became the sole guitarist. Through Townshend's mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce, who started booking the band as a support act; the Detours were influenced by the bands they supported, including Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, Johnny Kidd and the Pirates. The Detours were interested in the Pirates as they only had one guitarist, Mick Green, who inspired Townshend to combine rhythm and lead guitar in his style.

Entwistle's bass became more of a lead instrument. In February 1964, the Detours became aware of the group Johnny Devlin and the Detours and changed their name. Townshend and his room-mate Richard Barnes

Pratap Manikya II

Pratap Manikya was a Maharaja of Tripura during the late 15th century. Though Pratap Manikya is stated in the Rajmala to be a son of Dharma Manikya I scholarship proved this to be chronologically improbable, it is instead believed that he was Dharma's grandson, with his father being Ratna Manikya I. There were uncertainties regarding the years of Pratap's rule. A coin minted during his reign bears the year Saka 1412, though the modern-style script has led to doubts regarding its authenticity, it is notable that Pratap's immediate successors struck coins in 1489 respectively. A younger son of his father, Pratap's rule had been propped up by the support of prominent army generals in opposition to his elder brother Dhanya, against whom he waged a civil war. According to the Rajmala, because of his impiety, Pratap soon lost the support of these nobles, who launched a conspiracy against him; the chronicle continues that due to his formidable physical strength and stoutness, Pratap had to be killed at night while he slept.

He was succeeded in quick succession by the minor Vijaya Manikya and Pratap's younger brother Mukut, before the throne settled on Dhanya, whose long reign lasted until 1515

Villa Luburić

The Villa Luburić or Vila Folkert or Colonel Luburić's Centre was the seat of Ustaše headquarters in 1945 Sarajevo, Independent State of Croatia. The address of this Vila was Skenderija street number 49, owned by Milan Sarić. From February–May 1945, the Ustaše killed at least 323 people in this villa. In February 1945, Ante Pavelić sent Vjekoslav Luburić to Sarajevo with instructions to destroy the resistance movement; the real task of Luburić was to use the group of monstrous sadists and killers to create atmosphere of fear which would allow Ustaše to retreat from Bosnia and Herzegovina with their forces without casualties and delays. Luburić established his headquarters in the center of Sarajevo, his headquarter was seated in former Sokolska street, but he soon transferred it to villa known as Folkert or Berković in Skenderija street. Luburić and his forces used the home of a Croatian family surnamed Babunović as well as a restaurant, combined, became known as the "House of Terror", he deliberately chose this villa for symbolic reasons, because it was a seat of Sarajevo's Masonic Lodge, leaving the symbol of freemasonry on its facade.

Luburić turned his headquarters into slaughter house and place for torturing and imprisoning Serbs and political dissidents. After his arrival to Sarajevo, he organized mass arrests. At the end of February 1945 his forces and local police arrested several hundred of people and hunted remaining Jews in Sarajevo, it is estimated that he managed to capture about two hundred Jews. Luburić organized the execution of hundreds of people; this court organized 13 trials to 85 people, 44 of them sentenced to death and rest of them to long-term prison, but only few survived. In March and beginning of April 1945 his forces killed 323 people and hanged 55 of their corps on threes Marijin Dvor to terrify local population, they had placards around their necks with inscription "Long live the Poglavnik". The results of this brutality were witnessed by Landrum Bolling, an American journalist....who arrived in the city on April 7 after its liberation by Partizan forces. He was shown a room containing bodies "stacked like cordwood on top of one another.

We were told these Serbs whom the Ustashs had hanged by barbed wire from lampposts in Sarajevo... Luburic's brief reign of terror constituted the Ustasha's final gruesome legacy in Sarajevo; as his last sadistic acts were being carried out, Sarajevo's destiny was being decided on the field of battle in the hills around the city." After the war the premises of former restaurant Gradski podrum were turned into cinema Romanija